- Japanese Canadians
Japanese Canadians Total population 98,900 Regions with significant populations British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, Quebec Languages Religion Related ethnic groups
Japanese Canadians are Canadians of Japanese ancestry, and are mostly concentrated on the west coast, and central Canada, especially in and around Vancouver and Toronto. In 2006, there were 98,900 (about 62,430 of whom are of mixed heritage).
The term Nikkei (日系) was coined by sociologists and encompasses all of the world's Japanese immigrants across generations. Japanese-Canadians (and Japanese-Americans) have special names for each of their generations in North America. These are formed by combining one of the Japanese numbers with the Japanese word for generation (sei 世):
- Issei (一世) - The first generation of immigrants, born in Japan before moving to Canada.
- Nisei (二世) - The second generation, born in Canada to Issei parents not born in Canada.
- Sansei (三世) - The third generation, born in Canada to Nisei parents born in Canada.
- Yonsei (四世) - The fourth generation, born in Canada to Sansei parents born in Canada.
- Gosei (五世) - The fifth generation, born in Canada to Yonsei parents born in Canada.
The first Japanese settler in Canada was Manzo Nagano, who lived in Victoria, British Columbia (a mountain in the province was named after him in 1977). The first generation, or Issei, mostly came to Vancouver Island and Fraser Valley from fishing villages on the islands of Kyūshū and Honshū between 1877 and 1928. Since 1967, the second wave of immigrants were usually highly educated and resided in urban areas.
Until the late 1940s, Japanese Canadians—both Issei and Canadian-born Nisei — were denied the right to vote. Those born in the 1950s and 1960s in Canada are mostly Sansei, third generation. Sansei who mostly have little knowledge of the Japanese language. Over 75% of the Sansei have married non-Japanese. Nisei and Sansei generally do not identify themselves as fully Japanese, but as Canadians first, who happen to be of Japanese ancestry.
The younger generation of Japanese Canadians born in the late 20th century are mostly Yonsei, fourth generation. Many Yonsei are of mixed racial descent. According to Statistics Canada's 2001 census of population information, Japanese Canadians were the Canadian visible minority group most likely to marry or live common-law with a non-Japanese partner. Out of the 25,100 couples in Canada in 2001 which had one Japanese person, only 30% had two partners of Japanese descent and 70% included one non-Japanese partner. As of 2001, 65% of Canada's Japanese population was born in Canada.
After the Pearl Harbor attack by Japan (Second World War), in 1942, Japanese Canadians were interned by the federal government as security threats by evoking the War Measures Act. 20,881 were placed in detention camps and relocation centres. 75% of them were Canadian citizens. A parallel situation occurred in the United States. (See Japanese American internment.)
After the war, the property and homes of Japanese Canadians living in province of British Columbia was seized and they were told by the federal government to either move to another province "East of the Rockies" or to go back to Japan.
In the late 1970s and 1980s, documents on the Japanese Canadian internment were released, and redress was sought. In 1986, it was shown that Japanese Canadians lost $443 million during the internment. 63% of Canadians supported redress and 45% favoured individual compensation. On September 22, 1988, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney provided $21,000 for each individual directly affected, that is, by 1993, almost 18,000 survivors. However, perhaps more importantly, was the Prime Minister's formal apology in the House of Commons and the certificate of acknowledgment of injustices of the past, which was sent to each Japanese Canadian who was displaced.
Prominent Canadians of Japanese ancestry
- Masami Tsuruoka, martial artist, "Founder of Karate in Canada"
- Ken Adachi, author, The Enemy That Never Was: A History of the Japanese Canadians
- Mio Adilman, radio and television personality, actor
- Nobu Adilman, television personality, actor
- Dennis Akayama, actor
- David Akutagawa, martial artist
- Tracey Asano, surgeon/medical researcher
- Brooke Berry, model
- Jeff Chiba Stearns, animated filmmaker
- John Endo Greenaway, taiko drummer, founder of Uzume Taiko
- Randy Enomoto, writer, past president, National Association of Japanese Canadians
- Denise Fujiwara, dancer/choreographer
- Hiromi Goto, author
- Arthur S. Hara, business leader,Officer and Companion, Order of Canada.
- S.I. Hayakawa, Canadian-American linguist, academic and U.S. Senator
- Jay Hirabayashi, member of the butoh dance troupe Kokoro Dance
- Mary Ito, journalist
- Robert Ito, actor
- Hiro Kanagawa, actor
- Martin Kariya, hockey player
- Paul Kariya, NHL star player
- Steve Kariya, hockey player
- Sarah Kawahara, figure skater and choreographer
- Yukiko Kimura, former newscaster
- Andrew Kishino, voice actor
- Muriel Kitagawa, writer
- Roy Kiyooka, artist, Member Order of Canada
- Ron Korb, Musician, Composer
- Tsuneko Kokubo, painter/textile artist/designer
- Audrey Kobayashi, scholar/activist, Queen's University
- Joy Kogawa, novelist and poet
- James J. Koyanagi, architect
- Catherine Manoukian, violinist
- Jon Matsumoto, ice hockey player
- Nina Matsumoto, comics artist
- Kirsten McAllister, scholar, Simon Fraser University
- Nobu McCarthy, actress
- Glenn Michibata, tennis player
- Art Miki, National Association of Japanese Canadians leader
- Roy Miki, professor emeritus, Simon Fraser University and poet, Order of Canada
- Masajiro Miyazaki, osteopath/coroner and community activist; Companion of the Order of Canada.
- Kenzo Mori, editor of New Canadian
- Frank Moritsugu, journalist
- Raymond Moriyama, architect
- Issey Nakajima-Farran, Canadian national soccer team player
- Paris Nakajima-Farran, footballer
- Kazuo Nakamura, painter
- Bev Oda, first Japanese-Canadian MP and cabinet minister in Canadian history
- Kevan Ohtsji, actor
- Midi Onodera, filmmaker
- Ruth Ozeki, novelist, filmmaker
- George Nozuka, musician
- Justin Nozuka, singer
- Kristy Odamura, softball player
- Linda Ohama, director (Obaachan's Garden)
- Natsuko Ohama, actress
- Santa J. Ono, biologist
- Maria Ozawa, pornographic actress (Japanese mother, Quebecois father)
- Jon Kimura Parker, Classical pianist and recording artist
- Kerri Sakamoto, novelist
- Raymond Sawada, hockey player
- Yoshio Senda, judoka, former Canadian Olympic Judo Team Coach, first in North America to attain Level 9 Black Belt, Order of Canada. Died September 9, 2009.
- Devin Setoguchi, NHL First Liner
- Tetsuro Shigematsu, radio host
- Aki Shimazaki, novelist
- Henry J. Shimizu, one of the first Japanese Canadians to practise medicine in Canada, teacher and researcher at University of Alberta, Order of Canada.
- Rick Shiomi, playwright
- Thomas Kunito Shoyama, economist
- Jamie Storr, ice hockey player
- Vicky Sunohara, Olympic gold medalist in women's hockey
- David Suzuki, biologist, environmentalist, host of CBC's The Nature of Things
- Severn Suzuki, environmentalist, activist. Daughter of David Suzuki.
- Toyo Takata, author Nikkei Legacy
- Mas Takahashi, judoka
- Mutsumi Takahashi, news anchor
- Shizuye Takashima, artist, author, Child in a Prison Camp
- Norman Takeuchi, painter
- Takao Tanabe, artist
- Miyuki Tanobe, artist
- David Tsubouchi, former Ontario MPP and cabinet minister.
- Takumi Tsumura, judoka
- Irene Ayako Uchida, scientist
- Juhn Atsushi Wada, neuroscientist, Professor, University of British Columbia, Officer of the Order of Canada
- Tamio Wakayama, photographer
- Peter Wakayama, architect
- Arthur Wakabayashi, Chancellor of University of Regina
- Terry Watada, novelist, poet, playwright, historian
- Michelle Sagara West, author
- Naomi Yamamoto, politician
- Keith Yamauchi, Justice on the Alberta Court of Queen's Bench
- Brian Yasui, news anchor
- Christine Yoshikawa, classical pianist and recording artist
- Kimiko Zakreski, Olympics snowboarder
- ^ a b "Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories - 20% sample data". Statistics Canada. 4 February 2008. http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/data/highlights/ethnic/pages/Page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo=PR&Code=48&Table=2&Data=Count&StartRec=1&Sort=3&Display=All. [dead link]
- ^ Order of Canada citation
- ^ Commonwealth and Foreign Awards, Masajiro Miayazaki, records reference, National Archives of Canada.
- ^ Cordileone, Elvira. "Kenzo Mori: An impact on two shores," The Star (Toronto). January 22, 2007.
- ^ Miller Thompson: David Tsubouchi
- Multicultural Canada website images in the BC Multicultural Photograph Collection and digitized issues of The New Canadian (Japanese-Canadian newspaper) and Tairiku Jiho (The Continental Times)
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