- Autonomous okrugs of Russia
Autonomous okrug (district, area, region) is a type of federal subject of Russia and simultaneously a type of administrative division of some federal subjects. As of 2008, the Russian Federation is divided into 83 federal subjects, of which four are avtonomnyye okruga ("autonomous districts", sing. avtonomny okrug).
Originally called national okrugs, this type of administrative unit was created in the 1920s and widely implemented in 1930 to provide autonomy to indigenous peoples of the North. In 1977, the 1977 Soviet Constitution changed the term "national okrugs" to "autonomous okrugs" in order to emphasize that they were indeed autonomies and not simply another type of administrative and territorial division. While the 1977 Constitution stipulated that the autonomous okrugs are subordinated to the oblasts and krais, this clause was revised on December 15, 1990, when it was specified that autonomous okrugs are subordinated directly to the Russian SFSR, although they still may stay in jurisdiction of a krai or an oblast to which they were subordinated before.
As of 1990, ten autonomous okrugs existed within the RSFSR. Their current status (as of August 2008) within the Russian Federation is given in parentheses for autonomous okrugs which had a change in status:
- Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug (now Agin-Buryat Okrug of Zabaykalsky Krai)
- Chukotka Autonomous Okrug within Magadan Oblast (no longer subordinated to Magadan Oblast)
- Evenk Autonomous Okrug within Krasnoyarsk Krai (now Evenkiysky District of Krasnoyarsk Krai)
- Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug within Tyumen Oblast
- Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug (now Komi-Permyak Okrug of Perm Krai)
- Koryak Autonomous Okrug within Kamchatka Oblast (now Koryak Okrug of Kamchatka Krai)
- Nenets Autonomous Okrug within Arkhangelsk Oblast
- Taymyr Autonomous Okrug within Krasnoyarsk Krai (now Taymyrsky Dolgano-Nenetsky District of Krasnoyarsk Krai)
- Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug within Irkutsk Oblast (now Ust-Orda Buryat Okrug of Irkutsk Oblast)
- Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug within Tyumen Oblast
- Autonomous republics of the Soviet Union
- Autonomous oblasts of the Soviet Union
- Federal subjects of Russia
- Republics of Russia
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.