- A.I. Artificial Intelligence
A.I. Artificial Intelligence
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Steven Spielberg Produced by Steven Spielberg
Walter F. Parkes
Screenplay by Steven Spielberg
Story by Ian Watson Based on "Super-Toys Last All Summer Long" by
Brian Aldiss (first act only), Stanley Kubrick's original script
Narrated by Ben Kingsley Starring Haley Joel Osment
Music by John Williams Cinematography Janusz Kamiński Editing by Michael Kahn Studio DreamWorks
The Kennedy/Marshall Company
Stanley Kubrick Productions
Distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures Release date(s) June 29, 2001 Running time 146 minutes Country United States Language English Budget $100 million Box office $235,926,552
A.I. Artificial Intelligence, also known as A.I., is a 2001 science fiction drama film directed, produced and co-written by Steven Spielberg. Based on Brian Aldiss' short story "Super-Toys Last All Summer Long", the film stars Haley Joel Osment, Frances O'Connor, Jude Law, Sam Robards, Jake Thomas and William Hurt. Set sometime in the future, A.I. tells the story of David, a child-like android uniquely programmed with the ability to love.
Development of A.I. originally began with director Stanley Kubrick in the early 1970s. Kubrick hired a series of writers up until the mid-1990s, including Brian Aldiss, Bob Shaw, Ian Watson and Sara Maitland. The film languished in development hell for years, partly because Kubrick felt computer-generated imagery was not advanced enough to create the David character, whom he believed no child actor would believably portray. In 1995, Kubrick handed A.I. to Steven Spielberg, but the film did not gain momentum until Kubrick's death in 1999. Spielberg remained close to Watson's film treatment for the screenplay. A.I. was greeted with mixed positive reviews from critics. This film was dedicated to Kubrick's memory after the end credits, saying "For Stanley Kubrick".
Global warming has led to melting polar ice caps, flooded coastlines and a drastic reduction of the human population. There is a new class of robots called mechas, advanced humanoids capable of emulating thoughts and emotions. David (Haley Joel Osment), a prototype model created by Cybertronics, is designed to resemble a human child and to display love for its human owners. They test their creation with one of their employees, Henry Swinton (Sam Robards), and his wife Monica (Frances O'Connor). The Swintons' son, Martin (Jake Thomas), was placed in suspended animation until a cure can be found for his rare disease. Although Monica is initially frightened of David, she eventually warms to him after activating his imprinting protocol, which irreversibly causes David to project love for her, the same as any child would love a parent. He is also befriended by Teddy (Jack Angel), a robotic teddy bear, who takes it upon himself to care for David's well being.
A cure is found for Martin and he is brought home; a sibling rivalry ensues between Martin and David. Martin convinces David to go to Monica in the middle of the night and cut off a lock of her hair, but the parents wake up and are very upset. At a pool party, one of Martin's friends activates David's self-protection programming by poking him with a knife. David clings to Martin and they both fall into the pool, where heavy David sinks to the bottom while still clinging to Martin. Martin is saved from drowning, but Henry in particular is shocked by David's actions, becoming concerned that David's capacity for love has also given him the ability to hate. Henry persuades Monica to return David to Cybertronics, where David will be destroyed. However, on the way Monica decides to abandon David in the forest (alongside Teddy) to hide as an unregistered mecha instead of being destroyed. David is captured for an anti-mecha Flesh Fair, an event where obsolete mechas are destroyed in front of cheering crowds. David is nearly killed, but the crowd is swayed by his realistic nature (David, unlike other mechas, pleads for his life) and he escapes, along with Gigolo Joe (Jude Law), a male prostitute mecha on the run after being framed for murder.
The two set out to find the Blue Fairy, whom David remembers from the story The Adventures of Pinocchio. He is convinced that the Blue Fairy will transform him into a human boy, allowing Monica to love him and take him home. Joe and David make their way to Rouge City. Information from a holographic answer engine called "Dr. Know" (Robin Williams) eventually leads them to the top of Rockefeller Center in partially-underwater Manhattan. They fly to New York a flying submersible vehicle called an amphibicopter they stole from police, who are still chasing Joe. David meets his human creator, Professor Hobby (William Hurt), who excitedly tells David that finding him was a test, which has demonstrated the reality of his love and desire. It also becomes clear that many copies of David are already being manufactured, along with female versions. David sadly realizes he is not unique. A disheartened David attempts to commit suicide by falling from a ledge into the ocean, but Joe rescues him with the amphibicopter. David tells Joe he saw the Blue Fairy underwater, and wants to go down to her. At that moment, Joe is captured by the authorities with the use of an electromagnet. David and Teddy take the amphibicopter to the fairy, which turns out to be a statue from a submerged attraction at Coney Island. Teddy and David become trapped when the Wonder Wheel falls on their vehicle. Believing the Blue Fairy to be real, David asks to be turned into a real boy, repeating his wish without end, until the ocean freezes and his internal power source drains away.
2,000 years later, humans are extinct and Manhattan is buried under several hundred feet of sea ice. Mechas have evolved into a highly advanced alien-looking humanoid form. They find David and Teddy and discover they are functional mechas who knew living humans, making them special and unique. David is revived and walks to the frozen Blue Fairy statue, which cracks and collapses as he touches it. Having received and comprehended his memories, the advanced mechas use them to reconstruct the Swinton home and explain to David via an interactive image of the Blue Fairy (Meryl Streep) that it is not possible to make him human. However, at David's insistence, they recreate Monica from DNA in the lock of her hair which had been saved by Teddy. Unfortunately, she can only live for a single day and the process cannot be repeated. David spends the happiest day of his life with Monica and Teddy, and Monica tells David that she loves him and has always loved him as she drifts to sleep for the final time. David lies down next to her, closes his eyes and goes "to that place where dreams are born".
- Haley Joel Osment as David, an innovative mecha created by Cybertronics and programmed with the ability to love. He is adopted by Henry and Monica Swinton, but a sibling rivalry ensues once their son Martin comes out of suspended animation. Osment was Spielberg's first and only choice for the role. Osment avoided blinking his eyes to perfectly portray the character, and "programmed" himself with good posture for realism.
- Frances O'Connor as Monica Swinton, David's adopted mother who reads him The Adventures of Pinocchio. She is first displeased to have David in her home but soon falls in love with him.
- Jude Law as Gigolo Joe, a male prostitute mecha programmed with the ability to mimic love, like David, but in a different sense. To prepare for the role, Law studied the acting of Fred Astaire and Gene Kelly.
- Sam Robards as Henry Swinton, an employee at Cybertronics and husband of Monica. Henry is reluctant to take David home, and soon sees David as dangerous to his family.
- Jake Thomas as Martin Swinton, Henry and Monica's first son, who was placed in suspended animation. When Martin comes back, he convinces David to cut off a lock of Monica's hair.
- William Hurt as Professor Allen Hobby, responsible for shepherding the creation of David. He resides in New York City, which is crippled by the effects of global warming but still functioning as Cybertronics' headquarters. David is modeled after Hobby's own son, also named David, who died at a young age.
- Brendan Gleeson as Lord Johnson-Johnson, the owner and master of ceremonies of the Flesh Fair.
- Jack Angel as Teddy, David's robotic teddy bear.
- Ben Kingsley as narrator and the leader of the futuristic mechas. He also appears briefly as one of the technicians who repairs David after he eats spinach.
- Robin Williams as Dr. Know, a holographic answer engine. (Cameo)
- Meryl Streep as Blue Fairy. (Cameo)
- Chris Rock as a mecha killed at the Flesh Fair. (Cameo)
Kubrick began development on an adaptation of "Super-Toys Last All Summer Long" in the early 1970s, hiring the short story's author, Brian Aldiss to write a film treatment. In 1985, Kubrick brought longtime friend Steven Spielberg on board to produce the film, along with Jan Harlan. Warner Bros. agreed to co-finance A.I. and cover distribution duties. The film labored in development hell, and Aldiss was fired by Kubrick over creative differences in 1989. Bob Shaw served as writer very briefly, leaving after six weeks because of Kubrick's demanding work schedule, and Ian Watson was hired as the new writer in March 1990. Aldiss later remarked, "Not only did the bastard fire me, he hired my enemy [Watson] instead." Kubrick handed Watson The Adventures of Pinocchio for inspiration, calling A.I. "a picaresque robot version of Pinocchio".
Three weeks later Watson gave Kubrick his first story treatment, and concluded his work on A.I. in May 1991 with another treatment, at 90 pages. Gigolo Joe was originally conceived as a GI mecha, but Watson suggested changing him to a male prostitute. Kubrick joked, "I guess we lost the kiddie market." In the meantime, Kubrick dropped A.I. to work on a film adaptation of Wartime Lies, feeling computer animation was not advanced enough to create the David character. However, after the release of Spielberg's Jurassic Park (with its innovative use of computer-generated imagery), it was announced in November 1993 that production would begin in 1994. Dennis Muren and Ned Gorman, who worked on Jurassic Park, became visual effects supervisors, but Kubrick was displeased with their previsualization, and at the expense of hiring Industrial Light & Magic.
In early 1994, the film was in pre-production with Christopher "Fangorn" Baker as concept artist, and Sara Maitland assisting on the story, which gave it "a feminist fairy-tale focus". Maitland said that Kubrick never referred to the film as A.I., but as Pinocchio. Chris Cunningham became the new visual effects supervisor. Some of his unproduced work for A.I. can be seen on the DVD, The Work of Director Chris Cunningham. Aside from considering computer animation, Kubrick also had Joseph Mazzello do a screen test for the lead role. Cunningham helped assemble a series of "little robot-type humans" for the David character. "We tried to construct a little boy with a movable rubber face to see whether we could make it look appealing," producer Jan Harlan reflected. "But it was a total failure, it looked awful." Hans Moravec was brought in as a technical consultant.
Meanwhile, Kubrick and Harlan thought A.I. would be closer to Steven Spielberg's sensibilities as director. Kubrick handed the position to Spielberg in 1995, but Spielberg chose to direct other projects, and convinced Kubrick to remain as director. The film was put on hold due to Kubrick's commitment to Eyes Wide Shut (1999). After the filmmaker's death in March 1999, Harlan and Christiane Kubrick approached Spielberg to take over the director's position. By November 1999, Spielberg was writing the screenplay based on Watson's 90-page story treatment. It was his first solo screenplay credit since Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977). Spielberg remained close to Watson's treatment, but removed various sex scenes with Gigolo Joe, which Kubrick had in mind. Pre-production was briefly halted during February 2000, because Spielberg pondered directing other projects, which were Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, Minority Report and Memoirs of a Geisha. When he decided to fast track A.I., Spielberg brought Chris Baker back as concept artist.
The original start date was July 10, 2000, but filming was delayed until August. Aside from a couple weeks shooting on location in Oregon, A.I. was shot entirely using sound stages at Warner Bros. Studios. The Swinton house was constructed on Stage 16, while Stage 20 was used for Rouge City and other sets. Spielberg copied Kubrick's obsessively secretive approach to filmmaking by refusing to give the complete script to cast and crew, banning press from the set, and making actors sign confidentiality agreements. Social robotics expert Cynthia Breazeal served as technical consultant during production. Haley Joel Osment and Jude Law applied prosthetic makeup daily in an attempt to look shinier and robotic-like. Costume designer Bob Ringwood (Batman, Troy) studied pedestrians on the Las Vegas Strip for his influence on the Rouge City extras. Spielberg found post production on A.I. difficult because he was simultaneously preparing to shoot Minority Report.
The film's soundtrack was released by Warner Bros. Records in 2001. The original score was composed by John Williams and featured singers Lara Fabian on two songs and Josh Groban on one. The film's score also had a limited release as an official "For your consideration Academy Promo" -- this three CD set commands top dollar prices on e-bay and is the holy grail among fans of the composer, John Williams. Academy Promos have now been discontinued, but they were generally sent out by the studios to other composers and members of the music branch of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences for consideration as Best Original Score at the Oscars. The three CD set features many tracks that are unreleased, and not available on the original single CD edition which makes it a must-have collectible.
Warner Bros. used an alternate reality game titled The Beast to promote the film. Over forty websites were created by Atomic Pictures in New York City (kept online at Cloudmakers.org) including the website for Cybertronics Corp. The Cybertronics CEO is voiced by Topie Nguyen. There were to be a series of video games for the Xbox video game console that followed the storyline of The Beast, but they went undeveloped. To avoid audiences mistaking A.I. for a family film, no action figures were created, although Hasbro released a talking Teddy following the film's release in June 2001.
The film opened in 3,242 theaters in the United States on June 29, 2001, earning $29,352,630 during its opening weekend. A.I went on to gross $78.62 million in US totals as well as $157.31 million in foreign countries, coming to a worldwide total of $235.93 million. A.I. earned twice as much money overseas as it did in North America, which was fairly unusual for 2001, when foreign grosses had not yet begun to regularly amount to the heavy majority of the receipts for Hollywood films. The film was not clearly a financial success, since the producers collected only a fraction of the listed gross revenue (in particular, studios typically redeem less than half of foreign receipts) against a production and marketing budget of over $100 million.
The film received generally positive reviews. Based on 181 reviews collected by Rotten Tomatoes, 73% of the critics gave the film positive notices with a score of 6.6 out of 10. The website described the critical consensus perceiving the film as "a curious, not always seamless, amalgamation of Kubrick's chilly bleakness and Spielberg's warm-hearted optimism. [The film] is, in a word, fascinating." By comparison Metacritic collected an average score of 65, based on 32 reviews, which is considered favorable.
Producer Jan Harlan stated that Kubrick "would have applauded" the final film, while Kubrick's widow Christiane also enjoyed A.I. However, Brian Aldiss was vocally displeased with the film, stating, "It's crap. Science fiction has to be logical, and it's full of lapses in logic." Richard Corliss heavily praised Spielberg's direction, as well as the cast and visual effects. Roger Ebert wrote that it was "Audacious, technically masterful, challenging, sometimes moving [and] ceaselessly watchable. [But] the movie's conclusion is too facile and sentimental, given what has gone before. It has mastered the artificial, but not the intelligence." On July 8, 2011, Ebert reviewed A.I. again when he added it to his "Great Movies" pantheon. Leonard Maltin gives the film a not-so-positive review in his Movie Guide, giving it two stars out of four, writing: "[The] intriguing story draws us in, thanks in part to Osment's exceptional performance, but takes several wrong turns; ultimately, it just doesn't work. Spielberg rewrote the adaptation Stanley Kubrick commissioned of the Brian Aldiss short story "Super Toys Last All Summer Long"; [the] result is a curious and uncomfortable hybrid of Kubrick and Spielberg sensibilities." However, he calls John Williams' music score "striking". Jonathan Rosenbaum compared A.I. to Solaris (1972), and praised both "Kubrick for proposing that Spielberg direct the project and Spielberg for doing his utmost to respect Kubrick's intentions while making it a profoundly personal work." Film critic Armond White, of the New York Press, praised the film noting that "each part of David’s journey through carnal and sexual universes into the final eschatological devastation becomes as profoundly philosophical and contemplative as anything by cinema’s most thoughtful, speculative artists–Borzage, Ozu, Demy, Tarkovsky."
James Berardinelli found the film "consistently involving, with moments of near-brilliance, but far from a masterpiece. In fact, as the long-awaited 'collaboration' of Kubrick and Spielberg, it ranks as something of a disappointment." He particularly criticized the ending: "The film's final half-hour is a curiosity, and not a successful one — a prolonged, needless epilogue which force-feeds us a catharsis that feels as false as it is extraneous to an otherwise fine story." Mick LaSalle gave a largely negative review. "A.I. exhibits all its creators' bad traits and none of the good. So we end up with the structureless, meandering, slow-motion endlessness of Kubrick combined with the fuzzy, cuddly mindlessness of Spielberg." Dubbing it Spielberg's "first boring movie", LaSalle also believed the robots at the end of the film were aliens, and compared Gigolo Joe to the "useless" Jar Jar Binks, yet praised Robin Williams for his portrayal of a futuristic Albert Einstein. Peter Travers gave a mixed review, concluding "Spielberg cannot live up to Kubrick's darker side of the future." But he still put the film on his top ten list that year for best movies. Spielberg responded to some of the criticisms of the film, stating that many of the "so called sentimental" elements of A.I., including the ending, were in fact Kubrick's and vice-versa the darker elements were his own. However, Sara Maitland, who worked on the project with Kubrick in the 1990s, claimed that one of the reasons Kubrick never started production on A.I. was because he had a hard time making the ending work.
Screenwriter Ian Watson has speculated, "Worldwide, A.I. was very successful (and the 4th highest earner of the year) but it didn’t do quite so well in America, because the film, so I’m told, was too poetical and intellectual in general for American tastes. Plus, quite a few critics in America misunderstood the film, thinking for instance that the Giacometti-style beings in the final 20 minutes were aliens (whereas they were robots of the future who had evolved themselves from the robots in the earlier part of the film) and also thinking that the final 20 minutes were a sentimental addition by Spielberg, whereas those scenes were exactly what I wrote for Stanley and exactly what he wanted, filmed faithfully by Spielberg."
"People pretend to think they know Stanley Kubrick, and think they know me, when most of them don't know either of us," Spielberg told film critic Joe Leydon in 2002. "And what's really funny about that is, all the parts of A.I. that people assume were Stanley's were mine. And all the parts of A.I. that people accuse me of sweetening and softening and sentimentalizing were all Stanley's. The teddy bear was Stanley's. The whole last 20 minutes of the movie was completely Stanley's. The whole first 35, 40 minutes of the film – all the stuff in the house – was word for word, from Stanley's screenplay. This was Stanley's vision."
"Eighty percent of the critics got it all mixed up. But I could see why. Because, obviously, I've done a lot of movies where people have cried and have been sentimental. And I've been accused of sentimentalizing hard-core material. But in fact it was Stanley who did the sweetest parts of A.I., not me. I'm the guy who did the dark center of the movie, with the Flesh Fair and everything else. That's why he wanted me to make the movie in the first place. He said, 'This is much closer to your sensibilities than my own.'"
Visual effects supervisors Dennis Muren, Stan Winston, Michael Lantieri and Scott Farrar were nominated for the Academy Award for Visual Effects, while John Williams was nominated for Original Music Score. Steven Spielberg, Jude Law and Williams received nominations at the 59th Golden Globe Awards. The visual effects department was once again nominated at the 55th British Academy Film Awards. A.I. was successful at the Saturn Awards. Spielberg (for his screenplay), the visual effects department, Williams and Haley Joel Osment (Performance by a Younger Actor) won in their respective categories. The film also won Best Science Fiction Film and for its DVD release. Frances O'Connor and Spielberg (as director) were also nominated.
American Film Institute Lists
- ^ Jim Windolf (2007-12-02). "Q&A: Steven Spielberg". Vanity Fair. http://www.vanityfair.com/culture/features/2008/02/spielberg_qanda200802?currentPage=4. Retrieved 2007-12-02.
- ^ a b c d e "The Kubrick FAQ Part 2: A.I.". The Kubrick Site. http://www.visual-memory.co.uk/faq/index2.html#slot14. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
- ^ a b Haley Joel Osment, A Portrait of David, 2001, Warner Home Video; DreamWorks
- ^ Jude Law, A Portrait of Gigolo Joe, 2001, Warner Home Video; DreamWorks
- ^ Scott Brake (2001-05-10). "Spielberg Talks About the Genesis of A.I.". IGN. http://movies.ign.com/articles/200/200038p1.html. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
- ^ a b c d "Plumbing Stanley Kubrick". Ian Watson. http://www.ianwatson.info/kubrick.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-07.
- ^ a b Steven Gaydos (2000-03-15). "The Kubrick Connection". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117779484. Retrieved 2008-07-19.
- ^ Dana Haris (2000-03-15). "Spielberg lines up A.I., Report". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117779498. Retrieved 2008-07-16.
- ^ Christian Moerk (1993-11-02). "A.I. next for Kubrick at Warners". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR115550. Retrieved 2008-07-07.
- ^ a b Kenneth Plume (2001-06-28). "Interview with Producer Jan Harlan". IGN. http://movies.ign.com/articles/300/300920p1.html. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
- ^ "The Work of Director Chris Cunningham". NotComing.com. http://www.notcoming.com/features/cunningham/. Retrieved 2008-07-19.
- ^ "A.I. Artificial Intelligence". Variety. 2001-05-15. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117799373. Retrieved 2008-07-19.
- ^ a b c d e Liane Bonin (2001-06-28). "Boy Wonder". Entertainment Weekly. http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,165660,00.html. Retrieved 2008-07-15.
- ^ a b Steven Spielberg, Jan Harlan, Kathleen Kennedy, Bonnie Curtis, Creating A.I., 2001, Warner Home Video; DreamWorks
- ^ a b Christian Moerk (1999-12-23). "Spielberg encounters close choices to direct". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117760260. Retrieved 2008-07-15.
- ^ Scott Brake (2001-06-29). "Producing A.I.". IGN. http://movies.ign.com/articles/300/300984p1.html. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
- ^ Army Archerd (1999-07-15). "Annie Tv'er nab tops talent". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117742990. Retrieved 2008-07-14.
- ^ Michael Fleming (1999-11-16). "West pursues Prisoner; Spielberg scribbles". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117758075. Retrieved 2008-07-16.
- ^ Peter Bart (2000-01-24). "It's scary up there". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117761198. Retrieved 2008-07-15.
- ^ Brian Zoromski (2000-06-30). "A.I. Moves Full Speed Ahead". IGN. http://movies.ign.com/articles/034/034162p1.html. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
- ^ Scott Brake (2000-08-03). "A.I. Set Reports!". IGN. http://movies.ign.com/articles/034/034165p1.html. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
- ^ Christopher "Fangorn" Baker, Rick Carter, A.I. From Drawings to Sets, 2001, Warner Home Video; DreamWorks
- ^ Bill Higgins (2000-11-06). "BAFTA hails Spielberg". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117788785. Retrieved 2008-08-06.
- ^ Bob Ringwood, Dressing A.I., 2001, Warner Home Video; DreamWorks
- ^ Charles Lyons (2001-01-18). "Inside Move: Cruise staying busy". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117792198. Retrieved 2008-07-18.
- ^ David Rooney (2001-04-16). "'Dust' in the wind for Venice fest". Variety. http://www.variety.com/index.asp?layout=festivals&jump=story&id=1061&articleid=VR1117797100&cs=1. Retrieved 2008-07-19.
- ^ "A.I. Artificial Intelligence". Box Office Mojo. http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=ai.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-08.
- ^ "A.I. Artificial Intelligence". Rotten Tomatoes. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/ai_artificial_intelligence/. Retrieved 2008-07-08.
- ^ "A.I. Artificial Intelligence (2001): Reviews". Metacritic. http://www.metacritic.com/video/titles/ai?q=A.I.. Retrieved 2008-07-08.
- ^ Army Archerd (2000-06-20). "A.I. A Spielberg/Kubrick prod'n". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117801772. Retrieved 2008-08-06.
- ^ Bryan Appleyard (2007-12-012). "Why don't we love science fiction?". Times Online. http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/books/article2961480.ece. Retrieved 2009-09-05.
- ^ Richard Corliss (2001-06-17). "A.I. – Spielberg's Strange Love". Time. http://www.time.com/time/sampler/article/0,8599,130942,00.html. Retrieved 2008-08-06.
- ^ "A.I. Artificial Intelligence". Roger Ebert. http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20010629/REVIEWS/106290301/1023. Retrieved 2008-08-06.
- ^ Jonathan Rosenbaum (2001-06-29). "The Best of Both Worlds". Chicago Reader. http://www.chicagoreader.com/movies/archives/2001/0107/010713.html. Retrieved 2008-08-06.
- ^ White, Armond (2001-07-04). "Spielberg's A.I. Dares Viewers to Remember and Accept the Part of Themselves that Is Capable of Feeling". The New York Press. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
- ^ James Berardinelli (2001-06-29). "A.I.". ReelViews. http://www.reelviews.net/movies/a/ai.html. Retrieved 2008-08-06.
- ^ Mick LaSalle (2001-06-29). "Artificial foolishness". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2001/06/29/DD239232.DTL. Retrieved 2008-08-06.
- ^ Peter Travers (2001-06-21). "A.I. Artificial Intelligence". Rolling Stone. http://www.rollingstone.com/reviews/movie/5949345/review/5949346/ai_artificial_intelligence. Retrieved 2008-08-06.
- ^ "Steven Spielberg". Mark Kermode. The Culture Show. 2006-11-04.
- ^ http://www.visual-memory.co.uk/faq/index2.html#slot14 The Kubrick FAQ Part 2.
- ^ http://www.moonmilkreview.com/2010/author-talk-ian-watson-2/
- ^ Joe Leydon (2002-06-20). "'Minority Report' looks at the day after tomorrow -- and is relevant to today". Moving Picture Show. http://www.movingpictureshow.com/dialogues/mpsSpielbergCruise.html. Retrieved 2009-04-29.
- ^ "Academy Awards: 2002". Internet Movie Database. http://www.imdb.com/Sections/Awards/Academy_Awards_USA/2002. Retrieved 2008-07-14.
- ^ "59th Golden Globe Awards". Internet Movie Database. http://www.imdb.com/Sections/Awards/Golden_Globes_USA/2002. Retrieved 2008-07-14.
- ^ "55th British Academy Film Awards". Internet Movie Database. http://www.imdb.com/Sections/Awards/BAFTA_Awards/2002. Retrieved 2008-07-14.
- ^ "Saturn Awards: 2002". Internet Movie Database. http://www.imdb.com/Sections/Awards/Academy_of_Science_Fiction_Fantasy_And_Horror_Films_USA/200. Retrieved 2008-07-14.
- ^ AFI's 100 Years of Film Scores Nominees
- ^ AFI's 10 Top 10 Ballot
- Jane M. Struthers, ed (2009). A.I. Artificial Intelligence: From Stanley Kubrick to Steven Spielberg: The Vision Behind the Film. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-51489-4.
- Official website
- A.I. Artificial Intelligence at the Internet Movie Database
- A.I. Artificial Intelligence at AllRovi
- A.I. Artificial Intelligence at Rotten Tomatoes
- A.I. Artificial Intelligence at Box Office Mojo
- Jude Law Interview by Charlie Rose
- Spielberg's AI: Another Cuddly No-Brainer by Stevan Harnad
- A.I./The Kubrick edit - Criticism and comparison
Steven Spielberg filmography 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s
- The Adventures of Tintin (2011)
- War Horse (2011)
- Lincoln (2012)
- I Wanna Hold Your Hand (1978)
- Used Cars (1980)
- Continental Divide (1981)
- Poltergeist (1982)
- E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982)
- Twilight Zone: The Movie (1983)
- Gremlins (1984)
- Back to the Future (1985)
- The Goonies (1985)
- Young Sherlock Holmes (1985)
- The Color Purple (1985)
- An American Tail (1986)
- The Money Pit (1986)
- *batteries not included (1987)
- Harry and the Hendersons (1987; uncredited)
- Innerspace (1987)
- Empire of the Sun (1987)
- Three O'Clock High (1987; uncredited)
- The Land Before Time (1988)
- Who Framed Roger Rabbit (1988)
- Back to the Future Part II (1989)
- Always (1989)
- Dad (1989)
- Arachnophobia (1990)
- Back to the Future Part III (1990)
- Gremlins 2: The New Batch (1990)
- Joe Versus the Volcano (1990)
- An American Tail: Fievel Goes West (1991)
- Cape Fear (1991)
- We're Back! A Dinosaur's Story (1993)
- Schindler's List (1993)
- The Flintstones (1994)
- The Little Rascals (1994; uncredited)
- Casper (1995)
- Balto (1995)
- Twister (1996)
- Men in Black (1997)
- Amistad (1997)
- Deep Impact (1998)
- The Mask of Zorro (1998)
- Saving Private Ryan (1998)
- The Last Days (1998)
- The Prince of Egypt (1998; uncredited)
- The Haunting (1999; uncredited)
- Wakko's Wish (1999)
- The Flintstones in Viva Rock Vegas (2000)
- Evolution (2001; uncredited)
- A.I. Artificial Intelligence (2001)
- Jurassic Park III (2001)
- Men in Black II (2002)
- Catch Me If You Can (2002)
- The Terminal (2004)
- The Legend of Zorro (2005)
- Memoirs of a Geisha (2005)
- Munich (2005)
- Monster House (2006)
- Flags of Our Fathers (2006)
- Letters from Iwo Jima (2006)
- Disturbia (2007; uncredited)
- Transformers (2007)
- Eagle Eye (2008)
- Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen (2009)
- The Lovely Bones (2009)
- Hereafter (2010)
- True Grit (2010)
- Super 8 (2011)
- Transformers: Dark of the Moon (2011)
- Cowboys & Aliens (2011)
- Real Steel (2011)
- The Adventures of Tintin: Secret of the Unicorn (2011)
- War Horse (2011)
- Men in Black III (2012)
- Cloud Atlas (2012)
- Night Gallery (1970)
- Columbo (1971)
- Amazing Stories (1985–1987)
- Tiny Toon Adventures (1990–1992)
- A Wish for Wings That Work (1991; uncredited)
- Tiny Toon Adventures: How I Spent My Vacation (1992)
- Family Dog (1993)
- seaQuest DSV (1993–1995)
- Animaniacs (1993–1998)
- ER (1994)
- Pinky and the Brain / Pinky, Elmyra & the Brain (1995–1999)
- Freakazoid! (1995–1997)
- High Incident (1996–1997)
- Toonsylvania (1998)
- Invasion America (1998)
- Band of Brothers (2001)
- Taken (2002)
- Into the West (2005)
- On the Lot (2007)
- United States of Tara (2009–2011)
- The Pacific (2010)
- Falling Skies (2011–present)
- Terra Nova (2011–present)
- The River (2012–present)
- Smash (2012–present)
Games Short films
- Tummy Trouble (1989; played with Honey, I Shrunk the Kids)
- Roller Coaster Rabbit (1990; played with Dick Tracy)
- Trail Mix-Up (1993; played with A Far Off Place)
- I'm Mad (1994; played with Thumbelina)
See also Films directed by Stanley Kubrick 1950s 1960sSpartacus (1960) · Lolita (1962) · Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb (1964) · 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) 1970s 1980s 1990sEyes Wide Shut (1999) Shorts Related OtherArchive • Personal life and beliefs • Unrealized projects
Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991) · Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country (1992) · Jurassic Park (1993) · Stargate (1994) · 12 Monkeys (1995) · Independence Day (1996) · Men in Black (1997) · Armageddon/Dark City (1998) · The Matrix (1999) · X-Men (2000) · A.I. (2001) · Minority Report (2002) · X2: X-Men United (2003) · Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind (2004) · Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith (2005) · Children of Men (2006) · Cloverfield (2007) · Iron Man (2008) · Avatar (2009) · Inception (2010)
Complete list · (1972–1990) · (1991–2010) Characters FilmsThe Adventures of Pinocchio (1936) · Disney's Pinocchio (1940) · The Adventures of Buratino (1959) · Pinocchio in Outer Space (1965) · Pinocchio (1968) · Pinocchio (1972) · The Adventures of Buratino (1975) · Pinocchio and the Emperor of the Night (1987) · Pinocchio (1993) · Pinocchio's Revenge (1996) · The Adventures of Pinocchio (1996) · Geppetto (2000) · A.I. Artificial Intelligence (2001) · A Tree of Palme (2002) · Pinocchio (2002) · Pinocchio 3000 (2004) · Pistachio – The Little Boy That Woodn't (2010) Television Other media Disney songs RelatedLand of Toys · Pinocchio paradox · Pinocchio illusion · Fontana a Pinocchio
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