Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug

Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug
Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug
Ханты-Мансийский автономный округ — Югра (Russian)
—  Autonomous okrug  —

Flag

Coat of arms
Coordinates: 62°15′N 70°10′E / 62.25°N 70.167°E / 62.25; 70.167Coordinates: 62°15′N 70°10′E / 62.25°N 70.167°E / 62.25; 70.167
Political status
Country Russia
Federal district Urals[1]
Economic region West Siberian[2]
Established December 10, 1930
Administrative center Khanty-Mansiysk
Government (as of March 2011)
 - Governor Natalya Komarova[3]
 - Legislature Duma
Statistics
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[4]
 - Total 534,800 km2 (206,487.4 sq mi)
Area rank 9th
Population (2010 Census)[5]
 - Total 1,531,973
 - Rank 29th
 - Density 2.86 /km2 (7.4 /sq mi)
 - Urban 91.5%
 - Rural 8.5%
Population (2002 Census)[6]
 - Total 1,519,962
 - Rank 36th
 - Density 2.84 /km2 (7.4 /sq mi)
 - Urban 90.9%
 - Rural 9.1%
Time zone(s) [7]
ISO 3166-2 RU-KHM
License plates 86
Official languages Russian[8]
http://www.admhmao.ru/

Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug (Russian: Ха́нты-Манси́йский автоно́мный о́круг — Югра́, Khanty-Mansiysky avtonomny okrug – Yugra), also known as Yugra, is a federal subject of Russia (an autonomous okrug of Tyumen Oblast). Population: 1,531,973 (2010 Census preliminary results).[5]

The people native to the region are the Khanty and the Mansi, known collectively as Ob Ugric people. The local languages, Khanty language and Mansi language enjoy special status in the autonomous okrug, while Russian remains the only official language.

The majority of the oil produced in Russia comes from Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug, giving the region great economic importance.

Contents

History

The territory's historical name was Yurga. The first written mention of the people inhabiting the "northern lands" was recorded in the Tale of Bygone Years in 1096. The chronicle tells of an unknown people called the Yurga (Ostyaks or Khanty) and Voguls (Mansi) encountered by Russian explorers. The narrative also makes the first mention of the Yurga's neighbors, the Samoyad (Nenets). Chronicles of the 12th and 13th century record frequent expeditions of Novgorodians to Yurga to collect tribute in sable, ermine, Arctic fox, and squirrel furs. There was an inexhaustible demand for luxury furs in Russia.[9]

Siberia was finally annexed to the Muscovite state after Ermak Timofeevich's legendary campaign. After defeating Khan Kuchum in fall 1582 and occupying Isker, the capital of the Siberian Khanate, Ermak sent a small Cossack detachment down the Irtysh in winter 1583. The detachment led by Bogdan Bryazga (according to other information, Cossack chieftain Nikita Pan) passed through the lands of the Konda-Pelym Voguls and reached the "walls" of the town of Samarovo. Taken by surprise by the Cossack attack, the Ostyaks surrendered. Samar, prince of the Belgorod Princedom was also killed.[10]

In fall 1585, shortly after Ermak's death, Cossacks led by voevoda (army commander) Ivan Mansurov founded the first Russian fortified town, Obskoi, at the mouth of the Irtysh on the right bank of the Ob. The Mansi and Khanty lands thus became part of the Russian state, which was finally secured by the founding of the cities of Pelym and Berezov in 1592 and Surgut in 1594.

The towns that arose on the Northern Ob became trading centers. Special staging posts for changing horses (yamy) appeared on the busiest trade routes. Two of these posts, Demyansky and Samarovsky (now Khanty-Mansiysk), were built in 1637.

In 1708, Peter the Great issued a decree founding the province of Siberia (which included the cities of Berezov and Surgut) with the aim of establishing the new regime and developing the economy of the resource-rich territory. In 1775, Catherine the Great issued a decree establishing Tobolsk Province.[11]

The territory gained notoriety as a place of exile for prisoners of State. Prince Dmitry Romodanovsky served his sentence in Berezovsky District; Count Andrei Osterman was exiled here in 1742; and the large family of the princes Dolgorukov, in 1798. Prince Menshikov and his daughter Mariya are buried in these lands where they were exiled. Decembrists were exiled here after the Decembrist uprising in Senate Square (St. Petersburg).

The people of the north carried out administrative and judicial functions on the basis of Speransky's charter "On the Administration of Non-Russians in Siberia" confirmed in 1822.

The okrug was established on December 10, 1930, as Ostyak–Vogul National Okrug (Остя́ко-Вогу́льский национа́льный о́круг). In October 1940, it was renamed Khanty–Mansi National Okrug. In 1977, along with other national okrugs of the Russian SFSR, it became an autonomous okrug (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug). The administrative center is Khanty-Mansiysk. In 2003, the word "Yugra" was appended to the official name.

Geography

Principal rivers are the Ob and its tributary the Irtysh.

Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug is traversed by the northeasterly line of equal latitude and longitude.

Administrative divisions

Demographics

Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug has an area of 523,100 km², but the area is sparsely populated with a total population of 1,531,973 according to the preliminary results of the 2010 Census,[5] which is up from 1,432,817 recorded in the 2002 Census.[6] The administrative center is Khanty-Mansiysk, but the largest cities are Surgut, Nizhnevartovsk, and Nefteyugansk.

The indigenous population (Khanty, Mansi, and Nenets) is only 2% of the total population. The exploitation of natural gas in Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug has attracted immigrants from all over the former Soviet Union. The 2002 Census counted twenty-five ethnic groups of more than two thousand persons each. The national composition:

Population of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug[12]
Russian 66.05% Mansi 0.69%
Ukrainian 8.60% Kumyk 0.67%
Tatar 7.50% Lezgin 0.60%
Bashkir 2.50% German 0.58%
Azeri 1.75% Mari 0.51%
Belarusians 1.43% Chechen 0.48%
Khanty 1.20% Armenian 0.45%
Chuvash 1.07% Other 5.16%
Moldovan 0.76%

Historical population figures are shown below:

census 1939 census 1959 census 1970 census 1979 census 1989 census 2002
Khanty 12,238 (13.1%) 11,435 (9.2%) 12,222 (4.5%) 11,219 (2.0%) 11,892 (0.9%) 17,128 (1.2%)
Mansi 5,768 (6.2%) 5,644 (4.6%) 6,684 (2.5%) 6,156 (1.1%) 6,562 (0.5%) 9,894 (0.7%)
Nenets 852 (0.9%) 815 (0.7%) 940 (0.3%) 1,003 (0.2%) 1,144 (0.1%) 1,290 (0.1%)
Komi 2,436 (2.6%) 2,803 (2.3%) 3,150 (1.2%) 3,105 (0.5%) 3,000 (0.2%) 3,081 (0.2%)
Russians 67,616 (72.5%) 89,813 (72.5%) 208,500 (76.9%) 423,792 (74.3%) 850,297 (66.3%) 946,590 (66.1%)
Ukrainians 1,111 (1.2%) 4,363 (3.5%) 9,986 (3.7%) 45,484 (8.0%) 148,317 (11.6%) 123,238 (8.6%)
Tatars 2,227 (2.4%) 2,938 (2.4%) 14,046 (5.2%) 36,898 (6.5%) 97,689 (7.6%) 107,637 (7.5%)
Others 1,026 (1.1%) 6,115 (4.9%) 15,629 (5.8%) 43,106 (7.6%) 163,495 (12.7%) 223,959 (15.6%)
  • Vital statistics
Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service
Births Deaths Birth rate Death rate
1970 5,959 2,025 21.2 7.2
1975 9,450 2,572 22.8 6.2
1980 13,901 4,116 21.4 6.3
1985 25,130 4,863 24.1 4.7
1990 21,812 5,354 17.1 4.2
1991 19,060 5,884 14.9 4.6
1992 15,849 7,132 12.5 5.6
1993 14,531 9,401 11.4 7.4
1994 15,120 9,937 11.8 7.7
1995 14,418 10,041 11.1 7.7
1996 14,469 9,508 11.0 7.3
1997 14,640 8,497 11.0 6.4
1998 15,600 8,164 11.5 6.0
1999 14,728 8,476 10.8 6.2
2000 15,579 9,426 11.4 6.9
2001 17,130 9,863 12.3 7.1
2002 19,051 9,829 13.4 6.9
2003 19,883 10,000 13.7 6.9
2004 20,377 9,828 13.9 6.7
2005 19,958 10,415 13.5 7.1
2006 20,366 10,077 13.7 6.8
2007 21,887 10,093 14.6 6.7
2008 23,197 10,215 15.3 6.8

Religion

A majority of the population is Orthodox Christian, while a significant minority (about 17%) of the population follows Islam.

Transport

In the Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug – Yugra, primary transport of goods accounted for water and railway transport, 29% is transported by road, and 2% aviation. The total length of railway tracks 1106 km. The length of roads, more than 18000.

References

  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000).
  2. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ Official website of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug. Natalya Vladimirovna Komarova, Governor of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug (Russian)
  4. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://perepis2002.ru/ct/html/TOM_01_03.htm. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  5. ^ a b c Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2011). "Предварительные итоги Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года (Preliminary results of the 2010 All-Russian Population Census)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2010). Federal State Statistics Service. http://www.perepis-2010.ru/results_of_the_census/results-inform.php. Retrieved 2011-04-25. 
  6. ^ a b Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/doc/1_TOM_01_04.xls. Retrieved 2010-03-23. 
  7. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication).
  8. ^ Official the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  9. ^ Khanty-Mansi_Autonomous_Area
  10. ^ Khanty-Mansi_Autonomous_Area
  11. ^ Khanty-Mansi_Autonomous_Area
  12. ^ (XLS) National Composition of Population for Regions of the Russian Federation. 2002 Russian All-Population Census. 2002. http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/doc/English/4-2.xls. Retrieved 2006-07-20. 

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