Cosplay (コスプレ kosupure?), short for "costume play",[1] is a type of performance art in which participants don costumes and accessories to represent a specific character or idea. Characters are often[2] drawn from popular fiction in Japan, but recent trends have included American cartoons and science fiction. Favorite sources include manga, anime, tokusatsu, comic books, graphic novels, video games, hentai and fantasy movies. Any entity from the real or virtual world that lends itself to dramatic interpretation may be taken up as a subject. Inanimate objects are given anthropomorphic forms and it is not unusual to see genders switched, with women playing male roles and vice versa. There is also a subset of cosplay culture centered around sex appeal, with cosplayers specifically choosing characters that are known for their attractiveness and/or revealing (even explicit) costumes.

Cosplayers often interact to create a subculture centred around role play. A broader use of the term cosplay applies to any costumed role play in venues apart from the stage, regardless of the cultural context.



The term cosplay is a portmanteau of the English words costume and play. The term was coined by Nobuyuki Takahashi of the Japanese studio Studio Hard while attending the 1984 Los Angeles Science Fiction Worldcon.[3] He was impressed by the hall and the costumed fans and reported on both in Japanese science fiction magazines. The coinage reflects a common Japanese method of abbreviation in which the first two moras of a pair of words are used to form an independent compound. Costume becomes kosu (コス), and play becomes pure (プレ).

History of Cosplay

From Costume Fandom: All Dressed Up with Some Place to Go! By Dr. John L. Flynn

"For almost 50 years, costume fandom has had a consistent and widespread following with costumers markedly influencing science fiction writers, artists and the media. Costuming, as an innovative, three-dimensional art form, has probed and broken all limits of imagination in SF and fantasy. From the first Worldcon in 1939 to last year's Worldcon in Philadelphia, costume fandom has emerged as a robust and dynamic force within science-fiction fandom. At the First World Science Fiction Convention in New York in 1939, a 22-year-old Forrest J Ackerman and his friend Myrtle R. Jones appeared in the first SF costumes among the 185 attendees. The future editor of Famous Monsters of Filmland was dressed as a rugged looking star pilot, and his female companion was adorned in a gown recreated from the classic 1933 film Things to Come. Both of them created quite a stir among the somber gathering of writers, artists and fen (plural of fan), and injected a fanciful, imaginary quality into the convention's overly serious nature. Frederik Pohl, in his book The Way The Future Was, described the couple as "stylishly dressed in the fashions of the 25th century" but feared that they had started an ominous precedent. He was right! So successful were their costumes that the following year, about a dozen fans turned out in their own "scientifiction" apparel. Now, over a half century later, costume fandom has come to represent a large segment of the hardcore genre audience. Artists like Kelly Freas, Wendy Pini and Tim Hildebrandt, authors like Julian May and L. Sprague de Camp, and fans by the hundreds dress regularly in costume. Groups, such as the U.K.‘s Knights of St. Fantomy, the Society for Creative Anachronism and the International Costumers' Guild, conduct business and ceremony in costume, and the masquerade has become the central event of most large conventions.[4]

Practice of Cosplay


An Australian Cosplayer cosplaying a Manga character

Cosplay costumes vary greatly and can range from simple outfits to highly detailed "mecha" suits. Cosplay is generally considered different from Halloween and Mardi Gras costume wear as the intention is to accurately replicate a specific character, rather than to reflect the culture and symbolism of a holiday event. As such, when in costume, cosplayers will often seek to adopt the affect, mannerisms and body language of the characters they portray (with OoC or, "Out Of Character" breaks). The characters chosen to be cosplayed may be sourced from any movie, tv series, book, comic book, videogame ,Visual-Kei rock bands, Anime or Manga, however the practice of cosplay is most often associated with replicating anime and manga characters.

Most cosplayers create their own outfits, referencing images of the characters in the process. In the creation of the outfits, much time is given to detail and quality, thus the skill of a cosplayer may be measured by how difficult the details of the outfit is and how well they have been replicated. Many cosplayers therefore consider cosplay to be a form of Art and so consider themselves Artists, some in the more specific subcatagory of Artisan Crafts. Because of the difficulty of some details and materials to replicate, cosplayers often educate themselves in crafting specialities such as Textiles, sculpture, face paint, fibreglasswork, fashion design, Woodworking and other such materials in the effort to render the look and texture of a costume accurately.[5] Almost all cosplayers wear wigs in conjuction to their outfit in order to further improve the resemblance to the character. This is especially necessary for anime and manga characters who often have unnaturally coloured and uniquely styled hair.

More simple outfits may be compensated for their lack of complexity by paying attention to material choice, and overall excellent quality. The process of creation may then be very long and time-consuming, making it a very personal journey and achievement for many. This taxing, and often expensive process is known to unite cosplayers and is considered a part of the culture of cosplay.

Cosplays may also be bought at either conventions, stores or more commonly, from online speciality stores or eBay. However people who have bought their outfits may be subject to criticise by those who have made their outfits. Some cosplayers may choose to custom make outfits by commission and thereby form an income from cosplay.


The cosplayer's purpose may generally be sorted into one of three categories, or a mix. Most cosplayers draw characteristics of all three categories.

The first is to express adoration for a character, or in feeling similar to a character in personality, seeking to become that character. This type of cosplayer may be associated with being a Fan (person) and is often labelled as an Otaku. Other characteristics may be an enthusiastic manner and less attention to detail and quality. Such cosplayers are also most likely to adopt the character's personality and are known to criticise other cosplayers for not having a full knowledge of their character, or not also adopting character mannerisms.

The second is those people who enjoy the attention that cosplaying a certain character brings. Within the cultures of anime and manga specifically, as well as science fiction and fantasy, there is a certain level of notoriety that is attached to cosplayers. Such cosplayers are usually characterised by attention to detail in their garments and their choice of popular characters. They are also noted by participation in cosplay competitions.

The third is those who enjoy the creative process, and the sense of personal achievement upon completion. Such people are more likely to have a greater budget dedicated to the project, more complicated and better quality outfits with access to more materials. They are also more likely to engage with professional photographers and cosplay photographers to take high quality images of the cosplayer in their garment posing as the character.


Cosplay may be presented in a number of ways and places.

Photography As mentioned above, some cosplayers choose to have a photographer take high quality images of the cosplayer in their garment posing as the character. This is most likely to take place in a setting relevant to the character's origin, such as churches, parks, forests, water features and abandoned/run-down sites. Such cosplayers are likely to exhibit their work online, on blogs or artist websites, such as They may also choose to sell such images, or print the images as postcards and give them as gifts. Because of the rising popularity of cosplay photography, some photographers may choose to work exclusively as a cosplay photographer.


The most popular form of presenting a cosplay is by wearing it to a convention. Conventions dedicated to anime, manga, comics, tv shows, video games, science fiction and fantasy may be found all around the world. The USA alone features nearly a hundred conventions across the country each year. The single largest event featuring cosplay is the semi-annual doujinshi market, Comiket. This event, held in Japan during summer and winter, attracts hundreds of thousands of manga fans. Thousands of cosplayers congregate on the roof of the exhibition centre. The largest event for cosplayers outside Asia is the annual San Diego Comic-Con. The biggest event in the UK is the London MCM Expo at ExCeL London See Main Article: Anime Conventions


As the popularity of cosplay has grown, many conventions have come to feature a contest surrounding cosplay that may be the main feature of the convention. Contestants present their cosplay, and often to be judged for an award, the cosplay must be self-made. The contestants may choose to perform a skit, which may consist of a short performed script or dance with optional accompanying audio, video and/or images shown on a screen overhead. Other contestants may simply choose to pose as their characters. Often contestants are briefly interviewed on stage by an MC. The audience is given a chance to take photos of the cosplayer(s) Cosplayers may compete solo or in a group. Award are presented, and these awards may vary greatly. Generally there will be a Best Cosplayer award, and Best Group award, with runner-up prizes as well. Awards may also go to the best skit, and a number of cosplay skill subcategories, such as Master Sewist, Master Weapon-Maker, Master Armourer, etc.

"tite" passes over Yamanote Line south of Harajuku Station, Tokyo, at the Meiji Shrine gate. It is a famous gathering place for cosplayers.


In Japan teenagers gather with like-minded friends in places like Tokyo's Harajuku district to engage in cosplay. Since 1998 Tokyo's Akihabara district has contained a large number of cosplay cafés, catering to devoted anime and cosplay fans. The waitresses at such cafés dress as game or anime characters; maid costumes are particularly popular.

Miscellaneous Events

Groups of cosplayers may choose to hold small gatherings, at any number of venues, including café's, parks, nightclubs and amusement parks. They may join to have an excuse to cosplay, to compare work, share tips or any other person reason.

Gender roles

An animegao or kigurumi cosplayer ("doller") in Taipei, Taiwan.

Portraying a character of the opposite sex is "crossplay." The practicality of crossplay and crossdress stems in part from the abundance in manga of male characters with delicate and somewhat androgynous features. Such characters, known as bishōnen (lit. "pretty boy"), are an Asian version of the elf in boy archetype represented in Western tradition by figures such as Peter Pan and Ariel.[6]

The animegao, or "dollers", represent a niche group in the realm of cosplay. Their approach makes them a subgroup of what is called in Japan kigurumi--that is, "mascot"-style role players. Dollers are often male cosplayers representing female characters. Female dollers are also found who represent male characters, especially male characters that lend themselves to the treatment, such as robots, space aliens and animals. Dollers wear bodysuits and masks that completely hide their real features so that the original appearance of their characters may be reproduced as literally as possible. Their costumes display all the abstractions and stylizations characteristic of the cartoon art, such as the oversized eyes and tiny mouths so often encountered in manga.

Cosplay in Japan

Cosplayers in Japan refer to themselves as reiyā (レイヤー?); pronounced "layer". Those who photograph players are called cameko, short for "Camera Kozō" or "Camera Boy". Originally the cameko give prints of their photos to players as gifts. Increased interest in cosplay events both on the part of photographers and cosplayers willing to model for them have led to formalisation of procedures at events such as Comiket. Photography takes place within a designated area removed from the exhibit hall.

Cosplay at fan events likely originated in Japan in 1978.[7] Cosplay nevertheless gets a mixed reception in Japan even today. Events in districts such as Akihabara draw many cosplayers, yet there is no shortage of people in Japan who regard cosplay as a frivolous endeavor.[8]

Cosplay in Western Culture

Canadian cosplayer Liana K as Power Girl.
Comic and anime conventions are a popular place for cosplay also in the Western world. This image is from Animecon 2009 in Helsinki.

The popularity of cosplay in Japan encourages the misconception that cosplay is specifically a Japanese or Asian hobby. The term "cosplay", though Japanese in origin, described a phenomenon which was witnessed in the United States. For almost fifty years, costuming has had a widespread following and continues to experience growing popularity in North America and Europe, and has more recently spread throughout South America and Australia.

Western cosplay's origins are based primarily on science fiction and historical fantasy as opposed to animation. It is more common for Western cosplayers to recreate characters from live-action series such as Star Trek, Star Wars, Doctor Who, The Lord of the Rings, and Harry Potter than it is for Japanese cosplayers. Similarly, animated series may be the origin for many recreations. Western costumers also include subcultures of hobbyists who participate in Renaissance faires or the Society for Creative Anachronism, and historical re-enactments such as Civil War battles.

The increasing popularity of Japanese animation outside of Asia during the late 1990s led to an increase in American and other Western cosplayers who portray Japanese characters. Anime conventions have become more numerous in the West in the last decade. They now compete with science fiction, comic, and historical conferences in attendance. At these gatherings, cosplayers, like their Japanese counterparts, meet to show off their work, take photos, and compete in costume contests. Anime conventions attendees are mostly seen dressed up as Japanese animated characters, but many others dress up as famous Western comic book characters, or as famous characters from movies like Star Wars, Predator, and Pirates of the Caribbean. It is quite common to see many dress up as Disney, Final Fantasy and other characters like the Heartless from the game series Kingdom Hearts (キングダム ハーツ Kingudamu Hātsu?).[9] Cosplayers also dress as popular characters from other games such as The Legend of Zelda, Mario Brothers, and Halo.

Differences in taste still exist across cultures. Some costumes that are worn without hesitation by Japanese cosplayers tend to be avoided by Western cosplayers, such as outfits that evoke Nazi-era uniforms.


The appearance of cosplayers at manga events makes such events a popular draw for photographers. As this became apparent in the late 1980s a new variant of cosplay developed in which cosplayers attended events mainly for the purpose of modeling their characters for still photography rather than engaging in continuous role play. Rules of etiquette were developed to minimize awkward situations involving boundaries. Cosplayers pose for photographers in designated areas removed from the exhibit hall. Photographers do not press them for personal contact information or private sessions, follow them out of the area or take photos of exhibits in the hall itself without permission. The rules allow the symbiotic relationship between photographers and cosplayers to continue with the least inconvenience to each.[7]

Recent cosplay events in Asia show an increase in the popularity of non-Asian fantasy and science fiction characters. This reflects the international success of films such as The Dark Knight, The Matrix, Star Wars and Lord of the Rings and their associated books.[citation needed]

Cosplay in Taiwanese Culture

  • Beginning–1990
Taiwan's first cosplays with the form similar to present day was started in 1990, but only temporarily and without specialization. Not many details were recorded due to the small number of participants.
  • 1991–1997
Most cosplayers started to make their costumes themselves, though professionals still lacked in this field.
During 1992–1993, the time was harsh, but it allowed them to make costumes by themselves, including accessories.
In 1994 to 1997, the environment of cosplay began to grow. There were almost several hundred cosplayers in Taiwan.
In 1997, the biennial doujin event started, and cosplay grew in popularity.
  • 1998–2005
Cosplay becomes more popular and well-known. Cosplayers' community rises sharply. Most of them start to go private to photo takings, other than public events. The Yam blog and Wretch blog for assembling people with the same interest rise abruptly. At the same time there is the launch of the discussion on the differences between several splendid attire culture such as cosplay dressing and various styles of lolita fashion.Since 2002, Fancy Frontier(FF) and Petit Fancy(PF) start to be held in National Taiwan University and Kaohsiung. Not only many young Taiwanese cosplayers, but many Japanese cosplayers join the biggest ACG(Animation, Comics, Games) festival in Taiwan nation.
  • 2006–present
A magazine introducing cosplay COSmania was first published in 2006 February. Cosplay becomes much more popular.

Cosplay in Chinese culture

As anime is becoming more popular in China, Chinese have started to become involved in cosplay, as the Japanese and the Western countries.

Hong Kong

The cosplay sphere in Hong Kong are separated as two sides, with one mainly including Chinese citizens (sometimes Japanese also included) and one mainly including non-Chinese citizens (such as Europeans and Americans). The ambiance between two sides are different at all, since the status of Chinese-citizen-mainly side has been turning.

  • 1990s
For local Chinese citizens, cosplay first showed up in a form similar to that of the present in Hong Kong in 1993, when a group of people rented a kiosk and one of them wore a costume on some animations to attract people passing by. Since 1997, more and more local events are held, such as Comic World HK.
  • 2000–present
After the 1990s, the multimedia started to keep an eye on cosplays. Most of the universities in Hong Kong also launched their own cosplay events, and the most popular one is the Cosplay Party by Hong Kong University. Nowadays there are almost 20 events held with cosplay sessions every year in Hong Kong.
With an aid of easy accessibility of multimedia and the Internet, cosplay has been being far more popular and familiar. The number of people taking part in cosplay has also increased sharply.
However, some of the conservative cosplayers think that, the standard and behaviour of the new-coming cosplayers with less experiences or morals are unacceptable, and consider those are interfering the conservatives' public image. Some of those conservatives began to do attack in speech, even creating violent rebellions or triad-society-like behaviors to approach their external political purposes. Moreover, someone created several biased words to describe for those who cosplay with the discrepancy between the appearance of the cosplayer and the character, and for those who cosplay without able to understand the character that he/she is impersonating, even unilaterally fabricating themselves-centred inflexible so-called definitions of cosplay to force all the people to obey it without condition.
This makes the conflict among some cosplayers, and threatens the harmonious and rational environment of Chinese-citizen-mainly side cosplay sphere in Hong Kong. Such the conditions have been criticized by other cosplayers, netizens and some citizens. Some of the Hong-Kong-resided cosplayers even change to participate the cosplay events in other cities, such as in Macau and Guangzhou.

Mainland China

Cosplayers in Beijing

The topics of cosplay in mainland China are mainly from Chinese classical issues and modern Japanese anime issues. Sometimes other exotic issues are also included. In 2002, the YACA animation organization was founded, and began a stage for cosplay. After on, there are some public cosplay events held every year in Guangzhou.

In 2009, at the 2nd China International Copyright Expo, a China Cosplay Competition was held in Beijing. There were initial internet video trials, then the finals were held at the expo.

In 2010, a few cosplay shows organized by internet media had been held in Beijing and two more in October, 2010.


  • Commercial events
    • Cosfest

The biggest cosplay convention in Singapore. It host the World Cosplay Singapore, and the Asia Cosplay Meet. It is held in Downtown East NTUC Club Resort

    • EOY (End-of-Year)

This event has been running officially since 2001. Prior to this, the initial organizer, the Miyuki Animation Club, used to hold informal cosplaying get-togethers at their home Community Club. The first EOY event was held at Suntec City in December 2001. Subsequent locations changed to the Singapore Expo when it was co organized by the Miyuki Animation Club and Singapore Cosplay Club. The event was take over by Shiro Tsubasa Animation Club later. In year 2009, Black Alice took over the event and it moves to the National Library at Victoria Street. In 2010 the event moves to Republic Polytechnic.

    • Anime Festival Asia

The first AFA was held at Suntec City in 2008, with Ichirou Mizuki and May'n as the invited guests. This event has grown to include Danny Choo, Alodia Gosiengfiao, JAM Project, Scandal and AKB48 as performing guests. Much cosplaying actually takes place outside the event venue, on the empty space on level 3.

    • Singapore Toy Game and Comic Convention
    • The Games Xpo
  • Events held in schools
    • SOY (Start-of-Year)

This event is organized by the Ngee Ann Polytechnic's Japanese Tsubasa Club, and held in their lecture halls.

Related phenomena

The Internet has enabled many cosplayers to create "social networks" and web sites centred around cosplay activities. Forums allow them to share stories, photographs, news and tips.

The exponential growth in the number of people picking up cosplay as a hobby since 1990 has made the phenomenon influential in popular culture. This is particularly the case in Asia where cosplay influences Japanese street fashion and popular culture. Businesses increasingly seek to cater to cosplayers' interest in apparel, accessories, and collectibles.[citation needed]


Japan is home to two especially popular cosplay magazines, Cosmode (コスモード) and Dengeki Layers (電撃Layers). Cosmode has the largest share in the market. An English digital version of Cosmode has been created.[10] Another magazine growing in popularity that is aimed at a broader, word-wide audience is CosplayGen:[11]

Film and television

MTV has produced an episode of the documentary series True Life, focusing on fandom and cosplay.[12]

A film titled "Cosplayers: The Movie" was released in 2009 by Martell Brothers Studios.[13] The film explores the anime subculture in North America with footage from anime conventions and interviews with fans, voice actors and artists. According to the creator's website the film is available for free viewing on both Youtube and Crunchyroll.[14]

According to, a new feature length documentary film will be released in late 2010 and will focus on the personal lives of a small band of cosplayers. As of Jan 2010, the film is casting in the Chicago area. The filmed is tentatively titled: Cosplay, Cosplay![15]

The documentary titled My Other Me: A Film About Cosplayers [2] chronicles a year in the life of three different cosplayers: a veteran cosplayer whom launched a career from cosplay, a young fourteen year old first timer, and a transgender whom found himself through cosplay. The documentary will cover everything from each different cosplayers home life, to their costume process, their journey through the convention circuit, and the profound effect cosplay is making on each of their lives as it grows with them.

"My Other Me" is expected to be released in 2012.


Cosplayers obtain their apparel through many different methods. Manufacturers produce and sell packaged outfits for use in cosplay, in a variety of qualities. These costumes are often sold online, but also can be purchased from dealers at conventions. There are also a number of individuals who work on commission, creating custom costumes, props or wigs designed and fitted to the individual; some social networking sites for cosplay have classified ad sections where such services are advertised.[16] Other cosplayers, who prefer to create their own costumes, still provide a market for individual elements, accessories, and various raw materials, such as unstyled wigs or extensions, hair dye, cloth and sewing notions, liquid latex body paint, face paint, shoes, costume jewellery and prop weapons. Most cosplayers engage in some combination of methods to obtain all the items necessary for their costume; for example they may commission a prop weapon, sew their own clothing, buy character jewelry from a cosplay accessory manufacturer, and buy a pair of off-the-rack shoes and modify them to match the desired look.

In order to look more like the character they are portraying many cosplayers also engage in various forms of body modification. Contact lenses that match the color of their character's eyes are a common form of this, especially in the case of characters with particularly unique eyes as part of their trademark look. Another form of body modification cosplayers engage in is to copy any tattoo or special marking that their character might have. Henna tattoos, permanent marker, body paint and in rare cases having a permanent tattoo done are all methods used by cosplayers to achieve the desired look. Permanent and temporary hair dye, spray-in colouring, and specialized extreme styling products are all utilized by some cosplayers whose natural hair can achieve the desired hairstyle.

In addition to making items specifically for use by cosplayers, the fashion industry has taken inspiration from the world of cosplay in popularising looks such as the Gothic Lolita, based on clothing worn by popular period characters.


Cosplay has influenced the Japanese advertising industry more than it has the commodity market.

Print media increasingly retain cosplayers as models. Good cosplayers are increasingly viewed as fictional characters in the flesh, in much the same way that film actors come to be identified in the public mind with specific roles. Cosplayers have modeled for print magazines like Cosmode, cosplay photography studios,

ADV Films has retained cosplayers for event work previously assigned to agency models. The ability of cosplayers to re-create their chosen characters with accuracy and vitality plays a part in this trend, as does the ability of cosplayers to appeal to an already existing market. E3 was occupied by a mix of both agency girls and cosplayers.

Japan's burgeoning anime industry has been home to the professional cosplayers since the rise of Comiket, Tokyo Game Show, and other such powerhouse conventions.

A cosplay model, also known as a Cosplay Idol, is a promotional model who models cosplay costumes for anime, manga, or video game companies. A successful cosplay model can become the brand ambassador for companies like Cospa. The phenomenon is most apparent in Japan but exists to some degree in other countries as well.

Notable cosplayers

  • Francesca Dani, an Italian cosplayer, net idol and model.
  • Daisuke Enomoto, a Japanese entrepreneur, was scheduled to be the fourth private citizen to be taken into space by Space Adventures in October 2006. He intended to dress for the ride wearing the Gundam costume of Char Aznable. He failed to pass physical examinations.[17]
  • Alodia Gosiengfiao, Filipina cosplayer and model. She was Animax's first Levi's Kawaii girl winner in the last episode of Mad Mad Fun. She ranked no. 87 in FHM Philippines 2009 poll of the Sexiest Women in the World and was named as one of Philippine's most influential women by UNO Magazine.
  • Liana Kerzner, Canadian co-hosts the talk show Ed's Night Party. Famous for her sexy character-based costumes, she is often a special guest at fan conventions across North America.[18]
  • Yuichiro "Jienotsu" Nagashima, Japanese kickboxer and martial artist. One of Japans top ranked Kickboxers, Yuichiro Nagashima makes all his entrances and publicity appearances for K-1 dressed as different female anime characters, accompanied by cosplaying girls.
  • Lee Teng-hui, the first popularly elected president of the Republic of China (Taiwan), dressed up as the fictional character Edajima Heihachi of the anime series Sakigake!! Otokojuku.[19]

See also


  1. ^ Stuever, Hank (2000-02-14). "What Would Godzilla Say?". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-01-03. 
  2. ^ Oxford Dictionaries Retrieved 2011-01-03
  3. ^ "Nobuyuki (Nov) Takahashi « YeinJee's Asian Blog: The Origin of the word cosplay". 2008-07-03. Retrieved 2011-10-03. 
  4. ^ "". Retrieved 2011-10-03. 
  5. ^ White, Sarah. "Cosplay Costumes at LoveToKnow Costumes". Retrieved 2011-10-03. 
  6. ^ Benesh-Liu, P. (2007, October). ANIME COSPLAY IN AMERICA. Ornament, 31(1), 44-49. Retrieved October 12, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.
  7. ^ a b Thorn, Matthew (2004) Girls And Women Getting Out Of Hand: The Pleasure And Politics Of Japan's Amateur Comics Community in Fanning the Flames: Fans and Consumer Culture in Contemporary Japan William W. Kelly, ed., State University of New York Press
  8. ^ Joel Bryan (2006-12-04). "Super-Gaijin '76: Now Let Us Praise Famous Cosplayers". Retrieved 2011-10-03. 
  9. ^ "Kingdom Hearts - Fan History Wiki: The Fandom History Resource". 2010-09-17. Retrieved 2011-10-03. 
  10. ^ "A Costume & Style Magazine for the Eccentric - About COSMODE". COSMODE Online. Retrieved 2011-10-03. 
  11. ^ "Cosplay Gen". Cosplay Gen. Retrieved 2011-10-03. 
  12. ^ "Anime Expo® and MTV Cast for True Life". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2011-10-03. 
  13. ^
  14. ^ [1][dead link]
  15. ^
  16. ^ "'s Marketplace". Retrieved 2011-10-03. 
  17. ^ Carey, Bjorn (2005-11-04). "MSNBC". MSNBC. Retrieved 2011-10-03. 
  18. ^ "Geek girls gone wild". Retrieved 2011-10-03. 
  19. ^ " Japan". 2004-11-17. Retrieved 2011-10-03. 

External links

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