- Konkani language
nativename=कोंकणी, Konknni, ಕೊಂಕಣಿ, കൊങ്കണി
pronunciation = IPA|kõkɵɳi (standard), IPA|kõkɳi (popular)
speakers= 2.5 million
iso1 = none
iso2 = kok
iso3 = gom
fam1 = Indo-European
fam5 = Konkani
script=Devanagari (official), Roman, Kannada, Malayalam and Arabic
rank = 123
Devanāgarī: कोंकणी; Roman: Konknni; Kannada: ಕೊಂಕಣಿ; Malayalam: കൊങ്കണി; IAST: IAST|koṃkaṇī) is an Indo-Aryan language belonging to the Indo-European family of languages spoken in the Konkancoast of India. It has approximately 7.6 million speakers of its two individual languages, Konkani and Goan Konkani.
Konkani is the official language in the state of
Goaand is also one of the Official languages of India. Konkani does not have a unique script. Scripts of the other regional languages where its speakers inhabit are used. Devanagari has been mandated as the official script.
The Konkani language has 16 basic vowels (excluding equal number of long vowels), 36 consonants, 5 semi-vowels, 3 sibilants, 1 aspirate and lots of
diphthongs. Like the other Indo-Aryan languages, it has both long and short vowels and syllables with long vowels may appear to be stressed. Different types of nasal vowels is a special feature of the Konkani languageFact|date=April 2008.
One of the most distinguishing features of Konkani phonology is the use of IPA|ɵ, the Close-mid central vowel, instead of the
schwaas used in Hindi and Marathi.
Whereas most Indian languages use only one of the three front vowels, represented by the Devanagari grapheme ए(IPA:IPA|e), Konkani uses three: IPA|e, IPA|ɛ and IPA|æ.
The Near-open front unrounded vowel (æ), as used in Konkani is different from its standard IPA definition. It is positioned between IPA|ɛ and IPA|æ and slightly longer than IPA|æ. The standard pronunciation of æ is only used for loan-words.
The Consonants in Konkani are similar to Marathi.
Konkani is a language rich in morphology and syntax. It cannot be described as a stress language nor as a tone language. cite web |url=http://www.sfb632.uni-potsdam.de/conference/posters/D2_Konkani.pdf |title=The question of Konkani? |author=Caroline Menezes (The National Institute for Japanese language, Tokyo, Japan) |publisher=Project D2, Typology of Information Structure" |accessdate=2008-02-10]
*All the verbs and their evolution strictly follow the rules of Apabrhamsh (corruption of language ) and
Prakrit(ie Sauraseniand Maharashtri)Fact|date=April 2008 Konkani language is very euphimistic and if full of metaphorsFact|date=April 2008.
The Konkani language is spoken widely in the Western Coastal region of India known as
Konkan. This consists of the Konkandivision of Maharashtra, Goa, South Canara, North Canara and some pockets in Kerala. Each region has a different dialect, pronunciationstyle, vocabulary, tone and sometimes, significant differences in grammar.
The Census Department of India, 1991 figures put the number of Konkani speakers in India as 1,760,607 making up 0.21% of India's population. Out of these, 602,606 were in
Goa, 706,397 in Karnataka, 312,618 in Maharashtraand 64,008 in Kerala. It ranks 15th in the list of Scheduled Languages as per strength. According to the 2001 estimates of the "The Census Department of India", there are 2,489,015 Konkani speakers in India. [cite web |url=http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/Census_Data_Online/Language/Statement1.htm |title=ABSTRACT OF SPEAKERS' STRENGTH OF LANGUAGES AND MOTHER TONGUES - 2001 |publisher= Census of India |accessdate=2008-02-10] A very large number of Konkanis stay outside India, either as expatriates or citizens of other countries (NRIs). Determining their numbers is difficult. Ethnologueputs the number of Konkani speakers at 3.6 million(year 2000). [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gom Ethnologue report for language code:gom ] ]
The Konkani language developed primarily in "
Gomantak" (now Goa) in Konkan, the narrow strip of land between the Sahyadri mountains and the Arabian Seaon the western coast of India. There are two theories regarding the origins of Konkani. One theory states that the Brahmins who resided along the banks of the Saraswatiriver must have migrated to "Gomantak", when seismic activity in the Himalayas made the river run underground around 1900 BCE. They brought their own dialect of Shauraseni Prakrit, which over time evolved into modern Konkani.
Another theory is that Konkani is a
Sanskritised version of a language spoken by the Kokna tribe, who may have been the primary settlers in the Konkan region. The Aryans who came to the Konkan picked up the language and added various Sanskrit words. [cite web
title= Tracing the Roots of the Konkani Language
Konkani as a language flourished in Goa. It is believed that the
Brahmi scriptmay have been used initially for writing in Konkani but it fell into disuse. It is also believed that Brahmi gave way to the Devanagari script. However, no evidence has been found to support these claims. In the 1300s, the development of Marathi and the availability of religious and literary works in Marathi, led to its use extensively for religious purposes among the Hindus of Goa. Konkani existed only as a spoken language until the arrival of the Portuguese.
Other Konkani communities came into being with their own dialects of Konkani. The Konkani Muslim communities of
Ratnagiriand Bhatkalcame about due to a mixture of intermarriage of Arab seafarers and locals as well as conversions of Hindus to Islam. [ [http://kokaniz.com/history.html Konkani History ] ] Another migrant community that picked up Konkani was the Siddiswho were sailor-warriors from Ethiopia. [ [http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/people/siddi.htm People of India - Siddis ] ]
Migration and fragmentation
The arrival of the Portuguese lead to major changes in Konkani. The conversion of Konkanis to
Christianityand the religious policies of the Portuguese caused a large number of Konkanis to flee to neighbouring territories. The isolation of Hindu and Christian Konkanis added to the fragmentation of Konkani into multiple dialects.
The language spread to Canara (coastal Karnataka), Kokan-patta (coastal Konkan division of Maharashtra) and Kerala during the last 500 years due to migration of Konkanis. Although a few Konkanis may have been present in the neighbouring areas and there may have been migrations due to economic reasons in the past, the main cause of migration was the Portuguese control over Goa.
It was spread to these areas by
HinduKonkani and Christian Konkani speakers in three waves of migration. The first migration occurred during the early years of Portuguese rule and the Inquisition of 1560s. The second wave of migration was during the 1571 C.E. war with the Sultan of Bijapur. The third wave of migration happened during the wars of 1683-1740 C.E. with the Marathas. While the first wave was of Hindus, the second and third waves were mainly those of Christians.
These migrant communities grew in relative isolation and each developed its own dialect. Since these communities had to interact with others in local languages on a daily basis, Konkani dialects show strong local influences in terms of script, vocabulary and also style.
Konkani in Portuguese era
Early in the era of Portuguese colonization, Christian missionaries realized the importance of propagating in local tongues and translated Christian Literature into Konkani and sometimes Marathi, the most notable among them being Fr Thomas Stephens.
However, in 1684 C.E., the Portuguese administration banned the use of local languages in their Indian territories. They mandated the use of Portuguese not just for official purposes but everyday conversations including speaking at homes or bazaars. This was because local languages served as a medium for Hindu religious instruction. They also wanted to sever the links the new converts had with their culture.
Coupled with the imposition of Portuguese as an official language, it lead to a steady decline of Konkani, which unlike most Indian languages had absolutely no state patronage.
The Hindus of Goa had been using
Marathias a language of religious ceremonies from a long time. Also the interaction between Marathis and Konkanis in the past, that had resulted in Konkanis being bilingual with Marathi, now cemented the status of Marathi as the liturgicaland literarylanguage of Hindus in Goa, including Konkanis. Similarly, upper class Christians used Konkani only to communicate with the lower classes and poor, using Portuguese in social gatherings. The use of Portuguese led to the influence of Portuguese in Konkani, especially in the dialects spoken by the Christians. [http://www.india-seminar.com/2004/543/543%20madhavi%20sardesai.htm Mother Tongue blues] - Madhavi Sardesai]
Meanwhile, the migrant communities outside Goa kept Konkani alive, and the language became more fragmented. The Devanagari script came into use in Maharashtra, while Kannada Script was used by migrants to Karnataka.
Konkani was in a sorry state, due to the use of Portuguese as the official and social language among the Christians; the predominance of Marathi over Konkani among Hindus and the Konkani Christian-Hindu divide. Seeing this Vaman Raghunath Varde Valaulikar set about on a mission to unite all Konkanis, Hindus as well as Christians, regardless of caste or religion. He saw this movement not just as a nationalistic movement against Portuguese rule, but also against the pre-eminence of Marathi over Konkani. Almost single handedly he crusaded, writing a number of works in Konkani. He is regarded as the pioneer of modern Konkani literature and affectionately remembered as
Shenoi Goembab. [http://www.goanews.com/shenoi.htm Goanews - By Sandesh Prabhudesai ] ] His death anniversary, 9th April, is celebrated as World Konkani Day (Viswa Konknni Dis) [ [http://www.goanews.com/9apr00.htm Goanews - By Sandesh Prabhudesai ] ]
Following India's Independence and its subsequent reconquest of Goa in 1961, Goa was absorbed into the Indian Union as a Union Territory, directly under central administration.
However, with the reorganization of states along linguistic lines, and growing calls from Maharashtra, as well as Marathis in Goa for the merger of Goa into Maharashtra, an intense debate was started in Goa. The main issues discussed were the status of Konkani as an independent language and Goa's future as a part of Maharashtra or as an independent state. A plebiscite retained Goa as an independent state in 1967.. However, English, Hindi and Marathi continued to be the preferred languages for official communication, while Konkani was sidelined. [http://firstname.lastname@example.org/msg41920.html *** Goanet Reader: Puzzle wrapped in an enigma,understanding Konkani in Goa] ]
Recognition as an independent language
With the continued insistence of some Marathis that Konkani was a dialect of Marathi and not an independent language, the matter was finally placed before the
Sahitya Akademi. Suniti Kumar Chatterji, the president of the Akademi appointed a Committee of linguistic experts to settle the dispute. On February 26, 1975, the Committee after due deliberation, came to the conclusion that Konkani was indeed an independent and literary language.
Official language status
All this did not change anything in Goa. Finally fed up with the delay, Konkani lovers launched an agitation demanding official status to Konkani in 1986. The agitation turned violent in various places, resulting in the death of six agitators. Finally, on 4 February 1987, the Goa Legislative Assembly passed the Official Language Bill making Konkani the Official Language of Goa.
Konkani was included in the Eight Schedule of the Constitution of India, as per the Seventy-First Amendment on 31 August 1992, adding it to the list of National Languages.
Konkani is written in a number of scripts. Brahmi was originally used but fell into disuse.
Devanagariis the official script for Konkani in Goa. Roman script is also popular in Goa. The Kannada scriptis used amongst the Konkani population of Karnataka. Malayalam scriptis used by the Konkani community, centered around the cities of Cochinand Kozhikodein Keralastate. Konkani Muslims in coastal Maharashtra and Bhatkal taluka of Karnataka use Arabic script to write Konkani.
Konkani, despite having a small population shows a very high number of
dialects. The dialect tree structure of Konkani can easily be classified according to the region, religion, caste and local tongue influence.
Different researchers have classified the dialects differently.
N. G. Kalekar's classification
Based on the historical events and cultural ties of the speakers, N. G. Kalekar has broadly classified the dialects into three main groups:
* Northern Konkani :Dialects spoken in the Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra with strong cultural ties to Marathi.
* Central Konkani : Dialects in Goa, where Konkani came in close contact with Portuguese language and culture.
* Southern Konkani: Dialects spoken in the Canara region of Karnataka which came in close contact with Tulu and Kannada.
Ethnologue (ISO) classification
ISO 639-3classifies Konkani generic macrolanguage(ISO 639-3: kok) into [ [http://www.sil.org/iso639-3/documentation.asp?id=kok ISO 639 code sets ] ] :
*Goan Konkani (ISO 639-3: gom )
*Konkani (individual language) (ISO 639-3: knn)Of these , Konkani(individual language) is commonly identified as a dialect of Marathi(see
The various dialects of Konkani language as reported by
*Standard Konkani (Goan),
Other languages/dialects which are included by ISO 639-3 in the
Konkani language family[http://www.ethnologue.com/show_family.asp?subid=92010 Ethnologue report for Konkani ] ] but may be not be regarded as dialects of Konkani(they may be regarded as sister languages):
The Konkani language has been in danger of dying out primarily due to
# The fragmentation of Konkani into various, sometimes mutually unintelligible dialects.
# The Portuguese influence in Goa, especially on Catholics.
# Strong degree of bilingualism of Konkani Hindus in Goa and coastal Maharashtra with Marathi
# Progressive inroads made by Urdu into the Muslim communities.
# Mutual animosity among various religious and caste groups; including a secondary status of Konkani culture to religion.
# Migration of Konkanis to various parts of India and around the world.
# Lack of opportunities to study Konkani in schools and colleges. Even till recently there were few Konkani schools in Goa. Populations outside the native Konkani areas have absolutely no access to Konkani education, even informally.
# Preference among Konkani parents to speak to their children in "Potaachi Bhas" (language of the stomach) over "Maaim Bhas"(mother tongue) Konkani; primarily in English to help their children gain a grip over English in schools.
Efforts have been made to stop this downward trend of usage of KonkaniFact|date=March 2008, starting with Shenoi Goembab's efforts to revive Konkani. There has been a renewed interest in Konkani Literature. The recognition granted by
Sahitya Akademito Konkani and the institution of an annual award for Konkani literature has helped.
Some organizations such as the Konkan Daiz Yatra, organized by Konkani Bhasha Mandal, Mumbai since 1939 and the newer Vishwa Konkani Parishad have laid great stress on uniting all factions of Konkanis.
According to the Census Department of India, Konkani speakers show a very high degree of
multilingualism. In the 1991 census, as compared to the national average of 19.44% for bilingualism and 7.26% for trilingualism; Konkani speakers scored 74.20% and 44.68% respectively. This makes Konkanis the most multilingual community of India.
This has been due to the fact that in most areas where Konkanis have settled, they seldom form a majority of the population and have to interact with others in the local tongue. Another reason for bilingualism has been the lack of schools teaching Konkani as a primary or secondary language.
While bilingualism is not by itself a bad thing, it has been misinterpreted as a sign that Konkani is not a developed language. The bilingualism of Konkanis with Marathi in Goa and Maharashtra has been a source of great discontent because it has led to the belief that Konkani is a dialect of Marathi [http://www.languageinindia.com/may2001/bilingual.html Language in India ] ] and hence had a bearing on the future of Goa.
Konkani — Marathi dispute
It has been claimed by some quarters that Konkani is a dialect of Marathi and not an independent language. This has been attributed to several historical reasons (outlined in the History section), the close similarities between Marathi and Konkani, the geographical proximity between
Goaand Maharashtra, the strong Marathi influence on Konkani dialects spoken in Maharashtra (such as Malwani), a supposed lack of literature in Konkani and a great degree of bilingualism of Konkani Hindus with respect to Marathi.
José Pereira, in his 1971 work "Konkani — A Language: A History of the Konkani Marathi Controversy", pointed to an essay on Indian languages written by John Leyden in 1807 wherein Konkani is called a "dialect of Maharashtra" as an origin of the language controversy.
Another linguist to whom the error is attributed is Grierson. Grierson's work on the languages of India: "The Linguistic Survey of India" was regarded as an important reference by other linguists. In his book, Grierson had distinguished between the Konkani spoken in costal Maharashtra (then, part of Bombay Presidency) and the Konkani spoken in Goa as being two different languages. He regarded the Konkani spoken in costal Maharashtra as a dialect of Marathi and not as a dialect of Goan Konkani itself. But, in his opinion, Goan Konkani was also to be considered a dialect of Marathi because the relegious literature used by the Hindus in Goa was not in Konkani itself, but in Marathi. Grierson's opinion about Goan Konkani was not based on its linguistics but on the diglossic situation in Goa.
S. M. Katre's 1966 work, "The Formation of Konkani", which utilized the instruments of modern historical and comparative linguistics across six typical Konkani dialects, showed the formation of Konkani to be distinct from that of Marathi.
Shenoi Goembab, who played a pivotal role in the Konkani revival movement, rallied against the pre-eminence of Marathi over Konkani amongst Hindus and Portuguese amongst Christians.
Goa's accession to India in 1961 came at a time when Indian states were being reorganized along linguistic lines. There were demands to merge Goa with Maharashtra state. This was because Goa had a sizeable population of Marathi speakers and Konkani was also considered to be a dialect of Marathi by many. Konkani Goans were opposed to the move. The status of Konkani as an independent language or as a dialect of Marathi had a great political bearing on Goa's merger, which was settled by a plebiscite in 1967.
The Sahitya Akademi (a prominent literary organization in India) recognized it as an independent language in 1975, and subsequently Konkani (in
Devanagariscript) was made the official language of Goa in 1987.
cript and dialect issues
The problems posed by multiple scripts and varying dialects have come as an impediment in the efforts to unite Konkanis. The decision to use Devanagari as official script and Antruz dialect has met with opposition both within Goa and outside it. The critics contend that Antruz dialect is unintelligible to most Goans, let alone other Konkanis, and that Devanagari is used very little as compared to Roman script in Goa or Kannada script in coastal Karnataka. Prominent among the critics are Konkani Catholics in Goa, who have been at the forefront of the Konkani agitation in 1986-87 and have for long used the Roman script including producing literature in Roman script. They are demanding that Roman script be given equal status to Devanagari. [ [http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/NEWS/India/Goa_group_wants_Konkani_in_Roman_script/articleshow/1644404.cms Goa group wants Konkani in Roman script] ]
In Karnataka, which has the largest number of Konkanis, leading organizations and activists have similarly demanded that Kannada script be made the medium of instruction for Konkani in local schools instead of Devanagari. [ [http://www.hindu.com/2006/03/14/stories/2006031416160300.htm The Hindu : Karnataka / Mangalore News : `Kannada script must be used to teach Konkani' ] ]
At present no single script or dialect can claim to be understandable or acceptable to all sections. No serious efforts have been made to achieve a consensus on this issue. The lack of a standard dialect which is acceptable to all means that at many times Konkanis interact with other Konkanis in other languages.
There are various organizations working for Konkani but primarily, these were restricted to individual communities. The "All India Konkani Parishad" founded on 23 January 1978 served the purpose of providing a common ground for all groups. A new organization known as "Vishwa Konkani Parishad", which aims to be an all-inclusive and pluralistic umbrella organization for Konkanis around the world, was founded on 11 September 2005. The "Vishwa Konkani Sammelan" (First World Konkani Convention), which was held at
Mangalorein 1995, had attracted more than 5000 delegates apart from lakhs of visitors.
The "Konkan Daiz Yatra", which was started in 1939 in
Mumbai, is the oldest Konkani organization. The "Konkani Bhasha Mandal" was born in Mumbai on April 5, 1942during the Third All India Conference. On December 28 1984, "Goa Konkani Akademi (GKA)" was founded by the Government of Goa to promote Konkani language, literature and culture. [cite web
url = http://www.goakonkaniakademi.org/ |title = Goa Konkani Akademi — promoting the development of Konkani language, literature and culture |accessdate = 2008-06-16 |publisher=Goa Konkani Akademi] The Thomas Stephens Konknni Kendr (TSKK) is a popular research institute based in the
Goan capital Panaji, which works on issues related to the Konkani language, literature, culture and education. [cite web
url = http://www.tskk.org/ |title =Thomas Stephens Konknni Kendr |accessdate = 2008-06-16] The "Dalgado Konkani Academy" is a popular Konkani organization based in Panaji.
The "Konkani Triveni Kala Sangam" is one more famed Konkani organization in Mumbai, which is engaged in the vocation of patronizing Konkani language through theatre movement. The "Konkani Bhas Ani Sanskriti Pratistan" (Konkani Language and Cultural Foundation) is actively involved in the development and research of the Konkani language.cite web
url = http://www.ekhabbar.com/appeal.htm |title =Konkani Appeals |accessdate = 2008-06-16 |publisher=Ekhabbar] The
Government of Karnatakaestablished the "Karnataka Konkani Sahitya Akademy" on 20 April 1994. [cite web
url = http://www.kalaangann.com/konkani.htm |title =Konkani |accessdate = 2008-06-16 |publisher=Kalaangann,Mandd Sobhann (The Konkani Heritage Centre)] The "World Konkani Centre" has been established by the "Konkani Bhas Ani Sanskriti Pratistan" (Konkani Language and Cultural Foundation) in Mangalore. [cite web
url = http://www.thehindu.com/2006/11/15/stories/2006111516300300.htm |title = Vishwa Konkani Sahitya Academy to be inaugurated in Panaji |accessdate = 2008-06-16 |publisher=
The Hindu] The "Konkani Ekvott" is an umbrella organization of the various Konkani bodies in Goa.
*The first known printed book in Konkani was written by an English
Jesuitpriest, Fr. Thomas Stephens in 1622, and entitled "Dovtrina Cristam Em Lingoa Brahmana Canarim" (Old Portuguese for: Christian Doctrine in the Canarese Brahman Language).
*Konkani Mansagangotri — Prof. Olivinho Gomes
*Vajralikhani — Shenoi Goembab
*Konkani Bhashecho Itihas — Shenoi Goembab
*Sollavea Xekddeantlem Konknni Mhabharot: Adi Porv — collection of 18 stories from the
Mahabharatepic. It was written down in the 16th century by a Jesuitin the Roman script using diacritics. It is probably the oldest form of Konkani available today.
*There is some disagreement about whether the name "Konkani" was always the accepted name for the language. The earliest reference to the Konkani language comes in a devotional poem by Sant Namdev(c.1270-c.1350 CE) where he has written a stanza in Konkani.
*An international ad campaign by Nike for the
2007 Cricket World Cupfeatured a Konkani song "Rav Patrao Rav" as the background theme. It was based on the tune of an older song "Bebdo", composed by Chris Perry and sung by Lorna. The new lyrics written by Agnello Dias (who worked in the ad agency that made the ad), recomposed by Ram Sampat and sung by Ella Castellino.
*A Konkani cultural event "Konkani Nirantari" held in
Mangaloreon 26th and 27th January 2008; has entered the Guinness Book of World Records for holding a 40-hour-long non-stop musical singing marathon by beating the Brazilian musical troupe who had previously held the record of singing non-stop for 36 hours. [cite web
url= http://www.daijiworld.com/news/news_disp.asp?n_id=42855&n_tit=Mangalore%3A+Guinness+Adjudicator+Hopeful+of+Certifying+Konkani+Nirantari |title= Mangalore: Guinness Adjudicator Hopeful of Certifying Konkani Nirantari |accessdate= 2008-02-01 |publisher= Daijiworld Media Pvt Ltd Mangalore ]
Konkani language family
Konkani words from other languages
Languages of India
List of national languages of India
List of Indian languages by total speakers
Linguistic issues in Goa
* [http://www.ourkarnataka.com/learn_konkani/learn_konkani_main.htm Learn GSB Konkani online]
* [http://www.mangalorean.com/konkani/archive.php?ltype=Lesson Learn Mangalorean Konkani online]
* [http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/konkani/konkani.htm The Origins of the Konkani Language]
* [http://www.goakonkaniakademi.org/konkaniweb/language-literature.htm An excellent article on Konkani history and literature by Goa Konkani Academi]
* [http://www.savemylanguage.org/ Online Konkani (GSB) dictionary]
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