Temporal bone

Temporal bone
Bone: Temporal bone
Illu cranial bones2.jpg
Cranial bones
Illu facial bones.jpg
Facial bones.
Latin os temporale
Gray's subject #34 138
Articulations occipital, parietal, sphenoid, mandible and zygomatic  

The temporal bones are situated at the sides and base of the skull, and lateral to the temporal lobes of the cerebrum.

The temporal bone supports that part of the face known as the temple.



The temporal bone consists of four parts:


The structure of the squama is like that of the other cranial bones: the mastoid portion is spongy, and the petrous portion dense and hard.

Additional images

In other animals

In evolutionary terms, the temporal bone is derived from the fusion of many bones that are often separate in non-human mammals:

  • The squamosal bone, which is homologous with the squama, and forms the side of the cranium in many bony fish and tetrapods. Primitively, it is a flattened plate-like bone, but in many animals it is narrower in form, for example, where it forms the boundary between the two temporal fenestrae of diapsid reptiles.[1]
  • The petrous and mastoid parts of the temporal bone, which derive from the periotic bone, formed from the fusion of a number of bones surrounding the ear of reptiles. The delicate structure of the middle ear, unique to mammals, is generally not protected in marsupials, but in placentals, it is usually enclosed within a bony sheath called the auditory bulla. In many mammals this includes a separate femer bone derived from the angular bone of the reptilian lower jaw, and, in some cases, an additional entotympanic bone. The auditory bulla is homologous with the tympanic part of the temporal bone.[1]
  • Two parts of the hyoid arch: the styloid process. In the dog the styloid process is represented by a series of 4 articulating bones, from top down tympanohyal, stylohyal, epihyal, ceratohyal; the first two represent the styloid process, and the ceratohyal represents the anterior horns of the hyoid bone and articulates with the basihyal which represents the body of the hyoid bone.

See also

External links


  1. ^ a b Romer, Alfred Sherwood (1977). The Vertebrate Body. Colorado, PA: Holt-Saunders International. pp. XXX. ISBN 0-03-910284-X. 

This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Temporal bone — Temporal Tem po*ral, a. [L. temporalis, fr. tempora the temples: cf. F. temporal. See {Temple} a part of the head.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the temple or temples; as, the temporal bone; a temporal artery. [1913 Webster] {Temporal bone}, a… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • temporal bone — n. either of a pair of compound bones forming the sides of the skull: see SKULL …   English World dictionary

  • Temporal bone — A large irregular bone situated at the base and side of the skull. The temporal bone consists of three parts (squamous, tympanic and petrous) which are distinct at birth but then fuse. The petrous part of the temporal bone contains the… …   Medical dictionary

  • temporal bone — noun a thick bone forming the side of the human cranium and encasing the inner ear • Syn: ↑os temporale • Hypernyms: ↑bone, ↑os • Part Holonyms: ↑cranium, ↑braincase, ↑brainpan …   Useful english dictionary

  • temporal bone — noun Date: 1771 a compound bone of the side of the skull of some mammals including humans …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • temporal bone — tem′poral bone n. anat. zool. either of a pair of compound bones forming the sides of the primate skull • Etymology: 1765–75 …   From formal English to slang

  • Mastoid part of the temporal bone — Bone: Mastoid portion of the temporal bone Side view of head, showing surface relations of bones …   Wikipedia

  • temporal bone — Anat., Zool. either of a pair of thick compound bones forming the part of the skull that encases the inner ear. See diag. under skull. [1765 75] * * * …   Universalium

  • temporal bone — noun Either of two compound bones that collectively make up the sides and base of the skull …   Wiktionary

  • temporal bone — n. (Anatomy) either of the pair of bones that form part of the side of the skull …   English contemporary dictionary

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