Culture of Milan

Culture of Milan
The Duomo di Milano (Milan Cathedral) is perhaps the most iconic of all Milanese cultural landmarks.
The Kiss, a famous painting from the Romantic period by Francesco Hayez found in the Pinacoteca di Brera, one of the city's most prestigious and famous art galleries.

The Culture of Milan regards art, fashion, design, literature, theatre, music and cuisine in the Italian city of Milan. The city remains one of Italy and Europe's leading cultural centres, which all contribute to Milan's status as a major alpha city. Milan today is well known for being one of the world's most important capitals of fashion and design, for hosting two internationally acclaimed football teams (AC Milan and Internazionale) and for its unique and diverse cultural heritage.

Milan today is an international city, with numerous museums and cultural icons. Such include the Duomo di Milano (Milan Cathedral), the Castello Sforzesco, the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II and the Teatro alla Scala, to name but a few. The city has been home to numerous renowned people in history, such as Giuseppe Verdi, Mario Prada, Caravaggio, Enzo Biagi and Bramante.

Contents

Politics

Municipal Administration

The nine districts of Milan

Of nine boroughs into which Milan is divided, eight are governed by centre-right coalition (1-8) and one by centre-left coalition (9).

Administrative divisions

The city of Milan is subdivided into administrative areas, called Zona. Before 1999, the city had 21 zona; in 1999 the administration decided to reduce the number of zona from 21 to 9. Today, Zona 1 is in the "historic centre", within the perimeter of the Spanish-era city walls; the other eight cover the areas from the Zona 1 borders to the city limits.

The following table reports statistics for every Zona; the total population is higher than the official city population because it includes foreign born immigrants with permits in its count.


Arial Unicode MS, Lucida Sans Unicode, Lucida Grande, TITUS Cyberit Basic, Code2000, MV Boli, @MS Mincho;">

Zona Area
(km²)
Population
(31 December 2006)
Density
(inhab/km²)
Subdivisions
Zona 1 Centro Storico 9.67 107,087 11,074 Centro Storico, Piazza del Duomo, Porta Tenaglia, Porta Sempione / Arco della Pace, Chinatown, Giardini Pubblici, piazza della Repubblica, largo della Crocetta, via della Guastalla, Basilica di Sant'Ambrogio, San Vittore, Parco delle Basiliche, Carrobbio
Zona 2 Stazione Centrale, Gorla, Turro, Precotto, Greco, Crescenzago 12.58 163,932 13,031 Porta Nuova, Centrale, Ponte Seveso, Loreto, Maggiolina, Villaggio dei Giornalisti, Greco, Gorla, Turro, Precotto, Padova, Crescenzago, Adriano, Breda, Cassina di Pomm
Zona 3 Porta Venezia, Città Studi, Lambrate 14.23 153,470 10,785 Porta Venezia, Porta Monforte, Città Studi, Lambrate, Parco Lambro, Ortica, Quartiere Feltre, Casoretto, via Corelli, Rottole, Cimiano, via Carnia, Naviglio della Martesana
Zona 4 Porta Vittoria, Porta Romana, Forlanini, Monlué, Rogoredo 20.95 169,051 8,069 Porta Vittoria, Porta Romana, piazzale Libia, Cavriano, Calvairate, Monluè, Taliedo, La Trecca, Porto, Gamboloita, Nosedo, piazzale Corvetto, Rogoredo, Santa Giulia, Morsenchio, Forlanini, viale Omero, San Luigi, Ponte Lambro
Zona 5 Porta Ticinese, Porta Lodovica, Vigentino, Chiaravalle, Gratosoglio 29.87 134,016 4,487 Porta Ticinese, Porta Lodovica, Vigentino, Chiaravalle, Gratosoglio, Porta Vigentina, Conchetta, parco Ravizza, piazza Ohm, via Ripamonti, Vigentino, viale Ortles, via Quaranta, Morivione, via Spaventa, Quartiere Stadera, Quartiere Torretta, via Meda, Conca Fallata, Vaiano Valle, Selvanesco, Casenuove, Macconago, Quintosole, Ronchetto delle Rane, Chiesa Rossa, Naviglio Pavese, Vettabbia, corso San Gottardo
Zona 6 Barona, Giambellino, Lorenteggio, Porta Genova 18.28 164,487 8,998 Porta Genova, Darsena, via Magolfa, via Solari, San Cristoforo, Moncucco, Lorenteggio, via Giambellino, Restocco Maroni, Ronchetto sul Naviglio, Boffalora, Cascina Bianca, Cascina Cantalupa, via Bisceglie, via Inganni, piazza Frattini, Naviglio Grande, Barona, via Santa Rita, viale Legioni Romane, via Foppa
Zona 7 Porta Vercellina, Baggio, San Siro, Forze Armate 31.34 190,969 6,093 Porta Vercellina, Baggio, San Siro, via delle Forze Armate, Porta Vercellina, piazzale Aquileia, piazza Piemonte, via Washington, via Marghera, piazzale Brescia, piazzale Siena, via Saint Bon, Ospedale San Carlo, via Valsesia, Quinto Romano, Quarto Cagnino, piazzale Selinunte, Figino, Assiano, Muggiano, via Novara, via Marx, via Bellaria, via degli Ippodromi
Zona 8 Porta Volta, Fiera, Gallaratese, Quarto Oggiaro 23.72 197,484 8,326 Porta Volta, Fiera, Gallaratese, Quarto Oggiaro, corso Sempione, Bullona, Cimitero Monumentale, Porta Garibaldi, via Cenisio, via Paolo Sarpi, Ghisolfa, Cagnola, Il Portello, Monte Stella, Boldinasco, Q.T.8, piazza Bonola, via Ghisallo, Trenno, Lampugnano, San Leonardo, piazzale Accursio, Musocco, Porta Volta, Villapizzone, Garegnano e Certosa di Garegnano, Vialba, Quarto Oggiaro, Belgioioso, Roserio
Zona 9 Affori, Porta Nuova, Niguarda, Bovisa, Fulvio Testi 21.12 194,386 9,204 Affori, Porta Nuova, Niguarda, Bovisa, viale Fulvio Testi, Centro Direzionale, via Melchiorre Gioia, L'Isola, viale Zara, via Lancetti (Dogana), via Farini, Bovisasca, Dergano, Derganino, Montalbino, Prato Centenaro, Cà Granda, Comasina, Segnano, Bicocca, Stazione di Milano Greco Pirelli, viale Sarca, viale Fermi, via Astesani, piazzale Maciachini, Bruzzano, Parco Nord, via Seveso
Total City 181,76 1,483,882 8,164

Geography

In good weather conditions some of the highest summits in the Alps, such as the Dom, can be seen from Milan.
Snow covering Milan Cathedral in January 2009.

Topography

The district of Milan is located in the Padan Plain in the west-central area, inclusive among the rivers Ticino and Adda, among the river Po and the first reliefs of the Alps. It has a surface area of 181 km2 and is 122 metres above sea level.

Climate

Milan has aontinental climate . This is typical of Northern Italy's inland plains, where hot, humid summers and cold, damp winters prevail, unlike the Mediterranean climate characteristic of the rest of Italy.[1]

Average temperatures are -4/+6°C in January and +15/+28°C in July. Snowfalls are relatively common in winter, even if in the last 15–20 years they have decreased in frequency and amount. The historic average of Milan's area is between 35 and 45 cm (16"/18"); single snowfalls over 30–50 cm in 1–3 days happen periodically, with a record of 80–100 cm during the famous snowfall of January 1985. Humidity is quite high during the whole year and annual precipitation averages about 1000 mm (40 in). In the stereotypical image, the city is often shrouded in the fog characteristic of the Po Basin, although the removal of rice fields from the southern neighbourhoods, the urban heat island effect and the reduction of pollution levels have reduced this phenomenon in recent years, at least in the city centre.

Climate data for Milano (Linate Airport, 1961-1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 4.6
(40.3)
8.2
(46.8)
13.2
(55.8)
17.5
(63.5)
21.9
(71.4)
26.1
(79.0)
28.9
(84.0)
27.7
(81.9)
24.3
(75.7)
18.8
(65.8)
10.2
(50.4)
5.4
(41.7)
17.2
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.4
(34.5)
4.2
(39.6)
8.3
(46.9)
12.3
(54.1)
16.6
(61.9)
20.6
(69.1)
23.1
(73.6)
22.2
(72.0)
18.9
(66.0)
13.6
(56.5)
6.9
(44.4)
2.3
(36.1)
12.5
Average low °C (°F) −1.9
(28.6)
0.1
(32.2)
3.3
(37.9)
7.0
(44.6)
11.2
(52.2)
15.0
(59.0)
17.3
(63.1)
16.7
(62.1)
13.5
(56.3)
8.4
(47.1)
3.6
(38.5)
−0.9
(30.4)
7.8
Precipitation mm (inches) 64.3
(2.531)
62.6
(2.465)
81.6
(3.213)
82.2
(3.236)
96.5
(3.799)
65.4
(2.575)
68.0
(2.677)
93.0
(3.661)
68.5
(2.697)
99.7
(3.925)
101.0
(3.976)
60.4
(2.378)
943.2
(37.134)
humidity 86 78 71 75 72 71 71 72 74 81 85 86 76.8
Avg. precipitation days 7.2 6.7 7.9 8.3 8.1 7.6 5.8 7.1 5.2 6.8 8.5 6.3 85.5
Sunshine hours 58.9 96.1 151.9 177.0 210.8 243.0 285.2 251.1 186.0 130.2 66.0 58.9 1,915.1
Source: MeteoAM [2]


Education

State University of Milan
Bocconi University
Catholic University of the Sacred Heart
Teatro alla Scala

Milan is home to numerous universities and other institutions of higher learning:

State Universities

  • Università degli Studi di Milano Faculties: Agriculture, Arts and Philosophy, Law, Mathematical-Physical-Natural Sciences, Medicine and Surgery, Pharmacy, Political Science, Sport and Exercise Science, Veterinary Medicine
  • University of Milan Bicocca Faculties: Economics; Educational Science; Law; Mathematics, Physics and Natural Sciences; Medicine and Surgery; Psychology; Sociology; Statistical Sciences

Science and medical

Architecture and engineering

Business, economic and social

Language, art and music

Actor and Theatre School

  • Scuole Civiche di Milano Politecnico della Cultura, delle Arti e delle Lingue
  • Piccolo Teatro di Milano
  • Accademia dei Filodrammatici

Fashion and design

Main sights

The Milan Cathedral from the opposite square
The world-renowned Teatro alla Scala.

Milan is one of the major artistic centres of northern Italy. Its chief landmarks include:

Art

Roman and early Christian monuments

The church of San Lorenzo before the colonnade

Lombardy and the adjacent areas to the west and east of the Romans era has a relatively few significant works of art that have survived, although the Roman Empire in the last decades of the city played an important role in the administration. Memories of the Great Migrations and the Roman Germanic invasions-eng-Longobards due largely destroyed. In recent decades, archaeological research in a number of ancient romra found under the city: city walls, the ruins of the product, the ruins of the amphitheater.

More shows remains of the late Roman Empire, the culture, but they have actually considered the products of the early Christian art. This is the age in which Ambrose was bishop of Milan. Basilica, the Milan Sant'Ambrogio stands today, although most come from later periods of employment, but fundamentally the prototype for early Christian churches. Similarly, the San Lorenzo church, which the Byzantine Empire of effects can be observed. [3]

Romanesque and Gothic

The Chiaravalle Abbey

Over the centuries, when the Romanian and the Gothic style came across conquered Europe, Italy, the Lombard artists, leaders in, and this was also the waves of the Renaissance. Italy has established a special school in Romania, which entered as art history Lombardy style created. The style is mainly in Milan, Pavia, Cremona and other major artists of the city has been developed. Milan was introduced in the cross-shaped basilica type, having two stems form an integral unit (Sant'Ambrogio's Basilica).

The Lombardy styleanda greater role in further development of the building structure from the vault, and with the pillars and columns. This trend is strongly influenced by the development of Romanesque architecture in Europe. Very typical of this style in the square bell-tower, such as the San Satiróé. The town halls and civic spirit of Lombardy style houses were built. These features of the structural elements for decoration and highlighting the abundant plant and animal-motif.

The architecture has gained such importance in the era of romance and Gothic sculptures and Lombardy freskófestészete well. The city has more style and image of the church oltárfaragásán observed, especially in Milan Cathedral in and the museum.

The Gothic style, the architecture of the 12th century France came from the Cistercian monks of domesticated Lombardy. This beautiful example of the Milan Chiaravalle Abbey. Feature that only changed the style is deeply rooted in Romanian, but did not replace it, as in many other countries in Europe. The Romanesque structure, structure remained, but became nyújtottabbá, the openings were wider.[3]

Renaissance

The Last Supper, Leonardo da Vinci's famous fresco in the Santa Maria delle Grazie Convent

Northern Italian Gothic was actually originally Lombard, mainly a mixture of Romanian and Renaissance in style. The first of the early Renaissance works was the San Eustorgio Church of the chapel, the Cappella Portinariby Michelozzo Florence i master built. Sculptural works of this era, however, are still ornaments of the city, not only from artists of the city, but also from the locals of Tuscany, Venice, Burgundy, Austria and Germany, and amongst which you can admire the works of artists, among them there are even a Hungarian, too: Giovanni Dawn. They were invited to the city by the local princes and nobles. So Milan has, inter alia, Leonardo da Vinci and Bramante. Bramante in Milan created - among others - the Santa Maria delle Grazie church and cupola. His students in Milan, Bergamo, Como and generally diffused throughout the country in the Renaissance style. Bramante and the effect of the Lombard school is mainly calm, classical-humanist enforcement of rhythm manifested.

Lombardy Leonardo da Vinci painting has been affected significantly by the Venetians. Bernardino Luini Solario Boltraffio or the Piedmont Gaudenzio Ferrari were born in this region, while the greatest masters of Renaissance painting in Lombardy.[3]

Baroque

Pinacoteca di Brera
The Royal Palace of Milan.

The art of Lombardy in the Baroque at the age of a high standard once again increased, particularly in the field of architecture. The Baroque in Italy is usually the beginning of 1573 from the Council of Trent year is calculated. Alessi Tibaldi, Giuseppe Meda and many others in Milan religious and secular buildings of artistic value (Palazzo Marino Palazzo dell'Ambrosiana Ospedale Maggiore etc.). made; Architecture, however, at the Francesco Maria Richini in his works completion. The most beautiful Pinacoteca di Brera.

The age of the relatively few sculptors formed lasting. The most significant Milan Cathedral has sculptures from this era. The towering figure of early Baroque painting in Northern Italy MERIS Michelangelo da Caravaggio (1573–1610), who had a significant impact on the art of painting in the next two centuries, generations. Caravaggio, but only worked at home, so it hardly can be regarded as an artist in Lombardy. [3]

19 century art

18th century architecture very different from other, Italy (Tuscany, Venice). This style, which is mainly seen around the town villas, classical late-called Baroque. Pieramini works, the Palazzo Belgioioso or La Scala opera house has a neoclassical trend belong. Lombard most outstanding sculptors of the age, Luigi Cagnola (1762–1833), or Luigi Pollak, it is not approached Veneto and the provinces lying south of artists. The sculpture is of paramount importance in the field was, however, Canova (1757–1822) school. The painting Andrea Appiano and was born in Venice, Lombardy, but active Francesco Hayez represented the highest level. Both of them have considered the representatives of the romantic trend. 19th century architecture, but painting, sculpture, not a lot of artistic value created in Milan.

20 century art

The Pirelli Tower, one of the most remarkable achievements in Milanese modern architecture.

During the 20th century, Milan was one of the main centres of Italian futurism and a few major artists such as Gino Severini, Giacomo Balla, Umberto Boccioni resided or worked mainly here. Mussolini, like in several Italian cities, also launched a grandiose building project in Milan, such as the central railway station building. After the disastrous bombardments of World War II there was a period of rapid reconstruction, and modern office buildings adjacent to the medieval cathedrals were built, such as the Torre Velasca. Milan is famous for being home of the Pirelli Tower, which is one of Europe's oldest skyscrapers.[3]

Design

Milan is one of the international capitals of industrial and modern design, and is regarded as one of the world's most influential cities in such fields.[4] The city is particularly well known for its high-quality ancient and modern furniture and industrial goods. Milan hosts the FieraMilano, Europe's biggest, and one of the world's most prestigious furniture and design fairs.[4] Milan also hosts major design and architecture-related events and venues, such as the "Fuori Salone" and the "Salone del Mobile".

In the 1950s and 60s, being the main industrial centre of Italy and one of mainland Europe's most progressive and dynamic cities, Milan became, along with Turin, Italy's capital of post-war design and architecture. Skyscrapers, such as the Pirelli Tower and the Torre Velasca were constructed, and architects such as Bruno Munari, Lucio Fontana, Enrico Castellani and Piero Manzoni, to name a few, either lived or worked in the city.[5]

Literature

In the late 18th century, and throughout the 19th century, Milan was an important centre for intellectual discussion and literary creativity. The Enlightenment found here a fertile ground. Cesare Beccaria, with his famous Dei delitti e delle pene, and Pietro Verri, with the periodical Il Caffè were able to exert a considerable influence over the new middle-class culture, thanks also to an open-minded Austrian administration. In the first years of the 19th century, the ideals of the Romantic movement made their impact on the cultural life of the city and its major writers debated the primacy of Classical versus Romantic poetry. Here, too, Giuseppe Parini, and Ugo Foscolo published their most important works, and were admired by younger poets as masters of ethics, as well as of literary craftsmanship. Foscolo's poem Dei sepolcri was inspired by a Napoleonic law which—against the will of many of its inhabitants—was being extended to the city.

In the third decade of the 19th century, Alessandro Manzoni wrote his novel I Promessi Sposi, considered the manifesto of Italian Romanticism, which found in Milan its centre. The periodical Il Conciliatore published articles by Silvio Pellico, Giovanni Berchet, Ludovico di Breme, who were both Romantic in poetry and patriotic in politics.

After the Unification of Italy in 1861, Milan lost its political importance; nevertheless it retained a sort of central position in cultural debates. New ideas and movements from other countries of Europe were accepted and discussed: thus Realism and Naturalism gave birth to an Italian movement, Verismo. The greatest verista novelist, Giovanni Verga, was born in Sicily but wrote his most important books in Milan.

Music and Performing arts

The interior of the Teatro dal Verme in ca. 1875.

Milan is a major nation-wide and international centre of the performing arts, most notably opera. Milan hosts La Scala operahouse, considered one of the most prestigious operahouses in the world,[6] and throughout history has hosted the premieres of numerous operas, such as Nabucco by Giuseppe Verdi in 1842, La Gioconda by Amilcare Ponchielli, Madama Butterfly by Giacomo Puccini in 1904, Turandot by Giacomo Puccini in 1926, and more recently Teneke, by Fabio Vacchi in 2007, to name but a few. Other major theatres in Milan include the Teatro degli Arcimboldi, Teatro Dal Verme, Teatro Lirico (Milan) and the Teatro Regio Ducal. The city also has a renownded symphony orchestra and musical conservatory, and has been, throughout history, a major centre for musical composition: numerous famous composers and musicians such as Gioseppe Caimo, Simon Boyleau, Hoste da Reggio, Verdi, Giulio Gatti-Casazza, Paolo Cherici and Alice Edun are or were from, or call or called Milan their home. The city has also formed numerous modern ensembles and bands, such as the Dynamis Ensemble, Stormy Six and the Camerata Mediolanense have been formed.

People

Throughout history, Milan has boasted numerous people of great influence who came from or resided in the city. Renowned Milanese artists include Caravaggio, Bramante, Bramantino and Francesco Hayez. Well-known historical figures include Saint Charles Borromeo, Saint Ambrose, Saint Augustine, Beatrice d'Este and Ludovico Sforza. Milanese politicians include Silvio Berlusconi, Letizia Moratti and Bettino Craxi. The major composers, musicians and literary figures from Milan are people such as Alessandro Manzoni, Mina and Giuseppe Verdi, and fashion designers and people of the media indlude Giorgio Armani, Mario Prada and Mike Bongiorno.

Fashion

Luxury shops in the 15th century courtyard of the Palazzo Talenti, in Milan's central via Verdi.
Several designer boutiques are found in the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele.

In 2009, Milan was regarded as the world fashion capital, even surpassing New York, Paris, Rome and London.[7] Most of the major Italian fashion brands, such as Valentino, Gucci, Versace, Prada, Armani and Dolce & Gabbana (to name a few), are currently headquartered in the city. Numerous international fashion labels also operate shops in Milan, including an Abercrombie & Fitch flagship store which has become a main consumer attraction. Milan also hosts a fashion week twice a year, just like other international centres such as Paris, London, Tokyo, New York, Los Angeles and Rome. Milan's main upscale shopping streets and centres are the Via Montenapoleone fashion district and the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele, off Piazza del Duomo. Mario Prada, founder of Prada was even born here, helping to cultivate its position as a world fashion capital.

Media

Milan is the base of operations for many local and nationwide communication services and businesses, such as newspapers, magazines, and TV and radio stations.

Newspapers

Magazines

Radio stations

Language

In addition to Italian, approximately a third of the population of western Lombardy can speak the Western Lombard language, also known as Insubric. In Milan, some natives of the city can speak the traditional Milanese language—that is to say the urban variety of Western Lombard, which is not to be confused with the Milanese-influenced regional variety of the Italian language.

In Italian-speaking contexts, Milanese is often (like most of the other non-Italian language varieties spoken within the borders of the Italian Republic) generically called a "dialect". This is often incorrectly understood as to mean a dialect of Italian, which actually is not the case. Milanese and Italian are distinct Romance languages and are not mutually intelligible. Milanese is a particular (and prestigious) Western Lombard variety and is intelligible to speakers of other neighbouring Western Lombard varieties. It should not be confused with the Milanese dialect of Italian, or with Western Lombard as a whole, which is sometimes referred to as "Milanese".

Like all other dialects of Western Lombard, Milanese is a Romance language, related to French, Romansh, and Italian.

Various dictionaries, a few grammar books, an extensive literature and a recent translation of the Gospels are available.

Religion

Milan's population, like that of Italy as a whole, is overwhelmingly Catholic. It is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Milan, and in 2004, 95.16% of the population were Roman Catholic.[8] Other religions practised include: Orthodox Churches,[9] Buddhism,[10] Judaism,[11] Islam[12][13] and Protestantism.[14][15]

Ambrosian rite

Milan has its own historic Catholic rite known as the Ambrosian Rite (Italian: Rito ambrosiano). It varies slightly from the typical Catholic rite (the Roman, used in all other western regions), with some differences in the liturgy and mass celebrations, and in the calendar (for example, the date for the beginning of lent is celebrated some days after the common date, so the carnival has different date). The Ambrosian rite is also practised in other surrounding locations in Lombardy and in the Swiss canton of Ticino.

Another important difference concerns the liturgical music. The Gregorian chant was completely unused in Milan and surrounding areas, because the official one was its own Ambrosian chant, definitively established by the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and earlier than the Gregorian.[16] To preserve this music there has developed the unique schola cantorum, a college, and an Institute called PIAMS (Pontifical Ambrosian Institute of Sacred Music), in partnership with the Pontifical Institute of Sacred Music (PIMS) in Rome [1].

Cuisine

Risotto alla Milanese, a typical Milanese meal.
A dish of Cassoeula, common and popular in Milan and the area around the city during winter.
The funky interior of the trendy Just Cavalli Café.

Like most cities in Italy, Milan and its surrounding area has its own regional cuisine, which, as it is typical for Lombard cuisines, uses more frequently rice than pasta, and features almost no tomato. Milanese cuisine includes "cotoletta alla milanese", a breaded veal (pork and turkey can be used) cutlet pan-fried in butter (which some claim to be of Austrian origin, as it is similar to Viennese "Wienerschnitzel", while others claim that the "Wienerschnitzel" derived from the "cotoletta alla milanese"). Other typical dishes are cassoeula (stewed pork rib chops and sausage with Savoy cabbage), ossobuco (stewed veal shank with a sauce called gremolata), risotto alla milanese (with saffron and beef marrow), busecca (stewed tripe with beans), and brasato (stewed beef or pork with wine and potatoes). Season-related pastries include chiacchiere (flat fritters dusted with sugar) and tortelli (fried spherical cookies) for Carnival, colomba (glazed cake shaped as a dove) for Easter, pane dei morti ("Deads' Day bread", cookies aromatized with cinnamon) for All Soul's Day and panettone for Christmas. The salame milano, a salami with a very fine grain, is widespread throughout Italy. The best known Milanese cheese is gorgonzola from the namesake town nearby, although today the major gorgonzola producers operate in Piedmont.

On addition to a unique cuisine, Milan has several world-renowned restaurants and cafés. Most of the more rafined and upper-class restaurants are found in the historic centre, whilst the more traditional and popular ones are mainly located in the Brera and Navigli districts. Today, there is also a Nobu Japanese restaurant in Milan, which is located in Armani World in Via Manzoni and is regarded as being one of the trendiest restaurants in the city.[17] One of the city's chicest cafés or pasticcerie is the Caffè Cova, an ancient Milanese coffeehouse founded in 1817 near the Teatro alla Scala, which has also opened franchises in Hong Kong.[18] The Biffi Caffè and the Zucca in Galleria are also famous and historical ‘Caffès’ which are situated in Milan. Other restaurants in Milan include the Hotel Four Seasons restaurant, ‘La Briciola’, the Marino alla Scala and the Chandelier. Today, there is also a McDonald's fast-food restaurant in the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II, and some new boutique-cafés, such as the Just Cavalli Café, owned by the luxury fashion goods brand Roberto Cavalli.

Cinema

Several (especially Italian) films have been set in Milan, including "Calmi Cuori Appassionati"', "The International (film)", "La mala ordina", "Milano calibro 9", "Miracle in Milan", "La notte", and "Rocco and His Brothers".

Transportation

The Stazione Centrale di Milano at Christmas time.

Airports

The city has a large international airport known as Malpensa International Airport (MXP), located near the industrial towns of Busto Arsizio and Gallarate and connected to the downtown with the "Malpensa Express" railway service (from Cadorna Station). Malpensa was designed by the famous Ettore Sottsass. Milan also has the Linate Airport (LIN) within the city limits (for European and domestic traffic), connected with bus line 73 (from S. Babila). A third airport is Orio al Serio (BGY), close to the city of Bergamo. Vergiate, Venegono, Bresso, Voghera and Montichiari are additional airports in the region.

Subways, tramways, trolleybuses and buses

The classic trams from the 1920s are still in use.

Milan has 3 subway lines (M1 - red, M2 - green, M3 - yellow) and the system, called Milan Metro - "La Metro", running for more than 80 km. There is also a light metro-service, "Metrò S. Raffaele", connecting the San Raffaele Hospital with Cascina Gobba station (M2). Extensions of lines 1, 2 and 3 are under construction, to create more than 15 km of track with 10 new stations. Line 5 is also under construction, to be finished in the first half of 2012. Lines 4 (linking downtown with Linate Airport) and 6 are in planning stages.

The "Blue Line" also connects four of the city's subway stations directly with the greater railroad system at the Garibaldi, Repubblica and P.ta Venezia stations.

Greater Milan also has one of the most extensive tramway systems[citation needed] in the world, with more than 286 km of track, and 20 lines.

Milan also has four trolleybus routes; included in the fleet are ten air-conditioned Cristalis trolleybuses.

Ninety-three bus lines cover over 1,070 km between them. The local transportation authority (ATM) transported more than 600 million passengers in 2003 .

Railways

Milan is the second railway hub of Italy, and the five major stations of Milan, amongst which the Milan Central station, are among Italy's busiest. The first railroad built in Milan, the Milan and Monza Rail Road was opened for service on August 17, 1840.

High speed train lines are under construction all across Italy, and new lines will open from Milan to Rome and Naples, and from Milan to Torino. The stations for the TAV (Treni ad Alta Velocità - High Speed Trains) will be:

  • Milano Rogoredo (for the south)
  • Milano Certosa and Milano/Rho Fiera (for the west)

A line from Milan to Venice and then to Trieste is under construction.[citation needed] At the end of the work, the TAV station for Milan to the east will be:

  • Milano Pioltello

Regional-Metropolitan Railway services

The Suburban Railway Service ( "S" Lines, a service similar to the French RER and German S-Bahn), composed of eight suburban lines and ten more scheduled for 2008, connects the "Greater Milan" to cities such as Como and Varese. The Regional Railway Service ("R"), instead, links Milan with the rest of Lombardy and the national railway system. The "Passante ferroviario" is an underground railway serving a couple of "S" lines and is very much like another subway line (and is even marked as such on subway maps), except that it is connected to LeNord and Trenitalia suburban networks. See the map of the M (subway) + S (regional metropolitan railway) Network on msrmilano.com Go on [2]

Taxis

Milan has a taxi service operated by private companies and licensed by the City of Milan (Comune di Milano). All taxis are the same color, white. Prices are based on time elapsed and distance traveled. As the number of licences is kept low by lobbying of present taxi drivers, prices are fairly high (significantly higher than, for example, in New York) and finding a taxi may be difficult in rush hours.

Sports

San Siro Stadium, one of the biggest in Europe.

The city hosted, among other events, the FIFA World Cup in 1934 and 1990, the UEFA European Football Championship in 1980.

Football is the most popular sport in Italy, and Milan is home to two world-famous football teams: A.C. Milan and Internazionale. The former is normally referred to as "Mìlan" (notice the stress on the first syllable, unlike the English and Milanese name of the city), the latter as "Inter".

Milan is the only city in Europe whose teams have won both the European Cup and the Intercontinental Cup. Both teams play at Giuseppe Meazza - San Siro Stadium (85,700). Many of the strongest Italian football players were born in Milan, in the surrounding metropolitan area, or in Lombardy: Valentino Mazzola, Paolo Maldini, Giuseppe Meazza, Giacinto Facchetti, Luigi Riva, Gaetano Scirea, Giuseppe Bergomi, Walter Zenga, Antonio Cabrini, Roberto Donadoni, Gianluca Vialli, Silvio Piola, Giampiero Boniperti, Gabriele Oriali, Giovanni Trapattoni and Franco Baresi as well as many others.

  • The famous Monza Formula One circuit is located near the city, inside a wide park. It is one of the world's oldest car racing circuits. The capacity for the F1 races is currently around 137,000 spectators, although in the 1950s the stands could hold more than 250,000. It has hosted an F1 race nearly every year since the first year of competition, exception made of 1980.
  • Olimpia Milano is a successful European basketball team. It is the most important Italian team and one of the top 5 in Europe. Olimpia play at the Forum (capacity 14,000)
  • Rhinos Milano American Football Club is the oldest American football club in Milan and have won four Italian Super Bowls. They are one of the five foundation clubs of the Italian Football League.
  • CUS Milano Baseball is the oldest baseball club in Milan and have won eight Italian Scudetti.
  • The Amatori Rugby Milano have won 18 National Championships and are the most famous and important Rugby team in Italy.
  • Different ice hockey teams from Milan have won 30 National Championships between them. The Vipers Milano have won the last 5 national championships, the Alpenliga and several Coppa Italia, and are the leaders of that sport in Italy. They play at the Agora Stadium (capacity 4,500) during the regular season, and at the Forum during playoffs
  • Every year, Milan hosts the Bonfiglio Trophy Under 18 Tennis Tournament. It is the most important youth tournament in the world, and is played at the Milan Tennis Club. The central court has a capacity of 8000. Past winners include Tacchini, Jan Kodeš, Adriano Panatta, Corrado Barazzutti, Moreno, Björn Borg, Smid, Ivan Lendl, Guy Forget, Jim Courier, Goran Ivanišević, Yevgeny Kafelnikov, and Guillermo Coria.

Milan and Lombardy are candidates for the Summer Olympic Games of 2020 ("Milan-Lombardy 2020").

Stadia

  • Autodromo Nazionale Monza - car and motorcycle racing - 137,000
  • San Siro - only football; Milan and Inter - 85,700
  • Arena Civica - Athletics, Rugby, Football, American Football 30,000
  • Brianteo - Athletics, Football - 18,568
  • Ippodromo del Trotter - Horse Racing - 16,000
  • Ippodromo del Galoppo - Horse Racing - 15,000
  • Datch Forum - Basketball, Ice Hockey, Volleyball, Music - 9,000 to 12,000
  • MazdaPalace - Basketball, Volleyball - 9,000
  • Velodromo Vigorelli - Cycling, American Football - 12,000
  • PalaSharp- 8,500
  • PalaLido - Basketball - 5,000
  • Agorà - Ice Hockey - 4,000
  • Nuovo Giuriati - Rugby - 4,000

There are other stadiums and multiuse palaces located in the metropolitan area, the biggest being Monza Brianteo Stadium (18,000 seats), the PalaDesio (10,000) and Geas Stadium (8,500).

Club League Sport Venue Established Championships
A.C. Milan Serie A Football San Siro - Giuseppe Meazza 1899 4 World Club cups; 7 European championship; 17 Italian championship; 2 Cup Winners' Cup
F.C. Internazionale Milano Serie A Football San Siro - Giuseppe Meazza 1908 2 World Club cups; 3 European championship; 18 Italian championship; 3 Uefa Cup
Olimpia Milano Serie A Basketball Datchforum 1936 1 World cup; 3 European championship; 25 Italian championship; 3 Cup Winners' Cup; 2 Korac cup
H.C. Milano/Milano Vipers Serie A Ice Hockey Agorà 1924 2 European championship; 20 Italian championship
H.C. Diavoli/Devils Serie A Ice Hockey 1930 3 European championship; 7 Italian championship
Amatori Rugby Milano Serie B Rugby Stadio Giuriati 1928 18 Italian championship
Rhinos Milano Serie A2 American Football Velodromo Vigorelli-Maspes 1977 4 Italian championship

Science

The historic Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano, founded in 1838.

Milan has for a long time been an important national and European scientific centre. As one of the early-industrialised Italian cities, modern science in the Milan developed in the late-19th century and the early-20th century, when the city became one of the so-called "laboratory cities", along with Brussels, London, Paris and other major economic and industrial centres on the continent.[19] Following serious competition from the neighbouring scientific atheneum of Pavia (where Albert Einstein spent some of his study years), Milan started to develop an advanced technological and scientific sector, and began to found numerous academies and institutions.[19] Milan will host an interesting project called "Milano, City of Science" (Milano, Città delle Scienze in Italian), which will be held in the International Exhibition of Sempione. Science-related events which also occurred in Milan was the European Union Contest for Young Scientists, held in the city on 13 September 1997 at the Science Fair in the Fondazione Stelline.[20] Probably the most important and ancient observatory in Milan is the Brera Astronomical Observatory, which was founded by the Jesuits in 1764, and was run by government eversince a law was passed in 1785.

References

  1. ^ Thomas A. Blair, Climatology: General and Regional, Blair Press pages 131-132; Adriana Rigutti, Meteorologia, Giunti, p, 95, 2009.
  2. ^ "Visualizzazione tabella CLINO della stazione / CLINO Averages Listed for the station Milano Linate" (in Italian). MeteoAM. http://www.meteoam.it/modules.php?name=viewClinoFile&station=080&name_station=Milano%20Linate. Retrieved 2010-05-26. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Lindner. Milan. pp. 29–34. 
  4. ^ a b http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0470026839.html
  5. ^ http://www.frieze.com/issue/article/milan_turin
  6. ^ "La Scala faces uncertain future". BBC News. 2005-11-12. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4430214.stm. Retrieved 2010-04-30. 
  7. ^ http://www.languagemonitor.com/popular-culture/fashion
  8. ^ http://www.catholic-hierarchy.org/country/scit1.html
  9. ^ "chiesa ortodossa milano - Google Maps". Maps.google.it. http://maps.google.it/maps?hl=it&um=1&ie=UTF-8&q=chiesa+ortodossa+milano&fb=1&view=text&sa=X&oi=local_group&resnum=1&ct=more-results&cd=1. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  10. ^ "Lankarama Buddhist Temple - Milan, Italy". Lankaramaya.com. http://www.lankaramaya.com/. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  11. ^ "Jewish Community of Milan". Mosaico-cem.it. http://www.mosaico-cem.it/. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  12. ^ "Islam in Italy » Inter-Religious Dialogue » OrthodoxEurope.org". OrthodoxEurope.org. 2002-12-04. http://orthodoxeurope.org/page/8/4.aspx. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  13. ^ "Milan: The Center for Radical Islam in Europe". American Chronicle. http://www.americanchronicle.com/articles/viewArticle.asp?articleID=7230. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  14. ^ Cini. "Centro Culturale Protestante - Protestanti a Milano delle Chiese Battiste Metodiste Valdesi" (in (Italian)). Protestantiamilano.it. http://www.protestantiamilano.it/. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  15. ^ "Chiesa Evangelica Valdese - Milano". Milanovaldese.it. http://www.milanovaldese.it/. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  16. ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia: Ambrosian Chant". Newadvent.org. 1907-03-01. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01389a.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  17. ^ http://www.worldtravelguide.net/city/82/restaurant/Europe/Milan.html
  18. ^ http://www.pasticceriacova.com/storia/history.html
  19. ^ a b http://www.milanocittadellescienze.it/html/home_eng.php
  20. ^ http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/0031-9120/32/6/005

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Нужно решить контрольную?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Milan — Milano redirects here. For other uses, see Milano (disambiguation). For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). Milan Milano   Comune   Comune di Milano …   Wikipedia

  • Milan (ville) — Milan Pour les articles homonymes, voir Milan (homonymie) et Milano (homonymie). Milan Piazza del Duomo …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Milan, Ohio —   Village   The Kelley Block overlooking the public square …   Wikipedia

  • Milan Cathedral — Duomo di Milano from the Square. Basic information Location Milan, Italy Geographic coordinates …   Wikipedia

  • Milan, Tennessee —   City   Location of Milan, Tennessee Coordinates …   Wikipedia

  • Culture De L'Italie — La culture de l Italie définit ce que fut l Italie depuis l Antiquité, comme un des plus grands foyers culturels de l Occident, centre de l Empire romain puis de l Église catholique, berceau de la Renaissance économique et artistique de l Europe… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Culture de l'italie — La culture de l Italie définit ce que fut l Italie depuis l Antiquité, comme un des plus grands foyers culturels de l Occident, centre de l Empire romain puis de l Église catholique, berceau de la Renaissance économique et artistique de l Europe… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Culture italienne — Culture de l Italie La culture de l Italie définit ce que fut l Italie depuis l Antiquité, comme un des plus grands foyers culturels de l Occident, centre de l Empire romain puis de l Église catholique, berceau de la Renaissance économique et… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Culture de la Serbie — Culture serbe La notion de Culture serbe (en serbe : Српска култура et Sprska kultura) se rapporte à la culture de la Serbie et, plus généralement, à celle de tous les Serbes vivant sur le territoire de l ex Yougoslavie et ailleurs de le… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Milan Rastislav Stefanik — Milan Rastislav Štefánik Milan Rastislav Štefánik …   Wikipédia en Français

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”