- Kannada language
name = Kannada
nativename = _kn. ಕನ್ನಡ IAST|"kannaḍa"
Karnataka, India, significant communities in USA, Australia, Singapore, Fact|date=July 2007 UK, United Arab EmiratesFact|date=July 2007.
Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Goa.
speakers = 35 million native, 44 million total" [http://encarta.msn.com/media_701500404/Languages_Spoken_by_More_Than_10_Million_People.html Languages Spoken by More Than 10 Million People] ".
Encarta.] [" [http://www.vistawide.com/languages/top_30_languages.htm Top 30 languages of the world] ". Vistawide.]
rank = 27
familycolor = Dravidian
fam2 = Southern
fam3 = Tamil-Kannada
nation = IND (
agency = Various academies and the
Governmentof Karnataka[cite book |title="THE KARNATAKA OFFICIAL LANGUAGE ACT, 1963"ndash Karnataka Gazette (Extraordinary) Part IV-2A |year=1963 |publisher= Government of Karnataka|pages=pp. 33]
caption = A bilingual sign board in Kannada and English in
Kannada ( _kn. IAST|"Kannaḍa") is one of the major
Dravidian languagesof India, spoken predominantly in the state of Karnataka. Kannada, whose native speakers are called Kannadigas ( _kn. ಕನ್ನಡಿಗರು IAST|"Kannadigaru"), number roughly 35 million, making it the 27th most spoken language in the world. It is one of the official languages of Indiaand the official and administrative language of the state of Karnataka.cite web|url=http://dpal.kar.nic.in/26%20of%201963%20(E).pdf|title=The Karnataka Official Language Act|work=Official website of Department of Parliamentary Affairs and Legislation|publisher=Government of Karnataka|accessdate=2007-06-29]
Kannada is attested epigraphically from the mid-1st millennium CE, and literary Old Kannada flourished in the 9th to 10th century
Rashtrakuta Dynasty.Contemporary Kannada literatureis the most successful in India, with India's highest literary honor, the Jnanpith awards, having been conferred seven times upon Kannada writers, which is the highest for any language in India.cite web|url=http://jnanpith.net/laureates/index.html|title=Awardees detail for the Jnanpith Award|work=Official website of Bharatiya Jnanpith|publisher=Bharatiya Jnanpith|accessdate=2008-05-12] At present, a committee of scholars have approved a classical language tag for Kannada based on its antiquity. A final notification from the Government of India is awaited.cite web|url=http://www.deccanherald.com/Content/Aug92008/scroll2008080983598.asp?section=frontpagenews|title=Classical tag recommended for Kannada|work=Online webpage of The Deccan Herald|publisher=Deccan Herald|accessdate=2008-08-08] cite web|url=http://in.news.yahoo.com/48/20080814/1251/ten-telugu-kannada-to-get-classical-lang.html|title=Telugu, Kannada to get classical language status|work=Online webpage of The Yahoo India|publisher=Indian Express|accessdate=2008-09-01]
The initial development of the Kannada language is similar to that of other Dravidian languages and independent of Sanskrit.Kittel (1993), p1-2] During later centuries, Kannada, along with other Dravidian languages like Telugu, Tamil,
Malayalam, etc., has been greatly influenced by Sanskritin terms of vocabulary, grammar and literary styles."Literature in all Dravidian languages owes a great deal to Sanskrit, the magic wand whose touch raised each of the languages from a level of patois to that of a literary idiom". (Sastri 1955, p309)] Takahashi, Takanobu. 1995. Tamil love poetry and poetics. Brill’s Indological library, v. 9. Leiden: E.J. Brill, p16,18] "The author endeavours to demonstrate that the entire Sangam poetic corpus follows the "Kavya" form of Sanskrit poetry"-Tieken, Herman Joseph Hugo. 2001. Kāvya in South India: old Tamil Caṅkam poetry. Groningen: Egbert Forsten]
Pre-old Kannada ("Purava HaleGannada" or) was the language of
Banavasiin the early Common Era, the Satavahanaand Kadamba periods and hence has a history of over 2000 years.Pai and Narasimhachar in Bhat (1993), p103] cite web |title=Early Tamil Epigraphy from the Earliest Times to the Sixth Century AD |url=http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/MAHEAR.html |author=Iravatham Mahadevan|publisher= |work=Harvard University Press |accessdate=2007-04-12] The Ashoka rock edictfound at Brahmagiri (dated to 230 BC) has been suggested to contain a word in identifiable Kannada.The word "Isila" found in the Ashokan inscription (called the Brahmagiri edict from Karnataka) meaning to "shoot an arrow" is a Kannada word, indicating that Kannada was a spoken language in the third century BCE (Dr. D.L. Narasimhachar in Kamath 2001, p5)]
Written tradition of Kannada begins in the 5th to 6th century CE. The earliest examples of a full-length Kannada language stone inscription ("shilashaasana") containing Brahmi characters with characteristics resembling those of Tamil in "Hale Kannada" ("Old Kannada") script can be found in the
Halmidi inscription, dated 450 CE, indicating that Kannada had become an administrative language by this time.Ramesh (1984), p10] Encyclopaedia of Indian literature vol. 2, Sahitya Akademi (1988), p1717, p 1474] A report on Halmidi inscription, cite web |title=Halmidi village finally on the road to recognition |url=http://www.hindu.com/2003/11/03/stories/2003110304550500.htm |author=Muralidhara Khajane |publisher=The Hindu |work=The Hindu, Monday, November 3, 2003 |accessdate=2006-11-25] Kamath (2001), p10] The 5th century Tamatekallu inscription of Chitradurgaand the Chikkamagaluru inscription of 500 CE are further examples.Narasimhacharya (1988), p6] Rice (1921), p13] Govinda Paiin Bhat (1993), p102]
Over 30,000 inscriptions written in the Kannada language have been discovered so far.Sahitya Akademi (1988), p1717] Prior to the Halmidi inscription, there is an abundance of inscriptions containing Kannada words, phrases and sentences, proving its antiquity. The 543 CE Badami cliff inscription of
Pulakesi Iis an example of a Sanskrit inscription in "Hale Kannada" script.Kamath (2001), p58] cite web |title=Badami: Chalukyans' magical transformation |url=http://www.deccanherald.com/deccanherald/jul262005/spectrum1422512005725.asp |author=Azmathulla Shariff |publisher=Deccan Herald |work=Spectrum, Deccan Herald, Tuesday, July 26, 2005 |accessdate=2006-11-25]
The earliest full-length Kannada copper plates in "Old Kannada" script (early eighth century CE) belongs to the Alupa King Aluvarasa II from Belmannu, South Kanara district and displays the double crested fish, his royal emblem.Gururaj Bhat in Kamath (2001), p97] The oldest well-preserved palm leaf manuscript is in "Old Kannada" and is that of "Dhavala", dated to around the ninth century, preserved in the Jain Bhandar, Mudbidri,
Dakshina Kannadadistrict.cite web |title=Preserving voices from the past |url=http://www.deccanherald.com/deccanherald/aug212005/sundayherald101012005820.asp|author=Mukerjee, Shruba|publisher=Sunday Herald |work=Deccan Herald, Sunday, August 21, 2005|accessdate=2007-04-11] The manuscript contains 1478 leaves written using ink.
Old Kannada (9th - 14th c.)
Kannada literaturebegins to flourish under the Rashtrakuta Dynasty(9th to 10th century).
The written Kannada language has come under various religious and social influences in its 1600 years of known existence. Linguists generally divide the written form into four broad phases.
From the ninth to fourteenth centuries CE, Kannada works were classified under "Old Kannada" ("Halegannada"). In this period Kannada showed a high level of maturity as a language of original literature.The earliest cultivators of Kannada literature were Jain scholars (Narasimhacharya 1988, p17)] Mostly
Jainand Saivitepoets produced works in this period. This period saw the growth of Jain "puranas" and Virashaiva"Vachana Sahitya" or simply vachana, a unique and native form of literature which was the summary of contributions from all sections of society.More than two hundred contemporary Vachana poets have been recorded (Narasimhacharya 1988, p20)] Sastri (1955), p361] Early Brahminical works also emerged from the eleventh century.Durgasimha, who wrote the "Panchatantra", and Chandraraja, who wrote the "Madanakatilaka", were early Brahmin writers in the eleventh century under Western ChalukyaKing Jayasimha II(Narasimhacharya 1988, p19)] By the tenth century Kannada had seen its greatest poets, such as Pampa, Sri Ponnaand Ranna, and its great prose writings such as the " Vaddaradhane" of Shivakotiacharya, indicating that a considerable volume of classical prose and poetry in Kannada had come into existence a few centuries before Kavirajamarga(c.850).Sastri (1955), p355] Among existing landmarks in Kannada grammar, Nagavarma II's "Karnataka-bhashabhushana" (1145) and Kesiraja's " Shabdamanidarpana" (1260) are the oldest.Sastri (1955), p359] Narasimhacharya (1988), p19]
Middle Kannada (14th to 18th c.)
In the period between the fourteenth and eighteenth centuries CE,
Brahmanical Hinduismhad a great influence on Middle Kannada ("Nadugannada") language and literature. Non-brahmin Hindu saints like Kanakadasaand Brahminicalsaints of the Vaishnavasect such as Purandaradasa, Naraharitirtha, Vyasatirtha, Sripadaraya, Vadirajatirtha, Vijaya Dasa, Jagannathadasa, Prasanna Venkatadasaetc., produced devotional poems in this period.Sastri (1955), pp364-365] Kanakadasa's "Ramadhanya Charite" is a rare work, concerning itself with the issue of class struggle.The writing exalts the grain Ragi above all other grains that form the staple foods of much of modern Karnataka (Sastri 1955, p365] This period saw the advent of " HaridasaSahitya" which made rich contributions to " bhakti" literature and sowed the seeds of Carnatic music.
Modern Kannada (1800 to present)
The Kannada works produced by the end of the nineteenth century and later are classified as "Hosagannada" or Modern Kannada. However, till the beginning of the twentieth century there were Kannada literary works that could still be classified under the heading of Middle Kannada. Most notable among them are the poet Muddana's works. His works may be described as the "Dawn of Modern Kannada". Generally, linguists treat "Indira Bai" or "Saddharma Vijayavu" by Gulvadi Venkata Raya as the first literary works in Modern Kannada.
Kadamba Dynastycoins bearing the Kannada inscription "Vira" and "Skandha" were found in Satara collectorate.The coins are preserved at the Archaeological Section, Prince of Wales Museum of Western India, Mumbai - Kundangar and Moraes in Moraes (1931), p382] A gold coin bearing three inscriptions of "Sri" and an abbreviated inscription of king Bhagiratha's name called "bhagi" (390-420 CE) in old Kannada exists.The coin is preserved at the Indian Historical Research Institute, St. Xavier's College, Mumbai - Kundangar and Moraes in Moraes (1931), p382] A Kadamba copper coin dated to the fifth century CE with the inscription "Srimanaragi" in Kannada script was discovered in Banavasi, Uttara Kannada district.cite web |title=5th century copper coin discovered at Banavasi |url=http://www.hindu.com/2006/02/06/stories/2006020609090400.htm|author=Dr Gopal, director, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History |publisher=The Hindu|work=Hindu, Monday, February 6, 2006 |accessdate=2007-10-18] Coins with Kannada legends have been discovered spanning the rule of the Western Ganga Dynasty, the Badami Chalukyas, the Alupas, the Western Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas, the Hoysalas, the Vijayanagar Empire, the Kadamba Dynastyof Banavasi, the Keladi Nayakas and the Mysore Kingdom, the Badami Chalukya coins being a recent discovery.Kamath (2001), p12, p57] cite web |title=Indian coins-Dynasties of South |url=http://prabhu.50g.com/ |author=Govindaraya Prabhu, S |publisher=Prabhu's Web Page On Indian Coinage, November 1, 2001 |work= |accessdate=2006-11-27] cite web |title=Vijayanagar Coins-Catalogue |url=http://www.vijayanagaracoins.com/htm/history.htm |author=Harihariah Oruganti-Vice-President, Madras Coin Society |publisher= |work= |accessdate=2006-11-27] The coins of the Kadambas of Goa are unique in that they have alternate inscription of the king's name in Kannada and Devanagari in triplicate,This shows that the native vernacular of the Goa Kadambas was Kannada - Moraes (1931), p384] a few coins of the Kadambas of Hangalare also available.Two coins of the Hangal Kadambas are preserved at the Royal Asiatic Society, Mumbai, one with the Kannada inscription "Saarvadhari" and other with "Nakara". Moraes (1931), p385]
Literature and poetry
The oldest existing record of Kannada poetry in "tripadi" metre is the
Kappe Arabhattarecord of 700 CE.Kamath (2001), p67] " Kavirajamarga" by King Nripatunga AmoghavarshaI (850 CE) is the earliest existing literary work in Kannada. It is a writing on literary criticism and poetics meant to standardize various written Kannada dialects used in literature in previous centuries. The book makes reference to Kannada works by early writers such as King Durvinitaof the sixth century and Ravikirti, the author of the Aihole record of 636 CE.Sastri (1955), p355] cite web |title=History of the Kannada Literature-I |url=http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/kar/literature/history1.htm |author=Jyotsna Kamat |publisher=Kamat's Potpourri |work=Kamat's Potpourri, November 4, 2006 |accessdate=2006-11-25] Sastri (1955), p355] An early extant prose work, the "Vaddaradhane" by Shivakotiacharya of 900 CE provides an elaborate description of the life of Bhadrabahu of Shravanabelagola.Sastri (1955), p356]
Kannada works from earlier centuries mentioned in the
Kavirajamargaare not yet traced. Some ancient texts now considered extinct but referenced in later centuries are "Prabhrita" (650 CE) by Syamakundacharya, "Chudamani" (Crest Jewel-650 CE) by Srivaradhadeva, also known as Tumbuluracharya, which is a work of 96,000 verse-measures and a commentary on logic ("Tatwartha-mahashastra").The seventeenth-century Kannada grammarian Bhattakalanka wrote about the "Chudamani" as a milestone in the literature of the Kannada language (Sastri (1955), p355)] cite web |title=History of the Kannada Literature - I |url=http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/kar/literature/history1.htm |author=Jyotsna Kamat |publisher=Kamat's Potpourri |work=Kamat's Potpourri, November 4,2006 |accessdate=2006-11-25] Narasimhacharya (1988), pp 4-5] Other sources date "Chudamani" to the sixth century or earlier.Rice, B.L. (1897), p497] 6th century Sanskrit poet Dandin praised Srivaradhadeva's writing as "having produced Saraswatifrom the tip of his toungue, just as Shivaproduced the Gangesfrom the tip of his top knot (Rice E.P., 1921, p27)] The "Karnateshwara Katha", a eulogy for King Pulakesi II, is said to have belonged to the seventh century; the "Gajastaka", a work on elephant management by King Shivamara II, belonged to the eighth century,Kamath (2001), p50, p67] and the "Chandraprabha-purana" by Sri Vijaya, a court poet of King Amoghavarsha I, is ascribed to the early ninth century.The author and his work were praised by the latter-day poet Durgasimha of 1025 CE (Narasimhacharya 1988, p18.)] Tamil Buddhist commentators of the tenth century CE (in the commentary on "Nemrinatham", a Tamil grammatical work) make references that show that Kannada literature must have flourished as early as the fourth century CE.cite web |title=The place of Kannada and Tamil in Indias national culture |url=http://web.archive.org/web/20070415154722/http://www.intamm.com/journalism/ta-jour3.htm |author=Sri K. Appadurai |publisher=Copyright INTAMM. 1997 |work= |accessdate=2006-11-25]
The Middle Kannada period gave birth to several genres of Kannada literature, with new forms of composition coming into use, including "Ragale" (a form of blank verse) and meters like "Sangatya" and "Shatpadi". The works of this period are based on Jain and Hindu principles. Two of the early writers of this period are Harihara and Raghavanka, trailblazers in their own right. Harihara established the "Ragale" form of composition while
Raghavankapopularized the "Shatpadi"(six-lined stanza) meter.Sastri (1955), pp361-2] A famous Jaina writer of the same period is Janna, who expressed Jain religious teachings through his works.Narasimhacharya (1988), p20]
The Vachana Sahitya tradition of the twelfth century is purely native and unique in world literature, and the sum of contributions by all sections of society. Vachanas were pithy poems on that period's social, religious and economic conditions. More importantly, they held a mirror to the seed of social revolution, which caused a radical re-examination of the ideas of caste, creed and religion. Some of the important writers of Vachana literature include
Basavanna, Allama Prabhuand Akka Mahadevi.Sastri (1955), p361] Kumara Vyasa, who wrote the "Karnata Bharata Kathamanjari", has arguably been the most famous and most influential Kannada writer of the fifteenth century. His work, entirely composed in the "Bhamini Shatpadi" meter, is a sublime adaptation of the first ten chapters of the Mahabharata.Sastri (1955), p364] The Bhakti movementgave rise to Dasa Sahityaaround the fifteenth century which significantly contributed to the evolution of Carnatic musicin its present form. This period witnessed great Haridasas like Purandara Dasawho has been aptly called the "Pioneer of Carnatic music", Kanaka Dasa, Vyasathirthaand Vijaya Dasa.cite book
title=Romance of the Raga
url=http://books.google.com/books?id=2s2xJetsy0wC&pg=PP1&ots=2C265wfJrs&dq=Romance+of+the+Raga&sig=7I4E3woQgDL7Gl8_cx_m18BSQf4#PPA67,M1] Iyer (2006), p93] Sastri (1955), p365]
Modern Kannada in the twentieth century has been influenced by many movements, notably "Navodaya", "Navya", "Navyottara", "Dalita" and "Bandaya". Contemporary Kannada literature has been highly successful in reaching people of all classes in society. Works of Kannada literature have received seven Jnanpith awards, which is the highest number awarded for the literature in any Indian language. It has also received forty-seven
There is also some distinction between the spoken and written forms of the language. Spoken Kannada tends to vary from region to region. The written form is more or less constant throughout Karnataka, however. The
Ethnologuereports "about 20 dialects" of Kannada. Among them are Kundagannada(spoken exclusively in Kundapura), Nadavar-Kannada (spoken by Nadavaru), Havigannada(spoken mainly by HavyakaBrahmins), Are Bhashe(spoken mainly in the Sulliaregion of Dakshina Kannada), Soliga, Badaga, Gulbarga Kannada, Dharawad Kannada, Chitradurga Kannada, and others. All of these dialects are influenced by their regional and cultural background.
Ethnologue also classifies a group of "Kannada languages" comprising four members, besides Kannada proper including Badaga, Holiya and Urali.
Kannada is mainly spoken in
Karnatakain India, and to a good extent in the neighbouring states of Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Keralaand Goa, as well as in sizeable communities in the USA, Saudi Arabia, UAE,Middle Eastern countries,Canada, Malaysia, Australia, the UK, and Singapore.
Kannada is one of the twenty-two
official languages of Indiaand is the sole administrative language of the State of Karnataka.
The language uses forty-nine
phonemicletters, divided into three groups: Swaragalu (thirteen letters); Yogavaahakagalu (two letters, ಅಂ and ಅಃ); and Vyanjanagalu (thirty-four letters), similar to the vowels and consonants of English, respectively . The character set is almost identical to that of other Indian languages. The script itself, derived from Brahmi script, is fairly complicated like most other languages of India owing to the occurrence of various combinations of "half-letters" ( glyphs), or symbols that attach to various letters in a manner similar to diacritical marks in the Romance languages. The Kannada script is almost perfectly phonetic, but for the sound of a "half n" (which becomes a half m). The number of written symbols, however, is far more than the forty-nine characters in the alphabet, because different characters can be combined to form "compound" characters "(vattaksharas)". Each written symbol in the Kannada script corresponds with one syllable, as opposed to one phonemein languages like English. The script of Kannada is also used in other languages such as Tulu, Kodava Takkand Konkani. The Kannada script is syllabic.
Extinct Kannada letters
Kannada literary works employed letters ಱ (transliterated 'ṟ' or 'rh') and ೞ (transliterated 'ḻ', 'lh' or 'zh'), whose manner of articulation most plausibly could be akin to those in present-day
Malayalamand Tamil. The letters dropped out of use in the twelfth and eighteenth centuries, respectively. Later Kannada works replaced 'rh' and 'lh' with ರ (ra) and ಳ (la) respectively. Rice, Edward. P (1921), "A History of Kanarese Literature", Oxford University Press, 1921: 14-15]
Another letter (or unclassified "vyanjana" (consonant)) that has become extinct is 'nh' or 'inn'. (Likewise, this has its equivalent in Malayalam and Tamil.) The usage of this consonant was observed until the 1980s in Kannada works from the mostly coastal areas of Karnataka (especially the
Dakshina Kannadadistrict). Now hardly any mainstream works use this consonant. This letter has been replaced by ನ್ (consonant n).Fact|date=March 2007
Kannada script in computing
Several transliteration schemes/tools are used to type Kannada characters using a standard keyboard. These include
BarahaSee http://baraha.com/] (based on ITRANS) and Quillpad [http://quillpad.in/kannada QuillPad - Typing in Kannada has never been easier ] ] (predictive transliterator). Nudi, the government of Karnataka's standard for Kannada Input, is a phonetic layout loosely based on transliteration.
Kannada is a highly inflected language with three genders (masculine, feminine, and neutral or common) and two numbers (singular and plural). It is inflected for gender, number and tense, among other things.
A German priest, the Reverend
Ferdinand Kittel, composed the first Kannada-English dictionary, consisting of more than 70,000 words.cite web |title=Kannada Dialect Dictionaries and Dictionaries in Subregional Languages of Karnataka|url=http://www.languageinindia.com/sep2005/kannadadictionary1.html|author=Manjulakshi & Bhat|publisher=Central Institute of Indian Languages, University of Mysore|work=Language in India, Volume 5 : 9 September 2005
Ferdinand Kittelhas also written a book on Kannada grammar called "A Grammar of the Kannada Language: Comprising the Three Dialects of the Language". [Ferdinand Kittel. " [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN8120600568&id=rnNxtHfKxZAC&pg=PP11&lpg=PP11&ots=p8gHyBeg7y&dq=kannada+grammar&sig=UEOhCXLrlp_eSLfYwh7GOvwVK4Q#PPP1,M1 A Grammar of the Kannada Language: Comprising the Three Dialects of the Language] ". 1993. Asian EducationalServices. ISBN 8120600568]
Languages of India
List of national languages of India
List of Indian languages by total speakers
Karnataka literature- A list of famous Kannada scholars and their works.
* Kannada language Wikipedia
*cite book |last=Narasimhacharya|first=R|title= History of Kannada Literature|origyear=1988|year=1988|publisher=Asian Educational Services|location=New Delhi, Madras|isbn=81-206-0303-6
*cite book |last=Rice|first=E.P.|title= Kannada Literature|origyear=1921|year=1982|publisher=Asian Educational Services|location=New Delhi|isbn=8120600630
*cite book |last=Rice|first=B.L.|title= Mysore Gazatteer Compiled for Government-vol 1|origyear=1897|year=2001|publisher=Asian Educational Services|location=New Delhi, Madras|isbn=81-206-0977-8
*cite book |last=Kamath|first=Suryanath U.|title= A concise history of Karnataka: from pre-historic times to the present|origyear=2001|year=2002|publisher=Jupiter books|location=Bangalore|oclc= 7796041|id=LCCN|809|0|5179
*cite book |last=Various|first= |title=Encyclopaedia of Indian literature-vol 2|origyear=1988|year=1988|publisher=Sahitya Akademi |location= |isbn=81-260-1194-7
*cite book |last=Sastri|first=Nilakanta K.A.|title= A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar|origyear=1955|year=2002|publisher=Indian Branch, Oxford University Press|location=New Delhi|isbn=0-19-560686-8
*cite book |last=Masica |first=Colin P.|title=The Indo-Aryan Languages |origyear=1991|year=1991|publisher=Cambridge University Press|location=Cambridge |isbn=0521299446
*cite book |last=Ramesh|first=K.V.|title= Chalukyas of Vatapi |origyear=1984|year=1984|publisher=Agam Kala Prakashan|location=New Delhi|isbn=3987-10333
*cite book |last=Thapar|first=Romila|title= The Penguin History of Early India|origyear=2003|year=2003|publisher=Penguin Books|location=New Delhi|isbn=0-14-302989-4
* George M. Moraes (1931), The Kadamba Kula, A History of Ancient and Medieval Karnataka, Asian Educational Services, New Delhi, Madras, 1990 ISBN 81-206-0595-0
*cite book |last=Bhat|first=Thirumaleshwara|title=Govinda Pai|origyear=1993|year=1993|publisher=Sahitya Akademi|location= |isbn=8172015402
*cite book |last=Varadpande|first=Manohar Laxman|title=History of Indian Theatre|origyear=1987|year=1987|publisher=Abhinav Publications|location= |isbn=8170172217
* [http://kannadalearning.org/ Kannada Learning Center]
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