List of Indo-Aryan languages

List of Indo-Aryan languages
Indo-Aryan languages, grouping according to SIL Ethnologue:
  Central and East Central zones
  Northern zone
  Northwestern zone
  Eastern zone
  Southern zone

The Indo-Aryan languages include some 210 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by many people in Asia; this language family is a part of the Indo-Iranian language family.



  • Old Indic (ca. 1500-300 BC)
    • early Old Indic: Vedic Sanskrit (1500 to 500 BCE)
    • late Old Indic: Epic Sanskrit, Classical Sanskrit (500 to 300 BCE)
  • Middle Indic (ca. 300 BCE to 1500 CE)
    • early phase: 3rd century BC
      • Ashoka-Prakrits (3rd century BC regional dialects)
      • Pali (language of the Buddhist canon)
      • early Ardhamagadhi (language of the oldest Jain sutras)
    • middle phase (200 BCE to 700 CE)
    • late phase: Apabhramsa (700 CE to 1500 CE)
      • Abahatta (Maghadi Apabhramsa)
      • Elu (Sinhalese Apabhramsa)
  • Early Modern Indic (Mughal period, 1500 to 1800)
    • early Dakkhini (Kalmitul-hakayat 1580)
    • emergence of Khariboli (Gora-badal ki katha, 1620s)
    • emergence of "Urdu" at Delhi fort (1670s)

Contemporary languages

This classification follows Kausen (2005). The main differences from SIL are noted.

(SIL includes the Nuristani languages within Indo-Aryan.)


(The relation of this family to other Indo-Aryan languages is unclear; SIL includes it in the Northwestern zone, despite these languages having a very different grammatical structure from that of the Classical Indo-Aryan languages.)

Kunar languages
Chitral languages
Kohistani languages
Shina languages

Northern Zone

  • Garhwali (includes Tehri)
  • Kumauni
  • Nepali (Gurkali; includes Palpa)

North-Western Zone

Map of areas where Dogri-Kangri languages are spoken
Dogri-Kangri languages (Western Pahari)

(included in Pahari by SIL)

Lahnda languages
  • Potwari (also known as Mirpuri or Pothohari and usually classified as Pahari)
  • Hindko
  • Saraiki (South Punjabi or Multani)
Sindhi languages

Western Zone

(SIL includes these languages in the Central zone)

  • Mewati (of uncertain affiliation)
Rajasthani languages
Gujarati languages
Bhil languages
  • Ahirani (Kandeshi)

(treated as a separate group by Klausen)

Central Zone

Indic, Central Zone
North Central Zone (Punjabi)
West Central Zone (Western Hindi)
East Central Zone (Eastern Hindi)

Eastern Zone (Magadhan)

These languages derive from Magadhi Prakrit through Ardhamagadhi ("Half-Magadhi").

Assamese–Bengali languages
Bihari languages
Oriya languages
  • Tharu (several languages)

Southern Zone languages

Insular Indic

The insular languages are spoken in the islands of Sri Lanka and Maldives along with the island of Minicoy. The insular languages share several characteristics which set them apart significantly from their continental sister languages. (SIL makes them a separate branch of Indo-Aryan.) However, Sinhala and Dhivehi are no longer mutually intelligible.[1]


The following languages have not been classified within the Indo-Aryan family.

  • Dhanwar Rai
  • Tippera
  • Kanjari
  • Od
  • Usui
  • Vaagri Booli
  • Darai
  • Kumhali
  • Chinali

See also


  1. ^

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • List of Indo-European languages — The Indo European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. Each… …   Wikipedia

  • List of Indo-Iranian languages — The Indo Iranian languages include some 296 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about many people in Asia; this language family is a part of the Indo European language family. Each subfamily in this list contains subgroups and… …   Wikipedia

  • Indo-Aryan languages — Indo Aryan Indic Geographic distribution: South Asia Linguistic classification: Indo European Indo Iranian Indo Aryan …   Wikipedia

  • Middle Indo-Aryan languages — The Middle Indo Aryan (Middle Indic) languages are the early medieval dialects of the Indo Aryan languages, the descendants of the Old Indo Aryan dialects such as Vedic Classical Sanskrit, and the predecessors of the late medieval languages such… …   Wikipedia

  • Indo-European languages — Indo European redirects here. For other uses, see Indo European (disambiguation). See also: List of Indo European languages Indo European Geographic distribution: Before the 16th century, Europe, and South, Central and Southwest Asia; today… …   Wikipedia

  • Indo-Aryan migration — For other uses, see Indo Aryan migration (disambiguation). Indo European topics Indo European languages (list) Albanian · Armenian · Baltic Celtic · Germanic · Greek Indo Iranian …   Wikipedia

  • Indo-Aryan peoples — Infobox Ethnic group group=Indo Aryans poptime= > 1 billion popplace= region1 = flagcountry|India pop1 = 821 mil ref1 = [ world factbook/geos/in.html#People] | region2 = flagcountry|Pakistan pop2 = Over …   Wikipedia

  • List of Spanish words of Indo-Aryan origin — This is a list of Spanish words that come from Indo Aryan languages. It is further divided into words that come from Gujarati and Sanskrit). Some of these words have alternate etymologies and may also appear on a list of Spanish words from a… …   Wikipedia

  • Indo-Iranian languages — Indo Iranian Geographic distribution: Eastern Europe, Southwest Asia, Central Asia, South Asia Linguistic classification: Indo European Indo Iranian Proto language …   Wikipedia

  • Indo-Aryan loanwords in Tamil — The Tamil language has absorbed a large number of Indo Aryan loanwords ever since the early 1st millenium CE. Michael Witzel mentions that in Tamil, the a lot of words derived from sanskrit are found disguised [Of course, the South Asian… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”