- American Automobile Association
AAA (pronounced "triple A"), formerly known as the American Automobile Association, is a federation of 51 independently operated motor clubs throughout North America. AAA is a not-for-profit member service organization with more than 51 million members. AAA provides services to its members such as travel, automotive, insurance, financial, and discounts. Its national headquarters are in Heathrow, Florida.
The American Automobile Association (the "AAA" or "Triple-A") was founded on March 4, 1902, in Chicago, Illinois, when, in response to a lack of roads and highways suitable for automobiles, nine motor clubs with a total of 1,500 members banded together to form the Triple-A. Those individual motor clubs were the Chicago Automobile Club, Automobile Club of America, Automobile Club of New Jersey, Long Island Automobile Club, Rhode Island Automobile Club, Philadelphia Automobile Club, Princeton University Automobile Club, Automobile Club of Utica, and Grand Rapids Automobile Club. In 1904 the AAA merged with the American Motor League, the first American automobile organization.
The first AAA road maps were published in 1905, and AAA began printing hotel guides in 1917. Triple-A began its School Safety Patrol Program in 1920, the first of the association's driver safety programs. The AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, which conducts studies on motorist safety, was established as a separate entity in 1947.
AAA created an organization called the Racing Board, and later known as the Contest Board, in 1902 to officiate the Vanderbilt Cup international automobile race in Long Island, New York. The Racing Board sanctioned the Indianapolis 500 and awarded national racing championships in 1905, 1916, 1920–1941, and 1946–1955. After the 1955 Le Mans disaster, AAA decided that auto racing distracted from its primary goals, and the United States Automobile Club was formed to take over the race sanctioning/officiating. In 2005, AAA re-entered racing as a sponsor of ISC-owned tracks. In 2006, AAA's foray into racing expanded when it made a three-year commitment to sponsor Roush Racing's number 6 car on the NASCAR Nextel Circuit.
In 1935 AAA published Sportsmanlike Driving, the first course outline for high school teachers. In 1936, AAA published the first driver education curriculum for use in high schools (also titled Sportsmanlike Driving, now known as Responsible Driving). AAA has updated its driver training courses throughout the years and many clubs currently offer their own driving schools, or work with other companies to provide AAA’s driving curriculum.
Knowing that vehicles pose a hazard to pedestrians, in 1936 AAA began a pedestrian safety program with a grant from the Automotive Safety Foundation. AAA went on to commission and publish (1938) an extensive study of pedestrian safety for the purpose of reducing pedestrian fatalities and injuries. AAA’s Pedestrian Protection Program began in 1937 and focuses national attention on pedestrian safety needs by recognizing cities, counties and states that have demonstrated successful pedestrian safety programs.
The AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety was established as a separate entity in 1947, and continues to conduct research related to traffic and pedestrian safety.
AAA’s history spans more than 100 years and includes many examples of serving the U.S. government in times of war. During the 1940s, AAA offered its services to the Advisory Commission of the Council of National Defense in anticipation of becoming involved in World War II. AAA President Thomas P. Henry was appointed consultant in the transportation unit of the Defense Council, and AAA pledged resources, including highway information, to national defense planning efforts as it had during World War I.
Reductions in manufacturing because of the war increased the need for conservation in automobiles and their related products. AAA's efforts at conservation included supporting the manufacture of synthetic rubber in anticipation of a war-related tire/rubber shortage, urging motorists to reduce their driving speed to conserve fuel (1942); and backing a scrap rubber campaign (1942). In 1944, AAA’s Keep 'em Rolling campaign sponsored a cross-country tour featuring cars equipped with synthetic tires. The tour demonstrated the reliability of tires made with synthetic rubber. In doing its part to assist in the war effort, AAA placed its mapping facilities at the disposal of the Army department; conducted motor pool driver education (1943); secured an order from the War Production Board that stopped the sale of certain anti-freeze solutions harmful to motors (1943); launched a campaign to alleviate a growing shortage of auto mechanics (1943); monitored tire and gasoline rationing (1943); and established, in cooperation with the Red Cross and military hospitals, a driver training program for veterans with artificial limbs (1944). AAA also assisted in the development of a manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices and their operation during wartime (1942).
The end of the war brought new needs for motorists and AAA assisted by releasing the film "Traffic Jam Ahead," which outlined a practical program for postwar traffic safety, and publishing Post-war Travel Trends as a public service. In 1946, AAA launched a campaign called Take It Easy which was designed to reduce traffic fatalities. Subsequently, fatalities dropped 20 percent below the pre-war figure.
In the 1960s, AAA helped draft the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966, setting safety standards for automobiles, tires and equipment. AAA also helped draft the Highway Safety Act, specifying standards for motor vehicle inspection and registration; motorcycle safety; driver education; driver licensing; traffic courts; highway design, construction and maintenance; and traffic control devices.
During the oil crisis of the 1970s, the AAA Fuel Gauge Report was created to assist motorists in finding gas stations that had fuel and were open. AAA also began its Gas Watchers program with the endorsement of President Gerald Ford. The Gas Watchers Guide continues to be published to provide simple steps motorists can take to conserve gasoline in their daily driving.
In 1979, President Jimmy Carter appointed AAA President James B. Creal to the National Alcohol Fuels Commission. Creal also chaired a task force on gas rationing and was appointed to President Carter’s National Council on Energy Efficiency. AAA representatives serving on President Carter's Alcohol Fuels Commission were requested to sign the Energy Securities Act of 1980. In addition, Creal served on the Industries Advisory Board of Congressional Travel and Tourism Caucus in the early 1980s.
The 1980s brought significant recognition to AAA’s mapping services when scenic highways were identified on AAA's sheet maps for the first time. AAA maps were used in the 1984 Louisiana World Exposition where more than 13,000 full-color AAA map images were provided on an optical laser disc for demonstration of an in-car navigation device in the Chrysler Pavilion. And in 1985 the AAA North American Road Atlas was sold at retail for the first time and made the New York Times best-seller paperback list within six weeks. AAA experimented in the 1980s with On-line Touring Information System (OTIS) which eventually was combined with other automated services under the name AAA Travel Match. The self-service terminal worked like an ATM, with rotating menus and touch-control screens that allowed users to obtain local travel information.
During the mid-1980s, AAA’s work with the Coalition to Halt Auto Theft resulted in passage of the Motor Vehicle Theft Law Enforcement Act of 1984.
The AAA School Safety Patrol Program and Lifesaving Medal Award won the Presidential Citation Award for Private Sector Initiatives which honors outstanding volunteer projects in 1985. A year later President Ronald Reagan honored a recipient of AAA's School Safety Patrol Lifesaving Medal in his State of the Union Address on Feb. 4.
In 1988, AAA focused its legislative efforts on the Truck & Bus Safety Regulatory Reform Act requiring interstate drivers and equipment to meet federal safety regulations. The act was signed into law in November.
AAA joined government and private-sector companies—the Federal Highway Administration, Avis, General Motors and the Florida Department of Transportation—in 1990 for the Smart Car experiment, also known as the TravTek Project. This test of a computerized in-car navigation and travel information system demonstrated consumer acceptance of telematics technology that would make driving easier and reduce traffic congestion.
A new driver's education program, “Teaching Teens to Drive,” was introduced by AAA in 1996 to focus on parent involvement in teen driving education. A year later AAA launched Licensed to Learn, a campaign to increase awareness of the need for Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) laws in every state. At the outset of the campaign only eight states had enacted GDL laws. Today, all 50 states and the District of Columbia have enacted some form of GDL legislation.
Research in the 1990s led AAA to pursue another issue of importance to US motorists: a transportation crisis resulting from infrastructure that had been under-funded for many years. The Crisis Ahead: America's Aging Highways and Airways research led to AAA helping to shape two pieces of landmark legislation: the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21) in 1998 and the Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century (AIR-21) in 2000. Both laws embrace the principle that user fees charged to motorists and air travelers should be fully invested in improving and modernizing the nation's surface and air transportation infrastructures.
Because of its work in traffic safety AAA was cited in 1998 as the Clinton administration's number one traffic safety partner by U.S. Transportation Secretary Rodney Slater. And in 2000, NHTSA presented AAA with a public service award in appreciation of AAA's leadership in the Child Passenger Safety Certification Program, which teaches how to properly install infant/child safety seats, and for its continuing efforts in Graduated Driver Licensing.
Skyrocketing gas prices led AAA to testify before three Congressional committees regarding increased gasoline prices in 2000, and to lobby to prevent Congress from repealing parts of the federal gasoline tax, which would have reduced Highway Trust Fund revenue without guaranteeing consumers any relief from high gas prices. Participating in the U.S. Department of Transportation secretary's Aviation Summit, AAA President and CEO Robert L. Darbelnet communicated AAA's stand on the aviation crisis saying that consistent underfunding of the nation’s air transportation infrastructure had led to the crisis and offering a four-point plan to help turn it around. Also that year, AAA testified before Congress and the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, on proposed hours-of-service regulations for commercial truck drivers and launched Share With Care, a public education campaign on safely sharing the road with trucks.
In the early 2000s, AAA’s focus on helping seniors stay mobile longer and more safely led to an appointment to the White House Conference on Aging. AAA promoted solutions such as senior-friendly road design, screening tools, education for seniors and their families, and supplemental transportation. Reader's Digest highlighted AAA's transportation safety agenda by focusing on the importance of road safety improvements, particularly for seniors. To help seniors become safer drivers or to recognize signs that it’s time to stop driving, AAA developed Roadwise Review, a computer-based screening tool enabling older drivers to identify and address physiological changes that could affect driving.
Members belong to one of 69 individual clubs (such as AAA Mid-Atlantic, AAA Northern California, Nevada & Utah, the Automobile Club of Southern California, AAA Oregon/Idaho, AAA Merrimack Valley or Auto Club South, for example), and the clubs in turn own AAA. The member clubs have arranged a reciprocal service system so that members of any participating club are able to receive member services from any other affiliate club. Member dues finance all club services as well as the operations of the national organization.
From the standpoint of the consumer, AAA clubs primarily provide emergency road services to members. These services, which include everything from lockouts, winching, tire changes, automotive first aid, and towing, are handled by private local towing companies contracted by a state AAA club. Many AAA clubs have an automotive fleet division serving large metro areas, while private towing companies cover the surplus call volume by area. Recently, certain clubs have implemented an "on the go" diagnostic/installation automotive battery program, which offers members an additional service to an ever more demanding commute. This is part of AAA's vision for the future of automotive services, termed "On the go".
Clubs also distribute road maps (including customized map guides for specific journeys, branded as "TripTik") and travel publications (TourBooks), and rate restaurants and hotels according to a "diamond" scale (one to five). The best hotels and restaurants according to AAA's criteria receive the Five Diamond Award. Many offices sell automobile liability insurance, provide travel agency, auto-registration and notary services. Maps, TourBooks, and travel agent services are generally free to members. AAA also offers member discounts at places like Payless ShoeSource and LensCrafters, and in some regions Burger King, Pizza Hut and Arby's through its "Show Your Card & Save" program.
The AAA has reciprocal arrangements with a range of international affiliates. In general, members of affiliates are offered the same benefits as members of the AAA while traveling in the United States, while AAA members are offered equivalent benefits while traveling in the territory of the affiliate.
International affiliates include:
- ARC Europe, encompassing the leading European clubs, including the AA (UK), ANWB (Netherlands) , ADAC (Germany), ACI (Italy), TCS (Switzerland), TCB (Belgium), OAMTC (Austria) and RACE (Spain) below.
- The Automobile Association in the United Kingdom.
- The Royal Dutch Touring Club ANWB
- The Canadian Automobile Association in Canada (TourBooks and maps of Canadian places are published by AAA, and are distributed by AAA and CAA clubs using both AAA and CAA logos).
- The ADAC in Germany.
AAA and motorist rights
The AAA has a mixed record with its support of motorist rights. The AAA is known for occasional high profile motorist advisories of unreasonable traffic enforcement, such as when it rented a billboard to warn motorists of the speed trap town of Lawtey, Florida. It also is a supporter of the Motor Vehicle Owners' Right to Repair Act, first introduced in 2001 but which has not become law. However, the AAA supported Virginia's now-repealed traffic citation tax because of its revenue generation potential.
Other advocacy positions AAA has taken throughout its history include fighting against gas price manipulation for the purpose of gouging consumers, opposing roadside courts and speed traps used to raise revenue rather than increase traffic safety, the diversion of Highway Trust Fund revenues to purposes other than maintaining and constructing roads, favoring safe railroad grade crossings, traffic safety education for children, standardized highway signs and markings on all highways receiving federal funding, fighting abuses in auto financing, urging safety standards for school buses, limiting axle loads for trucks to decrease damage to highways, opposing hauling explosives on highways without adequate regulation, encouraging parents and children to use safe pedestrian habits when walking to school, regulating outdoor advertising on the Interstate highway system, developing a public education program to reduce auto thefts, opposing use of toll bridge funds for non-motoring purposes, and many other safety or fairness issues related to the motoring public.
AAA and the environment
See “History” above for AAA’s involvement in conservation during World War II and the oil crisis of the 1970s.
In 2001, AAA launched its Great Battery Roundup to encourage motorists to recycle old automobile batteries, tires and various types of automotive fluids. Since then more than 4 million batteries have been recycled through that program and the mobile battery service. Typically held around Earth Day, AAA clubs often team up with other environmental organization such as the EPA and the Nature Conservancy to expand these recycling efforts.
In 2006, AAA worked with the EPA to improve the fuel economy information provided to new car buyers by vehicle manufacturers. Using several different types of tests AAA recreated real-world driving conditions to illustrate the difference in fuel economy, and the EPA incorporated AAA’s testing into their new procedures. The more accurate testing resulted in a reduction of miles per gallon claims from 5 to 25 percent, beginning with 2008 model year vehicles.
As fuel prices rise, consumers often see increased marketing of fuel additives as a way to boost fuel economy. AAA has tested many of these products and has never found one that provides significant savings for consumers. AAA has warned consumers repeatedly against products that make such claims and encourages motorists to instead develop fuel-conserving driving habits such as reducing the weight of the vehicle by removing unnecessary objects from the trunk, smooth stops and starts, and reducing their speed.
It is generally understood that the benefits of fuel conservation for consumers include financial savings, improved road safety and a healthier environment. To assist motorists in becoming more conscious about saving fuel, AAA published its first Gas Watcher’s Guide in the 1970s during the oil crisis. The annual guide provides information on a variety of factors that affect fuel economy such as driving behaviors, keeping a vehicle well maintained, choosing the proper fuel, and choosing the most fuel-efficient vehicle for a family’s needs.
Over the years, AAA has encouraged consumers to use public transportation by including these transportation options in its travel guidebooks. AAA has also called on government to invest adequately in a multi-modal transportation system that is widely accessible and affordable. In comments to the National Journal AAA President and CEO Robert L. Darbelnet said that funding for high-speed rail from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act is a “drop in the bucket” of what is needed, and that those funds would be well spent if, going forward, additional sources of investment could be identified.
In addition to encouraging fuel efficiency and conservation, AAA and other organizations initiated National Car Care Month during the 1980s to publicize the fact that poorly maintained vehicles contribute to excessive energy consumption and air pollution. AAA works in cooperation with businesses, civic groups, the government and the media in promoting and coordinating this annual event, held each October.
In 1992, AAA launched a popular ecotourism promotion called Freedom's Way. With support from agencies such as the National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Environmental Protection Agency and others, AAA produced travel tips and public service messages encouraging travelers to help protect America's scenic areas and respect the environment. Topics included reducing congestion and pollution, conserving energy, disposing of litter and enjoying wildlife at a distance. The prevailing theme was that heavy use or abuse of a site damages the quality of the experience for everyone and sometimes even results in the closure of parks and recreation areas. The message was simple but effective.
AAA clubs have also been a part of the organization’s century-long environmental advocacy efforts including:
- In 1919, alarmed by rapid destruction of California’s giant redwood trees at the hands of commercial loggers, AAA's California State Automobile Association launched a multiyear publicity and lobbying campaign. Working with the Save the Redwoods League, CSAA continued promoting awareness and, in 1927, a bill creating a state park system that protected redwoods became law.
- AAA Washington works with the state's Department of Ecology to assist with programs that help minimize the impact of automobile emissions, and the club's fleet services operations were named a county EnviroStar business in recognition of environment-friendly practices.
- Since 1991, the California State Automobile Association and Bay Area Air Quality Management District have co-sponsored a Spare the Air campaign designed to reduce traffic congestion and improve air quality. CSAA also sponsors the AAA Outdoor Corps, a group of employee volunteers who clean beaches, clear park trails and plant trees in wetlands.
- AAA Michigan sponsors Detroit Clean Sweep, an ongoing program involving club employees who help promote a cleaner environment through volunteer activities such as collecting litter. In addition, the club's Freeway Courtesy Patrol vans cruise local roadways to assist motorists and help reduce congestion.
- AAA Mid-Atlantic was lead sponsor of a U.S. Department of Transportation Livable Communities workshop in Philadelphia that brought together bicycle, pedestrian, transit and safety groups regarding safe and efficient travel. In honor of Earth Day, AAA Mid-Atlantic planted trees in America's National Forests, literally, on behalf of their members who took advantage of AAA Mid-Atlantic's Mobile Battery Service program. For every member who called to have a new car battery installed and the old battery recycled, a tree was planted in the national forest. The tree plantings were made possible through the Arbor Day Foundation, a non-profit conservation and education organization.
- AAA Oregon/Idaho is closely associated with Stop Oregon Litter and Vandalism, and provides TripTik-style guides for annual beach clean-ups and habitat mitigation projects.
- AAA Lancaster County earned an Outstanding Partner Award from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection for its Ozone Action Program. The club also belongs to an advisory committee that promotes multiple modes of transportation systems that conform to federal air quality standards.
- The Auto Club of Southern California helped establish the Southern California Rideshare program. The club has supported dozens of transit projects that provide an appropriate benefit for their expense, including commuter transit services in the Inland Empire.
Despite its work promoting environmental responsibility in the automotive and transportation arenas, AAA's lobbying positions are perceived by some[who?] as hostile to mass transit and environmental interests.
In 2006 the Automobile Club of Southern California worked against Prop. 87. The proposition would have established a "$4 billion program to reduce petroleum consumption (in California) by 25 percent, with research and production incentives for alternative energy, alternative energy vehicles, energy efficient technologies, and for education and training."
Daniel Becker, director of Sierra Club's global warming and energy program, described AAA as "a lobbyist for more roads, more pollution, and more gas guzzling." He observed that among other lobbying activities, AAA issued a press release critical of the Clean Air Act, stating that it would "threaten the personal mobility of millions of Americans and jeopardize needed funds for new highway construction and safety improvements." "AAA spokespeople have criticized open-space measures and opposed U.S. EPA restrictions on smog, soot, and tailpipe emissions." "The club spent years battling stricter vehicle-emissions standards in Maryland, whose air, because of emissions and pollution from states upwind, is among the nation's worst." The AAA national organization and local clubs are normally 501(c) tax exempt organizations, and like other such 501c's receive payment for endorsement of sales by other organizations-such as insurance firms-and/or operate businesses-such as towing and auto repair operations that compete with existing businesses. While AAA may justify this as providing needed services to members that may also save them money, unless such profit-making operations are separately incorporated and pay taxes, a question arises as to appropriateness of use the 501c tax status.
While AAA’s work on behalf of motorists and travelers seems at odds sometimes with its environmental stance, awareness of the underlying issues has led to greater understanding. For instance, in 2009, AAA asked the EPA not to increase the allowable ethanol content in gasoline from 10 percent to 15 percent citing several concerns affecting vehicle emissions, engine performance, system component damage, and vehicle warranty agreements among others. AAA said that more research needed to be done on the potential harmful effects prior to increasing the ethanol content in fuel.
In another instance AAA supported the overall goal of the Clean Air Act, but objected to several specific provisions in the legislation, requesting clarification of the proposed state inspection and maintenance program provision and asking that the implementation guidelines be fully evaluated prior to enactment. According to a Washington Times article which referred to research by Energy & Environment Analysis Inc., tightening federal emissions standards had led to a role reversal for the automobile, making it less of a contributor to smog. Instead, stationary emission sources such as factories, as well as heavy and utility vehicles were more of a threat to air quality and would be appropriate targets in the battle against smog. “However, by primarily emphasizing vehicle regulations in the 1970s and ignoring gasoline regulations EPA actually caused fuels to become dirtier, effectively undermining a significant portion of any gains achieved through the tighter control of vehicles.” 
And more recently, although AAA supports the manufacture and use of hybrid vehicles, research by the British Columbia Automobile Association in 2010 shows that they do not result in significant financial savings for consumers, although they are often marketed that way.
In response to these concerns, several competing organizations have emerged, including Better World Club. These organizations generally provide similar roadside assistance, trip planning and other services, in an environmentally friendly manner. This includes discounts for fuel-efficient vehicles and donations to environmental organizations.
Also as a response to the critics, the California State Automobile Association, a branch of AAA, set up a booth at the San Francisco International Auto Show to raise awareness regarding plug-in hybrid vehicles.
List of AAA regional clubs
Club Headquarters Founded Territory Website AAA Northern New England Portland, Maine Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont www.aaanne.com AAA Southern New England[Note 1] Providence, Rhode Island 1900 Rhode Island: all
Connecticut: New Haven, Fairfield and Litchfield Counties
Massachusetts: Bristol, Middlesex, Worcester, Berkshire, Plymouth, Suffolk, Barnstable, and Norfolk Counties
www.sne.aaa.com/sne/home/index.php AAA Allied Group
(Greater Hartford Area)
West Hartford, Connecticut Connecticut: Hartford, Middlesex, New London, Tolland and Windham Counties www.aaahartford.com AAA Pioneer Valley West Springfield, Massachusetts Massachusetts: Franklin, Hampden and Hampshire Counties www.aaa.com/aaa/045/pioneer AAA Merrimack Valley Lawrence, Massachusetts Eastern Massachusetts, and Salem, New Hampshire www.aaa.com/aaa/042/merrimack AAA Hudson Valley Albany, New York New York state: Albany County, Villages of Waterford and Stillwater, City of Mechanicville in Saratoga County and all of Rensselaer, Greene and Columbia Counties www.aaahv.com AAA Northway Schenectady, New York New York state: Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Fulton, Hamilton, Montgomery, Schenectady, Saratoga, Warren and Washington Counties www.aaa.com AAA Western and Central New York Buffalo, New York New York state: Allegany, Cattaraugus, Cayuga, Chautauqua, Cortland, Erie, Genesee, Jefferson, Lewis, Livingston, Madison, Monroe, Niagara, Oneida, Onondaga, Ontario, Oswego, Schuyler, Seneca, Steuben, St. Lawrence, Tompkins, Wayne, Wyoming and Yates Counties www.nyaaa.com AAA Southern New York Binghamton, New York New York state: Broome, Tioga and Chemung Counties www.aaa.com AAA New York Garden City, New York New York state: Long Island, the five boroughs of New York City, and Westchester, Rockland, Sullivan, Ulster, Dutchess, Orange, Putnam, Chenango, Delaware, Otsego, Schoharie and Herkimer counties, and parts of Lewis, Madison and Oneida Counties www.aaa.com AAA North Jersey Wayne, New Jersey New Jersey: Bergen, Hudson and Passaic Counties www.aaa.com New Jersey Automobile Club Florham Park, New Jersey New Jersey: Essex, Morris and Union Counties www.aaa.com AAA South Jersey Voorhees, New Jersey New Jersey: Camden, Cumberland, Gloucester and Salem Counties www.aaa.com East Penn Region
of AAA East Central
Allentown, Pennsylvania Pennsylvania: All of Lehigh County, and parts of Bucks, Carbon, Chester, Montgomery and Northampton counties www.aaaeastpenn.com AAA Northampton County Easton, Pennsylvania Pennsylvania: Greater Easton area, the eastern municipalities and townships (Bethlehem, Bushkill, Forks, Lower and Upper Nazareth, Lower and Upper Mt. Bethel, Lower Saucon, Moore, and Williams) in Northampton County, and northeastern Bucks County www.aaa.com AAA Reading-Berks Reading, Pennsylvania Pennsylvania: Berks County www.aaa.com AAA North Penn Scranton, Pennsylvania Pennsylvania: Lackawanna, Monroe, Lycoming, Wayne, Bradford, Susquehanna, Pike, Tioga, Wyoming, Potter and Sullivan Counties www.aaa.com AAA Central Penn Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Pennsylvania: Adams, Cumberland, Dauphin, Huntingdon, Juniata, Lancaster, Lebanon, Mifflin, and Perry Counties www.aaa.com/aaa/195/web AAA Susquehanna Valley Sunbury, Pennsylvania Pennsylvania: Northumberland, Union and Snyder Counties, except West Beaver Township and McClure www.aaa.com AAA Southern Pennsylvania York, Pennsylvania Pennsylvania: York, Franklin, Fulton, Bedford, Clearfield, Cambria, Clinton, Centre, northern Somerset and western Cumberland Counties www.aaa.com/aaa/238/reed AAA Schuylkill County Pottsville, Pennsylvania Pennsylvania: Schuylkill County www.aaa.com AAA Mid-Atlantic Wilmington, Delaware Delaware, Maryland, Washington D.C., and parts of Virginia, Pennsylvania and New Jersey www.aaamidatlantic.com AAA Tidewater Virginia Virginia Beach, Virginia Hampton Roads area of Virginia www.aaatidewaterva.com AAA Carolinas Charlotte, North Carolina North Carolina and South Carolina www.aaacarolinas.com Auto Club South Tampa, Florida Florida, Georgia, Middle and West Tennessee, and Puerto Rico www.aaasouth.com AAA Alabama Birmingham, Alabama Alabama www.aaa.com AAA East Tennessee Knoxville, Tennessee Tennessee: Anderson, Blount, Bradley, Campbell, Carter, Claiborne, Cocke, Grainger, Greene, Hamblen, Hancock, Hawkins, Jefferson, Johnson, Knox, Loudon, McMinn, Meigs, Monroe, Morgan, Polk, Rhea, Roane, Scott, Sevier, Sullivan, Unicoi, Union and Washington Counties www.aaaet.com AAA Allied Group
West Virginia: McDowell, Mercer, Monroe, Summers, Wyoming Counties
Virginia: Bland, Buchanan, Dickenson, Giles, Lee, Russell, Scott, Tazewell, Wise Counties and City of Norton
www.aaabluegrass.com AAA Allied Group
Lexington, Kentucky Kentucky: Bath, Bell, Bourbon, Boyd, Boyle, Breathitt, Carter, Clark, Clay, Elliott, Estill, Fayette, Floyd, Franklin, Garrard, Greenup, Harlan, Jackson, Jessamine, Johnson, Knott, Knox, Laurel, Lawrence, Lee, Leslie, Letcher, Lincoln, Madison, Magoffin, Martin, McCreary, Menifee, Mercer, Montgomery, Morgan, Nicholas, Owsley, Perry, Pike, Powell, Pulaski, Rockcastle, Scott, Whitley, Wolfe, Woodford Counties www.aaabluegrass.com AAA Allied Group
(Southern West Virginia)
Charleston, West Virginia West Virginia: Boone, Clay, Fayette, Greenbrier, Kanawha, Nicholas and Raleigh Counties www.aaaswva.com AAA East Central[Note 2] Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 1900 Parts of Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia www.aaacentral.com Akron Auto Club Akron, Ohio Ohio: Summit County (except Barberton) www.aaa.com Ohio Auto Club Worthington, Ohio Ohio: Allen, Auglaize, Belmont, Butler, Carroll, Coshocton, Crawford, Delaware, Erie, Fairfield, Franklin, Guernsey, Hardin, Harrison, Holmes, Knox, Licking, Logan, Madison, , Marion, Medina, Mercer, Monroe, Morgan, Muskingum, Perry, Pickaway, Putnam, Richland, Sandusky, Seneca, Stark, Summit, Union, Van Wert, Wayne, Wyandot Counties www.aaaohio.com AAA Allied Group
(Cincinnati Tri-State Area)
Cincinnati, Ohio Ohio: Brown, Clermont, Clinton, Hamilton and Warren Counties
Kentucky: Boone, Bracken, Campbell, Carroll, Fleming, Gallatin, Grant, Harrison, Kenton, Lewis, Mason, Owen, Pendleton, Robertson and Rowan Counties
Indiana: Dearborn, Franklin, Jefferson, Ohio, Ripley and Switzerland Counties
www.aaacincinnati.com AAA Miami Valley Dayton, Ohio Ohio: Montgomery, Greene, Clark, Champaign, Preble and Darke Counties www.aaaohio.com AAA Allied Group
(Miami County, Ohio)
Piqua, Ohio Ohio: Miami County www.aaamiamicounty.com Findlay Automobile Club Findlay, Ohio Ohio: Hancock County www.aaa.com AAA Northwest Ohio Toledo, Ohio Ohio: Lucas, Wood, Ottawa, Defiance, Paulding, Williams, Fulton and Henry Counties www.aaanwohio.com AAA Michigan[Note 3] Dearborn, Michigan Michigan www.autoclubgroup.com/michigan/ Hoosier Motor Club Indianapolis, Indiana Indiana: Bartholomew, Benton, Boone, Brown, Carroll, Clark, Clay, Clinton, Decatur, Delaware, Fayette, Floyd, Fountain, Greene, Hamilton, Hancock, Harrison, Hendricks, Henry, Howard, Jackson, Jasper, Jennings, Johnson, Lawrence, Madison, Marion, Monroe, Montgomery, Morgan, Newton, Orange, Owen, Parke, Pulaski, Putnam, Rush, Scott, Shelby, Starke, Sullivan, Tippecanoe, Tipton, Union, Vermillion, Vigo, Warren, Washington and Wayne Counties www.aaahoosier.com Chicago Motor Club[Note 3] Aurora, Illinois Illinois: Adams, Boone, Brown, Bureau, Carroll, Cass, Champaign, Christian, Clark, Clay, Coles, Cook, Crawford, Cumberland, De Witt, DeKalb, Douglas, DuPage, Edgar, Effingham, Fayette, Ford, Fulton, Grundy, Hancock, Henderson, Henry, Iroquois, Jasper, Jo Daviess, Kane, Kankakee, Kendall, Knox, La Salle, Lake, Lawrence, Lee, Livingston, Logan, Macon, Macoupin, Marshall, Mason, McDonough, McHenry, McLean, Menard, Mercer, Montgomery, Morgan, Moultrie, Ogle, Peoria, Piatt, Pike, Putnam, Richland, Rock Island, Sangamon, Schuyler, Scott, Shelby, Stark, Stephenson, Tazewell, Vermillion, Warren, Whiteside, Will, Winnebago and Woodford Counties
Indiana: Adams, Allen, Blackford, Cass, DeKalb, Elkhart, Fulton, Grant, Huntington, Jay, Kosciusko, LaPorte, Lagrange, Lake, Marshall, Miami, Noble, Porter, Randolph, St. Joseph, Steuben, Wabash, Wells, and Whitley Counties
www.autoclubgroup.com/chicago/ AAA Wisconsin[Note 3] Madison, Wisconsin Wisconsin www.autoclubgroup.com/wisconsin/ AAA Minnesota/Iowa[Note 3] Burnsville, Minnesota Iowa: all
Minnesota: Aitkin, Anoka, Becker, Beltrami, Benton, Big Stone, Blue Earth, Brown, Carlton, Carver, Cass, Chippewa, Chisago, Clay, Clearwater, Cook, Cottonwood, Crow Wing, Dakota, Dodge, Douglas, Faribault, Fillmore, Freeborn, Goodhue, Grant, Houston, Hubbard, Isanti, Itasca, Jackson, Kanabec, Kandiyohi, Kittson, Koochiching, Lac qui Parle, Lake, Lake of the Woods, Le Sueur, Lincoln, Lyon, Mahnomen, Marshall, Martin, McLeod, Meeker, Mille Lacs, Morrison, Mower, Murray, Nicollet, Nobles, Norman, Olmsted, Otter Tail, Pennington, Pine, Pipestone, Polk, Pope, Ramsey, Red Lake, Redwood, Renville, Rice, Rock, Roseau, Scott, Sherburne, Sibley, St. Louis, Stearns, Steele, Stevens, Swift, Todd, Traverse, Wabasha, Wadena, Waseca, Washington, Watonwan, Wilkin, Winona, Wright, and Yellow Medicine Counties
www.autoclubgroup.com/mnia/ AAA Minneapolis Minneapolis, Minnesota 1902 Minnesota: Hennepin County, Columbia Heights, Hilltop, Fridley, & Spring Lake Park www.aaa.com AAA Nebraska[Note 3] Omaha, Nebraska Nebraska www.autoclubgroup.com/nebraska/ AAA Missouri St. Louis, Missouri Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi
Kansas: Atchison, Brown, Doniphan, Johnson and Wyandotte Counties
Illinois: Alexander, Bond, Calhoun, Clinton, Edwards, Franklin, Gallatin, Greene, Hamilton, Hardin, Jackson, Jefferson, Jersey, Johnson, Madison, Marion, Massac, Monroe, Perry, Pope, Pulaski, Randolph, St. Clair, Saline, Union, Wabash, Washington, Wayne, White and Williamson Counties
Indiana: Crawford, Daviess, Dubois, Gibson, Knox, Martin, Perry, Pike, Posey, Spencer, Vanderburgh and Warrick Counties
www.ouraaa.com AAA Allied Group
Topeka, Kansas Kansas, except Atchison, Brown, Doniphan, Johnson and Wyandotte Counties http://discover.aaa.com/ AAA South Dakota[Note 4] Sioux Falls, South Dakota South Dakota www.aaasouthdakota.com AAA North Dakota[Note 3] Fargo, North Dakota North Dakota www.autoclubgroup.com/nodak/ AAA Oklahoma Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Oklahoma www.aaaoklahoma.com AAA Texas[Note 5] Dallas, Texas Texas, except Texarkana www.aaa-texas.com California State Automobile Association San Francisco, California California: Alameda, Alpine, Amador, Butte, Calaveras, Colusa, Contra Costa, Del Norte, El Dorado,
Fresno, Glenn, Humboldt, Kings, Lake, Lassen, Madera, Marin, Mariposa, Mendocino, Merced, Modoc, Monterey, Napa, Nevada, Placer, Plumas, Sacramento, San Benito, San Francisco, San Joaquin, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Shasta, Sierra, Siskiyou, Solano, Sonoma, Stanislaus, Sutter, Tehama, Trinity, Tuolumne, Yolo and Yuba Counties
Nevada and Utah: all
www.csaa.com Automobile Club of Southern California Costa Mesa, California 1900 California: Inyo, Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles, Mono, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Tulare and Ventura Counties www.aaa-calif.com AAA Arizona Phoenix, Arizona 1927 Arizona www.aaaaz.com AAA New Mexico[Note 5] Albuquerque, New Mexico New Mexico www.aaa-newmexico.com AAA Colorado Denver, Colorado Colorado www.aaacolorado.com AAA MountainWest Helena, Montana Alaska, Montana, Wyoming www.aaamtw.com AAA Oregon/Idaho Portland, Oregon Oregon and southern Idaho www.aaaorid.com AAA Washington Bellevue, Washington Washington and northern Idaho www.aaawa.com AAA Hawaii[Note 5] Honolulu, Hawaii Hawaii www.aaa-hawaii.com
- The Automobile Club of Rhode Island merged with the Bancroft Automobile Club (based in Worcester, Mass.) in 1987 to form the AAA South Central New England. AAA Massachusetts (formerly the Boston Automobile Club) joined in 1996, and AAA Berkshire County in July 2004 to form the present AAA Southern New England.
- The Cleveland Automobile Club (founded in 1900) merged with the Alliance Automobile Club, the Tuscarawas County Autombile Club, and others to form the Ohio Motorist Association in 1978. The Ohio Motorist Association (based in Cleveland) merged into AAA East Central on January 1, 2005.
- The Auto Club Group, based in Dearborn, Michigan, operates AAA Michigan, AAA Minnesota/Iowa, AAA Nebraska, AAA North Dakota, AAA Wisconsin and the Chicago Motor Club.
- AAA South Dakota is part of AAA Oklahoma.
- AAA Texas, AAA New Mexico and AAA Hawaii are part of the Auto Club of Southern California Enterprise.
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- ^ Stratton, Jim (1997). "Aaa Junks Its Formal Name, Soups Up Logo". Orlando Sentinel. http://articles.orlandosentinel.com/1997-07-23/business/9707221164_1_aaa-logo-hotel-signs. Retrieved 2010-09-03.
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- ^ Motor age (magazine), Volume 5, 1904, page 109
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- ^ War Emergency Edition: Manual on Uniform Traffic Devices for Streets and Highways. American Association of State Highway Officials. 1942. https://ceprofs.civil.tamu.edu/ghawkins/MUTCD-History_files/1942%20MUTCD.pdf. Retrieved 2010-09-13.
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- ^ "AAA President/CEO Issues Four Point Plan To Improve the Air Travel System". TheAutoChannel.com. http://www.theautochannel.com/news/2000/08/21/006300.html. Retrieved 2010-09-17.
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- ^ "AAA Statement: Feds Need to Boost Highway Safety Effort". TheAutoChannel.com. January 31, 1997. http://www.theautochannel.com/news/date/19970131/news03086.html. Retrieved 2010-09-17.
- ^ Kolstad, James L.. "ISTEA to The Rescue". Ohio LTAP Center. http://www.dot.state.oh.us/Divisions/Quality/LTAP/Newsletters/summer1%5B1%5D.htm. Retrieved 2010-09-17. [dead link]
- ^ "U.S. Transportation Secretary Slater Charges Safety Conference to Help Meet Seat Belt Goal; Salutes Recipients of Highway Safety Awards". TheAutoChannel.com. http://www.theautochannel.com/news/2000/05/02/001605.html. Retrieved 2010-09-17.
- ^ "AAA COMMENDS PENA'S EFFORTS TO RETURN ALL FEDERAL GAS TAXES TO HIGHWAY TRUST FUND" (Press release). AAA. March 13, 1993. http://www.thefreelibrary.com/AAA+COMMENDS+PENA%27S+EFFORTS+TO+RETURN+ALL+FEDERAL+GAS+TAXES+TO...-a013126965. Retrieved 2010-09-22.
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- ^ "AAA Urges Congress to Invest Added $5 Billion Annually in Nation's Roads, Bridges". TheAutoChannel.com. September 9, 1997. http://www.theautochannel.com/news/press/date/19970909/press006084.html. Retrieved 2010-09-22.
- ^ "AAA President/CEO Issues Four Point Plan To Improve the Air Travel System". TheAutoChannel.com. http://www.theautochannel.com/news/2000/08/21/006300.html. Retrieved 2010-09-22.
- ^ "AAA To Focus Safety Efforts On Ways to Prevent Crashes Between Cars and Large Trucks" (Press release). AAA. July 23, 2003. http://www.allbusiness.com/legal/transportation-law-speed-limits/5978237-1.html. Retrieved 2010-09-22.
- ^ Building the Road Safety Profession in the Public Sector: Special Report 289. Transportation Research Board. 2007. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12019&page=96. Retrieved 2010-09-22.
- ^ Koch, Kathleen (June 23, 2003). "Study: Bad roadways big factor in traffic deaths". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/06/23/dangerous.roads/index.html. Retrieved 2010-09-22.
- ^ Rhodes, Linda (February 22, 2007). "A Program for Older Drivers". Revolution Health Group. http://www.revolutionhealth.com/healthy-living/caring/basics/driving/father-driving. Retrieved 2010-09-22.
- ^ Hardin, Drew. Top 10 Other Benefits of Your AAA Membership. edmunds.com. http://www.edmunds.com/reviews/list/top10/131932/article.html. Retrieved 2010-09-03.
- ^ "AAA.com/discounts". AAA. http://www.aaa.com/discounts. Retrieved 2010-09-03.
- ^ Meenan, Kyle (2005). "Billboard Wars Over Lawtey As A 'Speed Trap'". First Coast News. http://www.firstcoastnews.com/news/news-article.aspx?storyid=32199. Retrieved 2008-09-16.
- ^ Fisher, Marc (2007-08-26). "Rage Over Driver Fees Has Va. Legislators Asking, 'Huh?'". The Washington Post: p. C01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/08/25/AR2007082501223.html. Retrieved 2008-09-16.
- ^ "Get Rid of Old Batteries". Orlando Sentinel. 2003. http://articles.orlandosentinel.com/2003-04-19/news/0304190183_1_batteries-conservation-programs-aaa. Retrieved 2010-09-10.
- ^ Lundy, Sarah (March 15, 2006). "'Speed Traps'? Check online". Orlando Sentinel. http://articles.orlandosentinel.com/2006-03-15/news/MSPEEDTRAP15_1_drivers-web-sites-central-florida. Retrieved 2010-09-10.
- ^ "This Earth Day, AAA, The EPA and The Nature Conservancy Sponsored The Great Battery RoundUp". The Nature Conservancy. http://www.nature.org/wherewework/northamerica/states/newjersey/press/press1864.html. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
- ^ "New EPA Fuel Economy Ratings". GasSavers.org. November 17, 2006. http://www.gassavers.org/showthread.php?t=2209. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
- ^ "AAA: Steer Clear of “Fuel-Saving” Additives". Green Car Congress. May 26, 2006. http://www.greencarcongress.com/2006/05/aaa_steer_clear.html. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
- ^ "AAA 2010 Gas Watchers Guide". Einstein's Oilery. July 28, 2010. http://www.merchantcircle.com/blogs/Einsteins.Oilery.Meridian.ID.208-846-9188/2010/7/AAA-2010-Gas-Watchers-Guide/592371. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
- ^ Caruso, Lisa (Feb 1, 2010). "Is Obama Spending The High-Speed Rail Money Wisely?". National Journal - Expert Blogs: Transportation. http://transportation.nationaljournal.com/2010/02/is-obama-spending-the-highspee.php. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
- ^ "Free car care month event in Baltimore area features 40-point vehicle check, free windshield chip repair, Oct. 13". Greater Baltimore Committee. October 12, 2009. http://www.gbc.org/news/1339/. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
- ^ "AAA Chicago Urges Motorists to Prepare Cars for Winter; Offers Free Car Inspections at AAA Approved Auto Repair Facilities as Incentive". PR Newswire. September 29, 2004. http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-13520094_ITM. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
- ^ Carlic, Steve (2009-01-26). "Ecotourism focuses on appreciating nature". The Post-Standard. http://blog.syracuse.com/green/2009/01/ecotourism_focuses_on_apprecia.html. Retrieved 2010-10-06.
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- ^ "Green Travel on Vacation - with Style". Travel Sense. http://www.travelsense.org/tips/greentravel.cfm. Retrieved 2010-10-06.
- ^ Teaford, Jon C. (2002). The rise of the states: evolution of American state government. The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 9780801868894. http://books.google.com/?id=Oosq_O1vDwcC&pg=PA116&lpg=PA116&dq=CSAA+AND+%22save+the+redwoods%22#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2010-10-06.
- ^ "Focus on Quicksilver Champions" (Press release). Washington State Department of Ecology. April 2008. http://www.ecy.wa.gov/mercury/documents/QuicksilverChampions.pdf. Retrieved 2010-10-06.
- ^ "Ecology and partners divert 12,000 pounds of mercury from environment; Don’t toss that fluorescent bulb! Take it back!" (Press release). Washington State Department of Ecology. 2008-04-22. http://www.ecy.wa.gov/news/2008news/2008-101.html. Retrieved 2010-10-06.
- ^ Beatty, Eckhart (2006-11-09). "The TH Interview: Jenny Mack, Spokesperson for the California State Automobile Association". treehugger. http://www.treehugger.com/files/2006/11/the_th_intervie_20.php. Retrieved 2010-10-06.
- ^ "2025 Regional Transportation Plan for Southeast Michigan: "Putting Traffic Safety into the Planning Mix"" (Press release). Federal Highway Administration and Federal Transit Administration. 2004. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/planning/tpea/2004pisa.htm. Retrieved 2010-10-06.
- ^ Mlot, Stephanie (2010-04-21). "Traveling Through: Tree Planting - AAA recycles four million auto batteries, 90 million pounds of lead". The Frederick News-Post Online. http://www.fredericknewspost.com/sections/blogs/categories.htm?catid=2162&bid=57. Retrieved 2010-10-06.
- ^ "Weather Good for Oregon Coast Cleanup, but High Sand Covers Trash". Oregon Coast Beach Connection. 2007-09-15. http://www.fredericknewspost.com/sections/blogs/categories.htm?catid=2162&bid=57. Retrieved 2010-10-06.
- ^ Linton, April (1999-03-29). "SOUTHCENTRAL REGIONAL OZONE STAKEHOLDERS TO MEET FOR FIRST TIME" (Press release). Dept. of Environmental Protection Pennsylvania. http://www.fredericknewspost.com/sections/blogs/categories.htm?catid=2162&bid=57. Retrieved 2010-10-06.
- ^ Tweets and E-Alerts for the Commute. CommuteSmart News. March 2010. http://www.commutesmart.info/csnews/csn0310.pdf. Retrieved 2010-10-06.
- ^ a b Rivlin, Michael A. (Winter 2001). "The Secret Life of AAA". The Amicus Journal. http://www.transalt.org/files/newsroom/media/2001/010101amicus.html. Retrieved 2008-09-16.
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- ^ Silverstein, Ken (May 2002). "Smitten with a Club - Your AAA dues fuel pollution and sprawl". Harper's Magazine. http://www.betterworldclub.com/articles/Harpers2002may.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-16.
- ^ "AAA Calls for the EPA to Reject Petition to Increase Ethanol Content in Gasoline to 15 Percent". TheAutoChannel.com. July 22, 2009. http://www.theautochannel.com/news/2009/07/22/470887.html. Retrieved 2010-10-08.
- ^ Gough, Michael (May 10, 1999). "Clearing the Air on EPA’s New Emissions Proposal". Competitive Enterprise Institute. http://cei.org/studies-point/clearing-air-epa%E2%80%99s-new-emissions-proposal. Retrieved 2010-10-08.
- ^ Wald, Matthew L. (Nov. 9, 1994). "Gasoline Prices to Rise in Many Areas". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1994/11/09/us/gasoline-prices-to-rise-in-many-areas.html?scp=1&sq=%22clean-air%20rules%22%20AND%20%22American%20Automobile%20Association%22&st=cse. Retrieved 2010-10-08.
- ^ Peters, Eric (December 16, 1998). A Catalytic Con Job. Investor's Business Daily. http://www.junkscience.com/dec98/catcon.html. Retrieved 2010-10-08.
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