Fantasy is a
genrethat uses magic and other supernaturalforms as a primary element of plot, theme, and/or setting. Fantasy is generally distinguished from science fictionand horror by the expectation that it steers clear of technological and macabrethemes, respectively, though there is a great deal of overlap between the three (collectively known as speculative fiction).
In its broadest sense, fantasy comprises works by many writers, artists, filmmakers, and musicians, from ancient myths and
legends to many recent works embraced by a wide audience today.
Traits of fantasy
The identifying traits of fantasy are the inclusion of fantastic elements in a self-coherent (internally
consistent) setting. [John Grant and John Clute, " The Encyclopedia of Fantasy", "Fantasy", p 338 ISBN 0-312-19869-8] Within such a structure, any location of the fantastical element is possible: it may be hidden in, or leak into the apparently real world setting, it may draw the characters into a world with such elements, or it may occur entirely in a fantasy worldsetting, where such elements are part of the world. [Jane Langton, "The Weak Place in the Cloth" p163-180, "Fantasists on Fantasy", ed. Robert H. Boyer and Kenneth J. Zahorski, ISBN 0-380-86553-X]
Within a given work, the elements must not only obey rules, [Brian Attebery, "The Fantasy Tradition in American Literature", p 143, ISBN 0-253-35665-2] Dubious|date=September 2008 but for plot reasons, must also contain limits to allow both the heroes and the villains means to fight; [Brian Attebery, "The Fantasy Tradition in American Literature", p 143, ISBN 0-253-35665-2] Dubious|date=September 2008 magical elements must come with prices, or the story would become unstructured. [Brian Attebery, "The Fantasy Tradition in American Literature", p 143, ISBN 0-253-35665-2]
American fantasy, starting with the stories chosen by
John W. Campbell, Jr.for the magazine Unknown, is often characterized by internal logic. That is, the events in the story are impossible, but follow "laws" of magic, and have a setting that is internally consistent. [Diana Waggoner, "The Hills of Faraway: A Guide to Fantasy", p 10, 0-689-10846-X]
Beginning perhaps with the "
Epic of Gilgamesh" and the earliest written documents known to humankind, mythic and other elements that would eventually come to define fantasy and its various subgenres have been a part of some of the grandest and most celebrated works of literature. From " The Odyssey" to " Beowulf", from the " Mahabharata" to " The Book of One Thousand and One Nights", from the " Ramayana" to the " Journey to the West", and from the Arthurian legend and medieval romance to the epic poetryof the " Divine Comedy", fantastical adventures featuring brave heroes and heroines, deadly monsters, and secret arcane realms have inspired many audiences. In this sense, the history of fantasy and the history of literature are inextricably intertwined.
There are many works where the boundary between fantasy and other works is not clear; the question of whether the writers believed in the possibilities of the marvels in "
A Midsummer Night's Dream" or " Sir Gawain and the Green Knight" makes it difficult to distinguish when fantasy, in its modern sense, first began. [Brian Attebery, "The Fantasy Tradition in American Literature", p 14, ISBN 0-253-35665-2]
Although pre-dated by
John Ruskin's " The King of the Golden River" (1841), the history of modern fantasy literature is usually said to begin with George MacDonald, the Scottish author of such novels as " The Princess and the Goblin" and " Phantastes" (1858), the latter of which is widely considered to be the first fantasy novel ever written for adults. MacDonald was a major influence on both J. R. R. Tolkienand C. S. Lewis. The other major fantasy author of this era was William Morris, a popular English poet who wrote several novels in the latter part of the century, including "The Well at the World's End".
Despite MacDonald's future influence with "At the Back of the North Wind" (1871), and Morris's popularity with his contemporaries, it wasn't until the turn of the century that fantasy fiction began to reach a large audience. Edward Plunkett, better known as
Lord Dunsany, established the genre's popularity in both the novel and the short story form. Many popular mainstream authors also began to write fantasy at this time, including H. Rider Haggard, Rudyard Kiplingand Edgar Rice Burroughs. These authors, along with Abraham Merritt, established what was known as the "lost world" sub-genre, which was the most popular form of fantasy in the early decades of the 20th century, although several classic children's fantasies, such as Peter Panand The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, were also published around this time.
juvenile fantasywas considered more acceptable than fantasy intended for adults, with the effect that writers who wished to write fantasy had to fit their work in a work for children. [C.S. Lewis, "On Juvenile Tastes", p 41, "Of Other Worlds: Essays and Stories", ISBN 0-15-667897-7] Nathaniel Hawthornewrote many early works verging on fantasy, but in " A Wonder-Book for Girls and Boys", intended for children, wrote fantasy. [Brian Attebery, The Fantasy Tradition in American Literature, p 62, ISBN 0-253-35665-2] For many years, this and successes such as "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" (1865), created the circular effect that all fantasy works, even the later "The Lord of the Rings", were therefore classified as children's literature.
In 1923 the first all-fantasy fiction magazine, "
Weird Tales", was created. Many other similar magazines eventually followed, most noticeably " The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction". The pulp magazine format was at the height of its popularity at this time and was instrumental in bringing fantasy fiction to a wide audience in both the U.S. and Britain. Such magazines were also instrumental in the rise of science fiction, and it was at this time the two genres began to be associated with each other.
By 1950 "
sword and sorcery" fiction had begun to find a wide audience, with the success of Robert E. Howard's Conan the Barbarianand Fritz Leiber's Fafhrd and the Gray Mouserstories. [ L. Sprague de Camp, " Literary Swordsmen and Sorcerers: The Makers of Heroic Fantasy", p 135 ISBN 0-87054-076-9] However, it was the advent of high fantasy, and most of all the popularity of J. R. R. Tolkien's " The Hobbit" and " The Lord of the Rings" in the late 1960s, that allowed fantasy to truly enter the mainstream.Jane Yolen, "Introduction" p vii-viii "After the King: Stories in Honor of J.R.R. Tolkien", ed, Martin H. Greenberg, ISBN 0-312-85175-8] Several other series, such as C. S. Lewis's " Chronicles of Narnia" and Ursula K. Le Guin's Earthseabooks, helped cement the genre's popularity.
The popularity of the fantasy genre has continued to increase in the 21st century, as evidenced by the best-selling status of
J. K. Rowling's Harry Potterbooks. Several fantasy film adaptations have achieved blockbuster status, most notably "The Lord of the Rings" film trilogy directed by Peter Jackson.
Criticism to fantasy includes it being called "second rate" literature;Fact|date=September 2008 but author
Terry Brooksrebutted this when he answered a question on his official website:
:"For more details on this topic, see"
fantasy art, fantasy literature, fantasy film, and fantasy television.Fantasy is a popular genre, having found a home for itself in almost every medium. While fantasy art and recently fantasy films have been increasingly popular, it is fantasy literature which has always been the genre's primary medium.
role-playing games cross several different media. The "pen & paper" role-playing game Dungeons & Dragonswas the first and is arguably the most successful and influential, and the science fantasyrole-playing game series Final Fantasyhas been an icon of the console RPG genre.
Modern fantasy, including early modern fantasy, has also spawned many new subgenres with no clear counterpart in mythology or folklore, although inspiration from mythology and folklore remains a consistent theme. Fantasy subgenres are numerous and diverse, frequently overlapping with other forms of speculative fiction in almost every medium in which they are produced. Noteworthy in this regard are the
science fantasyand dark fantasysubgenres, which the fantasy genre shares with science fiction and horror, respectively.
Professionals such as publishers, editors, authors, artists, and scholars within the fantasy genre get together yearly at the
World Fantasy Convention. The World Fantasy Awardsare presented at the convention. The first WFC was held in 1975, and it has occurred every year since. The convention is held at a different city each year.
Additionally, many science fiction conventions, such as Florida's FX Show or
MegaCon, also cater to fantasy and horror fans; and animeconventions, such as JACONor Anime Expofrequently feature showings of fantasy, science fantasy, and dark fantasy series and films, such as " Cardcaptor Sakura" (fantasy), " Sailor Moon" (science fantasy), " xxxHolic" (dark fantasy), and " Spirited Away" (fantasy). Many science fiction/fantasy and anime conventions also strongly feature or cater to one or more of the several subcultures within the main subcultures, including the cosplaysubculture (in which people make and/or wear costumes based on existing or self-created characters, sometimes also acting out skits or plays as well), the fan fictionsubculture, and the fan vid or AMV subculture, as well as the large internet subculture devoted to reading and writing prose fiction and/or doujinshiin or related to those genres.
List of fantasy authors
List of fantasy worlds
List of fantasy novels
List of high fantasy fiction
* Internet Speculative Fiction Database
Themes in Fantasy
* [http://www.sffworld.com SFFWorld] - Interviews, reviews and forums
* [http://www.awardannals.com/wiki/Honor_roll:Fantasy_books Most Honored Fantasy Books] at the Book Award Annals
* The [http://gutenberg.net.au/sfproject.html SF Page] at [http://gutenberg.net.au Project Gutenberg of Australia]
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