A matriarchy is a society in which females, especially mothers, have the central roles of political leadership and moral authority. It is also sometimes called a gynocratic[citation needed] or gynocentric[citation needed] society. Although the Iroquois people continue to exist and they continue to present a society in which mothers exercise central moral and political roles, [1]some anthropologists and authors hold that there are no known societies that are unambiguously matriarchal,[2][3][4][5][6][7] There are also matrilinear, matrilocal, and avunculocal societies, especially among indigenous peoples of Asia and Africa,[8] such as those of the Minangkabau, E De (Rhade), Mosuo, Berbers and Tuareg and, in Europe, e.g., Sardinian people.[9][10] Strongly matrilocal societies sometimes are referred to as matrifocal, and there is some debate concerning the terminological delineation between matrifocality and matriarchy. Even in patriarchical systems of male-preference primogeniture, there may occasionally be queens regnant, as in the case of Elizabeth I of England.

In 19th century Western scholarship, the hypothesis of matriarchy representing an early stage of human development—now mostly lost in prehistory, with the exception of some "primitive" societies—enjoyed popularity. The hypothesis survived into the 20th century and was notably advanced in the context of feminism and especially second wave feminism, but this hypothesis of matriarchy as having been an early stage of human development is mostly discredited today, most experts saying that it never existed.[11]

Contemporary author Doug George-Kanentiio, in his chapter on the Iroquois family subtitled, "Women are the Center of Iroquois Life," explains, "In our society, women are the center of all things. Nature, we believe, has given women the ability to create; therefore it is only natural that women be in positions of power to protect this function....We traced our clans through women; a child born into the world assumed the clan membership of its mother. Our young women were expected to be physically strong....The young women received formal instruction intraditional planting....Since the Iroquois were absolutely dependent upon the crops they grew, whoever controlled this vital activity wielded great power within our communities. It was our belief that since women were the givers of life they naturally regulated the feeding of our people....In all countries, real wealth stems from the control of land and its resources. Our Iroquois philosophers knew this as well as we knew natural law. To us it made sense for women to control the land since they wee far more ensitive to the rhythms of the Mother Earth. We did not own the lad but were cutodians of it. Our women decided any and all issues involving territory, including where a community was to be built and how land was to be used....In our political system, we mandated full equality. Our leaders were selected by a caucus of women before the appointments were subject to popular review....Our traditional governments are composed of an equal number of men and women. The men are chiefs and the women clanmothers....As leaders, the women closely monitor the actions of the men and retain the right to veto any law they deem inappropriate....Our women not only hold the reigns of political and economic power, they also have the right to determine all issues involving the taking of human life. Declarations of war had to be approved by the women, while treaties of peace were subject to their deliberations."[12]

In "The Answer is Matriarchy," Barbara Love and Elizabeth Shanklin write, "When we hear the word 'matriarchy', we are conditioned to a number of responses: that matriarchy refers to the past and that matriarchies have never existed; that matriarchy is a hopeless fantasy of female domination, of mothers dominating children, of women being cruel to men..Conditioning us negatively to matriarchy is, of course, in the interests of patriarchs. We are made to feel that patriarchy is natural; we are less likely to question it, and less likely to direct our energies to ending it."[13]


Definitions and etymology

The word matriarchy is often interpreted to mean the opposite of patriarchy. from Greek matēr 'mother' and archein 'to rule'. Margot Adler wrote, "[l]iterally, ... ["matriarchy"] means government by mothers, or more broadly, government and power in the hands of women."[14] "'Matriarchy' can be thought of ... as a shorthand description for any society in which women's power is equal or superior to men's and in which the culture centers around values and life events described as 'feminine.'"[15] In the Marxist tradition, it usually refers to a preclass society "where women and men share equally in production and power."[16] Some consider the term as not being parallel to patriarchy, because it is not always defined in the same fashion differing only for gender.[17][18]

Matriarchy is also the public formation in which the woman occupies the ruling position in a family (a primary cell of society). Matriarchy has even been found where a quarter of Black families in the U.S. were headed by single women;[19] thus, families composing a substantial minority of a substantial minority could be enough for the latter to constitute a matriarchy within a larger nonmatriarchal society. In addition, some authors depart from the premise of a mother-child dyad as the core of a human group where the grandmother was the central ancestress with her children and grandchildren clustered around her in an extended family.[20]

According to journalist Margot Adler, "[a] number of feminists note that few definitions of the word ["matriarchy"], despite its literal meaning, include any concept of power, and they suggest that centuries of oppression have made it impossible for women to conceive of themselves with such power."[21]

Etymologically, according to the OED, the word matriarchy is first attested in 1885, building on an earlier matriarch, formed in analogy to patriarch, already in use in the early 17th century. By contrast, gynæcocracy, meaning 'rule of women', has been in use since the 17th century, building on the Greek word γυναικοκρατία found in Aristotle and Plutarch.[22][23]

The Matriarchal Studies school led by Heide Göttner-Abendroth calls for a more inclusive redefinition of the term: Göttner-Abendroth defines Modern Matriarchal Studies as the "investigation and presentation of non-patriarchal societies", effectively defining matriarchy as "non-patriarchy".[24] She has also defined matriarchy as characterized by the sharing of power equally between the two genders.[25] Similarly, Peggy Reeves Sanday (2004) favors redefining and reintroducing the word matriarchy, especially in reference to contemporary matrilineal societies such as the Minangkabau.

In "The Answer is Matriarchy," Barbara Love and Elizabeth Shanklin, write, "Toward a Definition of Matriarchy, By 'matriarchy,' we mean a nonalienated society: a society in which women, those who produce the next generation, define motherhood, determine the conditions of motherhood, and determine the environment in which the next generation is reared."[26]

Related concepts

Gynecocracy, gynaecocracy, gynocracy, gyneocracy, and gynarchy

Gynecocracy, gynaecocracy, gynocracy, gyneocracy, and gynarchy generally mean 'government by women over women and men'.[27][28][29][30] All of these words are synonyms in their most important definitions. While these words all share that principal meaning, they differ a little in their additional meanings, so that gynecocracy also means 'women's social supremacy',[31] gynaecocracy also means 'government by one woman', 'female dominance', and, derogatorily, 'petticoat government',[32] and gynocracy also means 'women as the ruling class'.[33] Gyneocracy is rarely used in modern times.[34] None of these definitions are limited to mothers.

Some matriarchies have been described by historian Helen Diner as "a strong gynocracy"[35] and "women monopolizing government"[36] and she described matriarchal Amazons as "an extreme, feminist wing"[37] of humanity and that North African women "ruled the country politically,"[35] and, according to Margot Adler, Helen Diner "envision[ed] a dominance matriarchy".[38]


Gynocentrism (simplified by using the reduced prefix gyno- for gynæco-) is the 'dominant or exclusive focus on women', is opposed to androcentrism, and "invert[s] ... the privilege of the ... [male/female] binary ... [some feminists] arguing for 'the superiority of values embodied in traditionally female experience'".[39]

Matrifocality and matricentrism

Due to a lack of a clear and consistent definition of the word matriarchy, several anthropologists have begun to use the term matrifocality. The terms matrifocal and matricentric, 'having a mother as head of the family or household', were first used in the mid 20th century.

Matrifocal societies are those in which women, especially mothers, occupy a central position. The term does not necessarily imply domination by women or mothers.[40] Anthropologist R. L. Smith (2002) refers to matrifocality as the kinship structure of a social system where the mothers assume structural prominence.[40] The Nair community in Kerala and the Bunt community in Tulunadu in South India are prime examples of matrifocality. This can be attributed to the fact that if males were largely warriors by profession, a community was bound to lose male members at youth, leading to a situation where the females assumed the role of running the family.


Feminist scholars and archeologists such as Marija Gimbutas, Gerda Lerner, and Riane Eisler[41] describe their notion of a "woman-centered" society surrounding Mother Goddess worship throughout prehistory (Paleolithic and Neolithic Europe) and ancient civilizations, by using the term matristic rather than matriarchal.


Matrilineality is sometimes confused with historical matriarchy.[42]


Societies in which a couple resides close to the bride's family rather than the bridegroom's family are termed "matrilocal" by anthropologists.


18th century

The Iroquois Confederacy or League, combining five to six American Indian nations or tribes before the U.S. became a nation, operated by The Great Binding Law of Peace, a constitution by which women participated in the League's political decision-making, including deciding whether to proceed to war,[43] through what may have been a matriarchy[44] or "'gyneocracy'".[45] The dates of this constitution's operation are unknown: the League was formed in approximately 10001450, but the constitution was oral until written in about 1880.[46] The League still exists.

19th century

The notion of matriarchy was defined by Joseph-Francois Lafitau (1681–1746), who first named it "ginecocratie".

The controversy surrounding prehistoric or "primal" matriarchy began in reaction to the book by Johann Jakob Bachofen Mother Right: An Investigation of the Religious and Juridical Character of Matriarchy in the Ancient World in 1861. Several generations of ethnologists were inspired by his pseudo-evolutionary theory of archaic matriarchy. Following him and Jane Ellen Harrison, several generations of scholars, usually arguing from known myths or oral traditions and examination of Neolithic female cult-figures, suggested that many ancient societies might have been matriarchal, or even that there existed a wide-ranging matriarchal society prior to the ancient cultures of which we are aware.

The concept was further investigated by Lewis H. Morgan, LL. D.[47] Many researchers studied the phenomenon of matriarchy afterward, but the basis was laid by the classics of sociology. In their works Bachofen and Lewis Morgan used such terms and expressions as mother-right, female rule, gyneocracy, and female authority. All these terms meant the same: the rule by females (mother or wife).

The notion of a "woman-centered" society was developed by J. J. Bachofen, whose three-volume Myth, religion, and mother right (1861) impacted the way classicists such as Jane Harrison, Sir Arthur Evans, Walter Burkert, and James Mellaart[48] looked at the evidence of matriarchal religion in pre-Hellenic societies.[49]

A claim of "matriarchy" in the ancient Near East is also found in The Cambridge Ancient History (1975):[50] "the predominance of a supreme goddess is probably a reflection from the practice of matriarchy which at all times characterized Elamite civilization to a greater or lesser degree".

The following excerpts from Lewis Morgan's "Ancient Society" will explain the use of the terms: "In a work of vast research, Bachofen has collected and discussed the evidence of female authority, mother-right, and of female rule, gynecocracy."

"Common lands and joint tillage would lead to joint-tenant houses and communism in living; so that gyneocracy seems to require for its creation, descent in the female line. Women thus entrenched in large households, supplied from common stores, in which their own gens so largely predominated in numbers, would produce the phenomena of mother right and gyneocracy, which Bachofen has detected and traced with the aid of fragments of history and of tradition."

Although Bachofen and Lewis Morgan confined the "mother right" inside households, it was the basis of female influence upon the whole society. The authors of the classics never thought that gyneocracy could mean 'female government' in politics. They were aware of the fact that the sexual structure of government had no relation to domestic rule and to roles of both sexes.

The 19th-century belief that matriarchal societies existed, a belief now abandoned among most scholars, was due to the transmission of "economic and social power ... through kinship lines"[51] so that "in a matrilineal society all power would be channeled through women. Women may not have retained all power and authority in such societies ..., but they would have been in a position to control and dispense power."[51]

Friedrich Engels, among others studying historical groups, formed the notion that some contemporary primitive peoples did not grasp the link between sexual intercourse and pregnancy.[citation needed] Research indicated that sexual intercourse occurred from early ages and pregnancy only occurred much later, seemingly unrelated to the sexual activity. He proposed that these cultures had no clear notion of paternity, according to this hypothesis; women produced children mysteriously, without necessary links to the man or men with whom they had sex. When realization of paternity occurred, according to the hypothesis, men acted to claim a power to monopolize women and claim their offspring as possessions and patriarchy began.

20th century

Ethnographer Bronisław Malinowski, from the London School of Economics, lived among aborigines of the Trobriand Islands (Western Melanesia) and studied their society in 1914-1918. In his book Argonauts Of The Western Pacific,[52] B. Malinowski pointed at a matrilineal construction of the islanders' societies and at a high female position:

"Their system of kinship is matrilineal, and women hold a very good position, and wield great influence."[53]

"The Trobrianders are matrilineal, that is, in tracing descent and settling inheritance, they follow the maternal line. A child belongs to the clan and village community of its mother, and wealth, as well as social position, are inherited, not from father to son, but from maternal uncle to nephew."[54]

"As regards kinship, the main thing to be remembered is that the natives are matrilineal, and that the succession of rank, membership in all the social groups, and the inheritance of possessions descend in the maternal line."[54]

Property was succeeded inside the mother-line: "The ownership of trees in the village grove and ownership in garden plots is ceded by the father to his son during the lifetime of the former. At his death, it often has to be returned to the man's rightful heirs, that is, his sister's children."[54]

A man had a life-long obligation to work for women and their relatives in that society: "They entail a life-long obligation of every man to work for his kinswomen and their families. When a boy begins to garden, he does it for his mother. When his sisters grow up and marry, he works for them. If he has neither mother nor sisters, his nearest female blood relation will claim the proceeds of his labour".[55]

By studying several different tribes of the Western Pacific (employing the method of comparison, popular in ethnography), Malinowski gave confirmations of Lewis Morgan's idea that matriarchy (gyneocracy)[56] was a common feature of primitive societies at early stages, and that female rule needed matrilineality for its existence. He also confirmed that matrilineality often goes hand in hand with promiscuous free love (a fact that was discovered[citation needed] by Bachofen).

According to B. Malinowski:

"As a rule, amongst natives, a high position of women is associated with sex laxity."[57]

"The sexual life of these natives [the Southern Massim tribe] is extremely lax. Even when we remember the very free standard of sex morals in the Melanesian tribes of New Guinea, such as the Motu or the Mailu, we still find these natives exceedingly loose in such matters. Certain reserves and appearances which are usually kept up in other tribes, are here completely abandoned. As is probably the case in many communities where sex morals are lax, there is a complete absence of unnatural practices and sex perversions. Marriage is concluded as the natural end of a long and lasting liaison."[57]

"[The Trobrianders'] sexual life starts long before puberty arrives, and gradually shapes and develops as the organism matures... Chastity is an unknown virtue among these natives. At an incredibly early age they become initiated into sexual life... As they grow up, they live in promiscuous free-love, which gradually develops into more permanent attachments... Marriage is associated with hardly any public or private rite or ceremony. The woman simply joins her husband in his house... In her married life, the woman is supposed to remain faithful to her husband, but this rule is neither very strictly kept nor enforced. In all other ways, she retains a great measure of independence."[52]

Austrian writer Bertha Diener, also known as Helen Diner, wrote Mothers and Amazons (1930), which was the first work to focus on women's cultural history. Hers is regarded as a classic of feminist matriarchal study.[58] Her view is that in the past all human societies were matriarchal; then, at some point, most shifted to patriarchal and degenerated.

The controversy was reinforced further by the publication of The White Goddess by Robert Graves (1948) and his later analysis of classical Greek mythology and the vestiges of earlier myths that had been rewritten after a profound change in the religion of Greek civilization that occurred within its very early historical times.

From the 1950s, Marija Gimbutas developed a theory of an Old European culture in neolithic Europe which had matriarchal traits, replaced by the patriarchal system of the Proto-Indo-Europeans with the spread of Indo-European languages beginning in the Bronze Age.

From the 1970s, these ideas were taken up by popular writers of second-wave feminism and expanded with the speculations of Margaret Murray on witchcraft, by the Goddess movement, and in feminist Wicca, as well as in works by Elizabeth Gould Davis, Riane Eisler, and Merlin Stone.

The concept of a matriarchal golden age in the Neolithic Age has been denounced as feminist wishful thinking in The Inevitability of Patriarchy, in Why Men Rule, more recently by Philip G. Davis in Goddess Unmasked (1998), and by Cynthia Eller, professor at Montclair State University, in The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory (2000). According to Eller, Gimbutas had a large part in constructing a myth of historical matriarchy by examining Eastern Europe cultures that she asserts, by and large, never really bore any resemblance in character to the alleged universal matriarchy suggested by Gimbutas and Graves. She asserts that in "actually documented primitive societies" of recent (historical) times, paternity is never ignored and that the sacred status of goddesses does not automatically increase female social status, and believes that this affirms that utopian matriarchy is simply an inversion of antifeminism. The feminist scenarios of Neolithic matriarchy have been called into question and are not emphasized in third-wave feminism.

The original evidence recognized by Gimbutas, however, of Neolithic societies being more egalitarian than the Bronze Age Indo-European and Semitic patriarchies remains valid. Gimbutas herself has not described these societies as "matriarchal", preferring the term "woman-centered" or "matristic". Del Giorgio, in The Oldest Europeans (2006), insists on a matrifocal, matrilocal, matrilineal Paleolithic society.

While the existence of numerous matrilineal or avuncular societies is undisputed, it has been recognized since the 1970s that there are no societies which are matriarchal in the strong sense that some societies are patriarchal. Joan Bamberger in her 1974 The Myth of Matriarchy argued that the historical record contains no reliable evidence of any society in which women dominated. Although in 1977 cultural anthropologist Jules de Leeuwe argued that some societies were "mainly gynecocratic"[59] (others being "mainly androcratic"),[59] he did not identify any in his short response.[59] Anthropologist Donald Brown's list of "human cultural universals" (i.e., features shared by all current human societies) includes men being the "dominant element" in public political affairs (Brown 1991, p. 137), which he asserts is the contemporary opinion of mainstream anthropology.

Kurt Derungs is a non-academic author advocating an "anthropology of landscape" based on allegedly matriarchal traces in toponymy and folklore.

21st century

According to Adovasio, Soffer, and Page, no true matriarchy is known actually to have existed,[42] although there is evidence of Amazons and an Amazonian society having existed and some matrifocal societies do exist.[citation needed] Spokespersons for various indigenous peoples at the United Nations and elsewhere have highlighted the central role of women in their societies, referring to them as matriarchies, or as matriarchal in character.[60][61]


Greece and Rome

A legendary matriarchy related by classical Greek writers was the Amazon society. Herodotus reported that the Sarmatians were descendants of Amazons and Scythians, and that their females observed their ancient maternal customs, "frequently hunting on horseback with their husbands; in war taking the field; and wearing the very same dress as the men". Moreover, said Herodotus, "[n]o girl shall wed till she has killed a man in battle". Amazons came to play a role in Roman historiography. Julius Caesar spoke of the conquest of large parts of Asia by Semiramis and the Amazons. Although Strabo was sceptical about their historicity, the Amazons were taken as historical throughout late Antiquity.[62] Several Church Fathers spoke of the Amazons as a real people. Medieval authors continued a tradition of locating the Amazons in the North, Adam of Bremen placing them at the Baltic Sea and Paulus Diaconus in the heart of Germania.[63]

Historian Ronald Hutton has argued that there is no necessary correlation between the worship of female deities and relative levels of social or legal egalitarianism, noting the late classical Greek and Roman religions, in which goddesses played important roles. The changes from the earlier mythology are not considered in her analysis, however, and the late classical myths were dominated by male deities. Hutton has also pointed out that, in more recent European history, in 17th century Spain, there were many religious institutions staffed exclusively by women.

In Greek mythology, Zeus is said to have swallowed his pregnant wife, the goddess Metis, who was carrying their daughter, Athena. The mother and child created havoc inside Zeus. Either Hermes or Hephaestus split Zeus's head, allowing Athena, in full battle armor, to burst forth from his forehead. Athena was thus described as being "born" from Zeus. Zeus was pleased with the outcome a prophecy that his son would surpass him had not been fulfilled. Robert Graves suggested that this myth displaced earlier myths that had to change when a major cultural change brought patriarchy to replace a matriarchy.

Apparently as criticism, about 2,400 years ago, in 390 BCE, Aristophanes wrote a play, Ecclesiazusae, about women gaining legislative power and governing Athens, Greece, on a limited principle of equality. In the play, Praxagora, a character, argues that women should rule because they are superior to men, not equal, and yet she declines to assert publicly her right to rule, although elected and although acting in office.[64] The play also suggests that women would rule by not allowing politics, in order to prevent disappointment, and that affirmative action would be applied to heterosexual relationships.[64] In the play, written when Athens was a male-only democracy where women could not vote or rule, women were presented as unassertive and unrealistic, and thus not qualified to govern.[64] The play was a fable on the theme that women should stay home.[65]

Celtic myth and society

"[T]here is plenty of evidence of ancient societies where women held greater power than in many societies today. For example, Jean Markale's studies of Celtic societies show that the power of women was reflected not only in myth and legend but in legal codes pertaining to marriage, divorce, property ownership, and the right to rule."[66]

South America

Bamberger (1974) examines several matriarchal myths from South American cultures and concludes that portraying the women from this matriarchal period as evil often serves to restrain contemporary women.[clarification needed]

In feminist thought

While matriarchy has mostly fallen out of use for the anthropological description of existing societies, it remains current as a concept in feminism.[67][68]

In first-wave feminist discourse, either Elizabeth Cady Stanton or Margaret Fuller (it is unclear who was first) introduced the concept of matriarchy[69] and the discourse was joined in by Matilda Joslyn Gage.[70] Victoria Woodhull, in 1871, called for men to open the U.S. government to women or a new constitution and government would be formed in a year;[71] and, on a basis of equality, she ran to be elected President in 1872.[72][73] Charlotte Perkins Gilman, in 1911 and 1914,[74] argued for "[a] woman-centered, or better mother-centered, world"[75] and described "'[g]overnment by women'".[76] She argued that a government led by either sex must be assisted by the other,[77] both genders being "useful ... and should in our governments be alike used",[78] because men and women have different qualities.[79]

Cultural feminism includes "matriarchal worship", according to Prof. James Penner.[80]

In feminist literature, matriarchy and patriarchy are not conceived as simple mirrors of each other.[81] While matriarchy sometimes means "the political rule of women",[82] that meaning is often rejected, on the ground that matriarchy is not a mirroring of patriarchy.[83] Patriarchy is held to be about power over others while matriarchy is held to be about power from within,[81] Starhawk having written on that distinction[81][84] and Margot Adler having argued that matriarchal power is not possessive and not controlling, but is harmonious with nature.[85]

A minority of feminists, generally radical or lesbian,[67][68] have argued that women should govern societies of women and men. In all of these advocacies, the governing women are not limited to mothers:

  • In her book Scapegoat: The Jews, Israel, and Women’s Liberation, Andrea Dworkin stated that she wanted women to have their own country, "Womenland,"[86] which, comparable to Israel, would serve as a "place of potential refuge".[86][87] In the Palestine Solidarity Review, Veronica A. Ouma reviewed the book and argued her view that while Dworkin "pays lip service to the egalitarian nature of ... [stateless] societies [without hierarchies], she envisions a state whereby women either impose gender equality or a state where females rule supreme above males."[88]
  • Phyllis Chesler wrote in Women and Madness (2005 and 1972) that feminist women must "dominate public and social institutions".[89] She also wrote that women fare better when controlling the means of production[90] and that equality with men should not be supported,[91] even if female domination is no more "'just'"[91] than male domination.[91] On the other hand, in 1985, she was "probably more of a feminist-anarchist ... more mistrustful of the organisation of power into large bureaucratic states [than she was in 1972]".[92] Between Chesler's 1972 and 2005 editions, Dale Spender wrote that Chesler "takes [as] a ... stand [that] .... [e]quality is a spurious goal, and of no use to women: the only way women can protect themselves is if they dominate particular institutions and can use them to serve women's interests. Reproduction is a case in point."[93] Spender wrote Chesler "remarks ... women will be superior".[94]
  • Monique Wittig authored, as fiction, Les Guérillères,[95] describing a "female State".[96] Scholarly interpretations of it include that women win a war against men,[97][98] "reconcil[e]"[99] with "those men of good will who come to join them",[99] exercise feminist autonomy[100] through polyandry,[101] decide how to govern,[100] and rule the men.[102] Another interpretation is that the author created an "'open structure' of freedom".[103]
  • Mary Daly wrote of hag-ocracy, "the place we ["[w]omen traveling into feminist time/space"] govern",[104] and of reversing phallocratic rule[105] in the 1990s (i.e., when published).[106] She considered equal rights as tokenism that works against sisterhood, even as she supported abortion being legal and other reforms.[107] She considered her book female and anti-male.[108]

Some such advocacies are informed by work on past matriarchy:

  • According to Prof. Linda M. G. Zerilli, "an ancient matriarchy ... [was "in early second-wave feminism"] the lost object of women's freedom."[109] Prof. Cynthia Eller found widespread acceptance of matriarchal myth during feminism's second wave.[110] Eller said that, other than a few separatist radical lesbian feminists, spiritual feminists would include "a place for men ... in which they can be happy and productive, if not necessarily powerful and in control"[111] and might have social power as well.[112]
  • Jill Johnston envisioned a "return to the former glory and wise equanimity of the matriarchies"[113] in the future[113] and "imagined lesbians as constituting an imaginary radical state, and invoked 'the return to the harmony of statehood and biology....'"[114] Her work inspired efforts at implementation by the Lesbian Organization of Toronto (LOOT) in 19761980[115] and in Los Angeles.[116]
  • One organization that was named The Feminists was interested in matriarchy[117] and was one of the largest of the radical feminist women's liberation groups of the 1960s.[118] Two members wanted "'the restoration of female rule'",[119] but the organization's founder, Ti-Grace Atkinson, would have objected had she remained in the organization, because, according to a historian, "[she] had always doubted that women would wield power differently from men."[120]
  • Robin Morgan wrote of women fighting for and creating a "gynocratic world".[121]
  • Margot Adler reported, "[i]f feminists have diverse views on the matriarchies of the past, they also are of several minds on the goals for the future. A woman in the coven of Ursa Maior told me, '[r]ight now I am pushing for women's power in any way I can, but I don't know whether my ultimate aim is a society where all human beings are equal, regardless of the bodies they were born into, or whether I would rather see a society where women had institutional authority.'"[122]

An egalitarian model is also promoted. On egalitarian matriarchy,[123] Heide Göttner-Abendroth's International Academy for Modern Matriarchal Studies and Matriarchal Spirituality (HAGIA) organized conferences in Luxembourg in 2003[124] and Texas in 2005,[125][126] with papers published.[127] Göttner-Abendroth argued that "[m]atriarchies are all egalitarian at least in terms of gender—they have no gender hierarchy .... [, that, f]or many matriarchal societies, the social order is completely egalitarian at both local and regional levels",[128] that, "for our own path toward new egalitarian societies, we can gain ... insight from ... ["tested"] matriarchal patterns",[129] and that "matriarchies are not abstract utopias, constructed according to philosophical concepts that could never be implemented."[130]

"[A] deep distrust of men's ability to adhere to"[131] future matriarchal requirements may invoke a need "to retain at least some degree of female hegemony to insure against a return to patriarchal control",[131] "feminists ... [having] the understanding that female dominance is better for society—and better for men—than the present world order",[132] as is equalitarianism. On the other hand, if men can be trusted to accept equality, probably most feminists seeking future matriarchy would accept an equalitarian model.[132]

"Demographic[ally]",[133] "feminist matriarchalists run the gamut"[133] but primarily are "in white, well-educated, middle-class circles";[133] many of the adherents are "religiously inclined"[133] while others are "quite secular".[133]

Biology as a ground for holding either males or females superior over the other has been criticized as invalid, such as by Andrea Dworkin[134] and by Robin Morgan, in The Demon Lover. A claim that women have unique characteristics that prevent women's assimilation with men has been apparently rejected by Ti-Grace Atkinson.[135] On the other hand, not all advocates based their arguments on biology or essentialism.

A criticism of choosing who governs according to gender or sex is that the best qualified people should be chosen, regardless of gender or sex.[136] On the other hand, merit was considered insufficient for office, because a legal right granted by a sovereign (e.g., a king), was more important than merit.[137]

Diversity within a proposed community can make it especially challenging to complete forming the community.[138] However, some advocacy includes diversity.[139]

Prof. Christine Stansell, a feminist, wrote that, for feminists to achieve state power, women must democratically cooperate with men. "[W]omen must take their place with a new generation of brothers in a struggle for the world's fortunes. Herland, whether of virtuous matrons or daring sisters, is not an option.... [T]he well-being and liberty of women cannot be separated from democracy's survival."[140] (Herland was feminist utopian fiction by Charlotte Perkins Gilman,[141] featuring a community entirely of women except for three men who seek it out,[142] strong women in a matriarchal utopia,[143] although Charlotte Perkins Gilman was herself[144] a feminist advocate of society being gender-integrated and of women's freedom.)

Other criticisms of superiority are that it is reverse sexism or discriminatory against men, it is opposed by most people including most feminists, women do not want such a position,[136] governing takes women away from family responsibilities, women are too likely to be unable to serve politically because of menstruation and pregnancy,[145] public affairs are too sordid for women[146] and would cost women their respect,[147] superiority is not traditional,[136][148] it is impractical because of a shortage of women with the ability to govern at that level of difficulty,[136][147] including the desire and ability to wage war,[136] women legislating would not serve men's interests[147][149] or would serve only petty interests,[147] it is contradicted by current science on genderal differences,[136] and it is unnatural.[150][151][152][153]

Pursuing a future matriarchy would tend to risk sacrificing feminists' position in present social arrangements, and many feminists are not willing to take that chance.[131] "Political feminists tend to regard discussions of what utopia would look like as a good way of setting themselves up for disappointment"[154] and argue that immediate political issues must get the highest priorty.[154]

"'[M]atriarchists'" as typified by comic character Wonder Woman were criticized by Kathie Sarachild, Carol Hanisch, and some others.[155]

In religious thought

Some theology and theocracy limit or forbid women from being in civil government or public leadership or forbid them from voting.[156] Within none of the following religions is the respective view necessarily universally held:

  • In Islam, some Muslim scholars hold that female political leadership is prohibited.[157] The prohibition has been attributed to a hadith of Muhammad,[158] the founder and last prophet of Islam. The hadith says, "A people which has a woman as leader will never prosper."[159] The hadith's transmission, context, and meaning have been questioned.[160] The prohibition has also been attributed as an extension of a ban on women leading prayers "in mixed gatherings" (which has been challenged)[161] and to a restriction on women traveling (an attribution also challenged).[162] Possibly, the hadith applies only against being head of state and not other high office.[163] One source would allow a woman to "occupy every position except that of khalīfa (the leader of all Muslims)."[164] One exception to the head-of-state prohibition was accepted without a general acceptance of women in political leadership.[165] Political activism at lower levels may be more acceptable to Islamist women than top leadership positions.[166][167] The Muslim Brotherhood has stated that women may not be president or head of state but may hold other public offices but, "[a]s for judiciary office, .... [t]he majority of jurispudents ... have forbidden it completely."[168] In a study of 82 Islamists in Europe, 80% said women could not be state leaders but 75% said women could hold other high positions.[169] In 1994, the Muslim Brotherhood said that "'social circumstances and traditions'" may justify gradualism in the exercise of women's right to hold office (below head of state).[170] Whether the Muslim Brothers still support that statement is unclear.[171] As reported in 1953, "Islamic organizations held a conference in the office of the Muslim Brothers .... [and] claim[ed] ... that it had been proven that political rights for women were contrary to religion".[172] Some nations have specific bans. In Iran at times, women have been forbidden to fill some political offices because of law or because of judgments made under the Islamic religion.[173] As to Saudi Arabia, "Saudi women ... are ... not allowed to enter parliament as anything more than advisors; they cannot vote, much less serve as representatives".[174]
  • In Judaism, among orthodox leaders, a position, beginning before Israel became a modern state, has been that for women to hold public office in Israel would threaten the state's existence, according to educator Tova Hartman,[175] who reports the view has "wide consensus".[176] When Israel ratified the international women's equality agreement known as CEDAW, it reserved nonenforcement for any religious communities that forbid women from sitting on religious courts.[177] "[T]he tribunals that adjudicate marital issues are by religious law and by custom entirely male."[178] "'Men's superiority' is a fundamental tenet in Judaism".[179] Likud party-led "governments have been less than hospitable to women's high-level participation."[180]
  • In Buddhism, some hold that "[t]he Buddha allegedly hesitated to admit women to the Saṅgha ...."[181] "[I]n certain Buddhist countries—Burma, Cambodia, Laos, Sri Lanka, and Thailand—women are categorically denied admission to the Saṅgha, Buddhism's most fundamental institution."[182] "Throughout history, the support of the Saṅgha has been actively sought as a means of legitimation by those wishing to gain and maintain positions of political power in Buddhist countries."[183]
  • Hindu nationalist political leaders only include women as "exception[s]"[184] and even their legitimacy is debated without a conclusion from "India's most extensive all-male Hindu nationalist organization, the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh" (article).[185] That an exception is allowed is offered only by the organization's "women's wing".[186]


Feminist thealogy conceptualized humanity as beginning with "female-ruled or equalitarian societies",[187] until displaced by patriarchies,[188] and that in the millennial future "'gynocentric,' life-loving values"[188] will return to prominence.[188] This produces "a virtually infinite number of years of female equality or superiority coming both at the beginning and end of historical time."[189]

Among criticisms is that a future matriarchy, as a reflection of spirituality, is conceived as timeless and ahistorical,[190] and thus may be unrealistic or even meaningless as a goal to secular feminists. Many of what are labeled as matriarchies may be more accurately labeled as matrifocal, matristic, or gynocentric instead, thus lowering the number of true or narrowly-defined matriarches that existed in the past[191] as models for the future. Parts of a thealogical history of matriarchy may be unsupported by secular modern historical scholarship.

See also


  1. ^ Doug George-Kanentiio, Iroquois Culture & Commentary (New Mexico: Clear Light Publishers, 2000, pp.53-55.
  2. ^ Steven Goldberg, The Inevitability of Patriarchy, (William Morrow & Company, 1973).
  3. ^ Joan Bamberger,'The Myth of Matriarchy: Why Men Rule in Primitive Society', in M Rosaldo and L Lamphere, Women, Culture, and Society, (Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1974), pp. 263-280.
  4. ^ Donald E. Brown, Human Universals (Philadelphia: Temple University Press), 1991.
  5. ^ Cynthia Eller, The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory: Why an Invented Past Won't Give Women a Future, (Boston: Beacon Press, 2001).
  6. ^ Jonathan Marks, 'Essay 8: Primate Behavior', in The Un-Textbook of Biological Anthropology, (Unpublished, 2007), p. 11.
  7. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica describes this view as "consensus", listing matriarchy as a hypothetical social system. 'Matriarchy' Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007."
  8. ^ Modern Matriarchal Studies Definitions, Scope and Topicality - Heide Goettner-Abendroth
  9. ^ LA FAMIGLIA E LA DONNA IN SARDEGNA ANNOTAZIONI DI STUDIO 2005, vol. 71, no3, pp. 487-498 [12 page(s) (article)] (dissem.)
  10. ^ Sardegna matriarcale (in italian)
  11. ^ "The view of matriarchy as constituting a stage of cultural development now is generally discredited. Furthermore, the consensus among modern anthropologists and sociologists is that a strictly matriarchal society never existed." 'Matriarchy', Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007.
  12. ^ Doug George-Kanentiio, Iroquois Culture & Commentary, New Mexico, Clear Light Publishers, 2000, pp. 53-55.
  13. ^ Barbara Love and Elizabeth Shanklin, "The Answer is Matriarchy," Mothering: Essays in Feminist Theory, edited by Joyce Trebilcot (New Jersey: Rowman & Allanheld, 1984)
  14. ^ Adler, Margot, Drawing Down the Moon: Witches, Druids, Goddess-Worshippers, and Other Pagans in America (N.Y.: Penguin Books, 2006 (ISBN 0 14 30.3819 2)), p. 193 (previous editions in 1979, 1986, & 1997) (italics so in original) (author then N.Y. Bureau Chief for National Public Radio).
  15. ^ Eller, Cynthia, The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory: Why an Invented Past Won't Give Women a Future (Boston, Mass.: Beacon Press, 2000 (ISBN 0-8070-6792-X)), pp. 12–13.
  16. ^ Adler, Margot, Drawing Down the Moon (2006), op. cit., p. 194.
  17. ^ Eller, Cynthia, Living in the Lap of the Goddess: The Feminist Spirituality Movement in America (Boston, Mass.: Beacon Press, 1995 (ISBN 0-8070-6507-2)), pp. 161–162 & 184 & n. 84 (author, with doctorate in religion from Univ. of Southern Calif., taught at Yale Divinity School & Fairleigh Dickinson Univ.) (p. 184 n. 84 probably citing Spretnak, Charlene, ed., Politics of Women's Spirituality: Essays on the Rise of Spiritual Power Within the Feminist Movement (Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books, 1982), p. xiii (Spretnak, Charlene, Introduction)).
  18. ^ Goettner-Abendroth, Heide, ed., Societies of Peace: Matriarchies Past, Present and Future: Selected Papers: First World Congress on Matriarchal Studies, 2003 [/] Second World Congress on Matriarchal Studies, 2005 (Toronto, Ont., Canada: Inanna Publications & Educ. (York Univ.), 2009 (ISBN 978-0-9782233-5-9)), pp. 1–2 (ed. a/k/a Heide Göttner-Abendroth) (ed. founder Modern Matriachal Studies & HAGIA & was visiting prof., Univ. of Montreal & Univ. of Innsbruck (Austria)).
  19. ^ Donovan, Josephine, Feminist Theory: The Intellectual Traditions (N.Y.: Continuum, 3d ed. 2000 (ISBN 0-8264-1248-3)), p. 171 (author prof. Eng., Univ. of Maine), citing Moynihan, Daniel, The Negro Family: The Case for National Action (1965) ("In this analysis Moynihan asserted that since a fourth of black families were headed by single women, black society was a matriarchy .... [and t]his situation undermined the confidence and 'manhood' of black men, and therefore prevented their competing successfully in the white work world.") and citing hooks, bell, either Ain't I a Woman: Black Women and Feminism (Boston: South End, 1981) or Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center (Boston: South End, 1984) (probably former), pp. 181–187 ("[f]reedom came to be seen by some black militants as a liberation from the oppression caused by black women"), id., hooks, bell, pp. 180–181 ("many black men 'absorbed' the Moynihan ideology, and this misogyny itself became absorbed into the black freedom movement" and included this, "Moynihan's view", as a case of "American neo-Freudian revisionism where women who evidenced the slightest degree of independence were perceived as 'castrating' threats to the male identity"), and see id., hooks, bell, p. 79.
  20. ^ Goddesses and the divine feminine: a Western religious history, Rosemary Radford Ruether, p. 18
  21. ^ Adler, Margot, Drawing Down the Moon (2006), op. cit., p. 194.
  22. ^ γυναικοκρατία Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon
  23. ^ γυ^ναικο-κρα^τέομαι Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon
  24. ^ Introduction to the "Second World Congress on Matriarchal Studies".
  25. ^ DeMott, Tom, The Investigator (review of Bennholdt-Thomsen, Veronika, Cornelia Giebeler, Brigitte Holzer, & Marina Meneses, Juchitán, City of Women (Mexico: Consejo Editorial, 1994)), as accessed Feb. 6, 2011.
  26. ^ Barbara Love and Elizabeth Shanklin, "The Answer is Matriarchy," in Mothering: Essays in Feminist Theory, edited by Joyce Trebilcot (New Jersey: Rowman & Allenheld, 1983), pp. 275.
  27. ^ The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, [4th] ed. 1993 (ISBN 0-19-861271-0)), entries gynaecocracy, gynocracy, gynarchy, & gyneocracy.
  28. ^ Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language Unabridged (G. & C. Merriam (Merriam-Webster), 1966), entries gynecocracy, gynocracy, & gynarchy.
  29. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin, 3d ed. 1992 (ISBN 0-395-44895-6)), entries gynecocracy, gynocracy, & gynarchy.
  30. ^ Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary (N.Y.: Random House, 2d ed. 2001 (ISBN 0-375-42566-7)), entries gynecocracy & gynarchy.
  31. ^ Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language Unabridged, op. cit., entry gynecocracy.
  32. ^ The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, op. cit., entry gynaecocracy.
  33. ^ The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, op. cit., entry gynocracy.
  34. ^ The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, op. cit., entry gyneocracy.
  35. ^ a b Diner, Helen, ed. & trans. John Philip Lundin, Mothers and Amazons: The First Feminine History of Culture (N.Y.: Julian Press, 1965) ("the German edition of her work ... appeared in the early 1930s" under the author's pseudonym Sir Galahad, per id., p. vi (Campbell, Joseph, Introduction (N.Y.: Aug., 1965)) (author "Viennese society woman ... authored several books under the pseudonym Sir Galahad", id., dust jacket, rear flap (The Author)) (this work trans. from German, per id., dust jacket, rear flap (The Author))), p. 137.
  36. ^ Diner, Helen, Mothers and Amazons (trans. 1965 (original early 1930s)), op. cit., p. 136.
  37. ^ Diner, Helen, Mothers and Amazons (trans. 1965 (original 1930s)), op. cit., p. 123 and see p. 122.
  38. ^ Adler, Margot, Drawing Down the Moon (2006), op. cit., p. 195.
  39. ^ Latter quotation: Davis, Debra Diane, Breaking Up [at] Totality: A Rhetoric of Laughter (Carbondale: Southern Ill. Univ. Press, 2000 (ISBN 0-8093-2228-5)), p. 137 (& see pp. 136–137 & 143) (brackets in title so in original) & quoting Young, Iris M., Humanism, Gynocentrism, and Feminist Politics., in Women's Studies International Forum, 8 (1985), p. 173 (author D. Diane Davis asst. prof. rhetoric, Univ. of Iowa).
  40. ^ a b Smith R.T. (2002) Matrifocality, in International encyclopedia of the social and behavioral sciences (eds) Smelser & Baltes, vol 14, pp 9416.
  41. ^ Eisler, Riane, The Chalice and the Blade, as cited at the author's website, as accessed Jan. 26, 2011.
  42. ^ a b Adovasio, J. M., Olga Soffer, & Jake Page, The Invisible Sex: Uncovering the True Roles of Women in Prehistory (Smithsonian Books & Collins (HarperCollinsPublishers), 1st Smithsonian Books ed. 2007 (ISBN 978-0-06-117091-1)), pp. 251–255, esp. p. 255.
  43. ^ Jacobs, Renée E., Iroquois Great Law of Peace and the United States Constitution: How the Founding Fathers Ignored the Clan Mothers, in American Indian Law Review, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 497-531, esp. pp. 498-509 (© author 1991).
  44. ^ Jacobs, Renée, Iroquois Great Law of Peace and the United States Constitution, in American Indian Law Review, op. cit., pp. 506–507.
  45. ^ Jacobs, Renée, Iroquois Great Law of Peace and the United States Constitution, in American Indian Law Review, op. cit., p. 505 & p. 506 n. 38, quoting Carr, L., The Social and Political Position of Women Among the Huron-Iroquois Tribes, Report of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology, p. 223 (1884).
  46. ^ Jacobs, Renée, Iroquois Great Law of Peace and the United States Constitution, in American Indian Law Review, op. cit., p. 498 & n. 6.
  47. ^ L. Morgan, "Ancient Society Or Researches in the Lines of Human Progress from Savagery through Barbarism to Civilization"
  48. ^ Goddesses and the divine feminine: a Western religious history, Rosemary Radford Ruether, p. 15
  49. ^ Myth, religion, and mother right
  50. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, volumes 1-4, p.400
  51. ^ a b Eller, Cynthia, Living in the Lap of the Goddess, op. cit., p. 152 and see pp. 158–161.
  52. ^ a b "Argonauts Of The Western Pacific"
  53. ^ Malinowski, Bronisław, Argonauts Of The Western Pacific, op. cit., ch. I.
  54. ^ a b c Malinowski, Bronisław, Argonauts Of The Western Pacific, op. cit., ch. II.
  55. ^ Malinowski, Bronisław, Argonauts Of The Western Pacific, op. cit., ch. VI.
  56. ^ Leacock, Eleanor, Women's Status in Egalitarian Society: Implications for Social Evolution, in Current Anthropology, vol. 33, no. 1, supp. Inquiry and Debate in the Human Sciences: Contributions from Current Anthropology, 1960–1990 (Feb., 1992 (ISSN 00113204 & E-ISSN 15375382)), p. 232 (essay originally appeared in Current Anthropology, vol. 19, no. 2 (Jun., 1978)) (author Eleanor Leacock prof. anthro., City Coll. & Grad. Faculty of City Univ. of N.Y.).
  57. ^ a b Malinowski, Bronisław, Argonauts Of The Western Pacific, op. cit.
  58. ^ Helen Diner Who wrote Mothers and Amazons (1930), entry at the Brooklyn Museum Dinner Party database of notable women. Retrieved March 2008.
  59. ^ a b c Leeuwe, Jules de, untitled comment (Nov. 18, 1977) (emphases so in original), as a response to and with Leacock, Eleanor, Women's Status in Egalitarian Society, op. cit., p. 241.
  60. ^ Stella Tamang, Indigenous Affairs 1-2/04 p46.
  61. ^ Six Nations Women’s Traditional Council Fire Report to CEDAW p2.
  62. ^ Strabo 5.504
  63. ^ F. A. Ukert, Die Amazonen, Abhandlungen der philosophisch-philologischen Classe der Königlich Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (1849), 63.
  64. ^ a b c Mansfield, Harvey C., Manliness, op. cit., pp. 73–74 & n. 37, citing Strauss, Leo, Socrates and Aristophanes (N.Y.: Basic Books, 1966), ch. 9, and Saxonhouse, Arlene W., Fear of Diversity (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1992), ch. 1.
  65. ^ Ruden, Sarah, Paul Among the People: The Apostle Reinterpreted and Reimagined in his Own Time (N.Y.: Pantheon Books, 1st ed. 2010 (ISBN 978-0-375-42501-1)), p. 79 (author research fellow, Yale Divinity School).
  66. ^ Adler, Margot, Drawing Down the Moon (2006), op. cit., p. 196 (italics so in original; p. 196 n. 20 citing Markale, Jean, Women of the Celts (London: Gordon Cremonesi, 1975)).
  67. ^ a b Weisberg, D. Kelly, ed., Applications of Feminist Legal Theory to Women's Lives: Sex, Violence, Work, and Reproduction (Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press, 1996 (ISBN 1-56639-423-6)), p. 9 ("women must organize against patriarchy as a class") but see p. 11 ("[s]ome radical feminists ... opt ... for anarchistic, violent methods").
  68. ^ a b Dale, Jennifer, & Peggy Foster, Feminists and State Welfare (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1986 (ISBN 0-7102-0278-4)), p. 52 ("[r]adical feminist theory .... could, indeed, be said to point in the direction of 'matriarchy'") and see pp. 52–53 (political separatism).
  69. ^ Donovan, Josephine, Feminist Theory, op. cit., p. 55 & n. 15, citing Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, Address (Washington Woman's Rights Convention, 1869), in History of Woman Suffrage, vol. 2, pp. 351–353.
  70. ^ Donovan, Josephine, Feminist Theory, p. 57, citing Gage, Matilda Joslyn, Woman, Church and State: A Historical Account of the Status of Women through the Christian Ages; with Reminiscences of the Matriarchate (Watertown, Mass.: Persephone Press, 1980 (1893)), p. 21.
  71. ^ A Lecture on Constitutional Equality, also known as The Great Secession Speech, speech to Woman's Suffrage Convention, New York, May 11, 1871, excerpt quoted in Gabriel, Mary, Notorious Victoria: The Life of Victoria Woodhull, Uncensored (Chapel Hill, N.Car.: Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill, 1st ed. 1998 (ISBN 1-56512-132-5)), pp. 86–87 & n. [13] (author Mary Gabriel journalist, Reuters News Service). Also excerpted, differently, in Underhill, Lois Beachy, The Woman Who Ran for President: The Many Lives of Victoria Woodhull (Bridgehampton, N.Y.: Bridge Works, 1st ed. 1995 (ISBN 1-882593-10-3)), pp. 125–126 & unnumbered n.
  72. ^ Gabriel, Mary, Notorious Victoria: The Life of Victoria Woodhull, Uncensored (Chapel Hill, N.Car.: Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill, 1st ed. 1998 (ISBN 1-56512-132-5)), passim, esp. pp. 54–57 & nn. (author Mary Gabriel journalist, Reuters News Service).
  73. ^ Underhill, Lois Beachy, The Woman Who Ran for President: The Many Lives of Victoria Woodhull, op. cit., passim, esp. ch. 8.
  74. ^ The dates are those of two original editions of the same work, both cited herein.
  75. ^ Donovan, Josephine, Feminist Theory, op. cit., p. 61 (author prof. Eng., Univ. of Maine), citing Gilman, Charlotte Perkins, The Man-Made World; or, Our Androcentric Culture (N.Y.: Johnson Reprint, 1971 (1911)), passim.
  76. ^ Donovan, Josephine, Feminist Theory, op. cit., p. 62, citing Gilman, Charlotte Perkins, The Man-Made World, op. cit. (1971 (1911)), p. 190.
  77. ^ Gilman, Charlotte Perkins, The Man-Made World (Amherst, N.Y.: Humanity Books, 2001 (ISBN 1-57392-959-X)), p. 177 and see p. 153 (original: The Man-Made World; or, Our Androcentric Culture (N.Y.: Charlton, 3d ed. 1914)).
  78. ^ Gilman, Charlotte Perkins, The Man-Made World (2001 (1914)), op. cit., p. 153.
  79. ^ Gilman, Charlotte Perkins, The Man-Made World (2001 (1914)), op. cit., pp. 153 & 177.
  80. ^ Penner, James, Pinks, Pansies, and Punks: The Rhetoric of Masculinity in American Literary Culture (Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana Univ. Press, 2011 (ISBN 978-0-253-22251-0)), p. 235 (author asst. prof. Eng., Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras).
  81. ^ a b c Eller, Cynthia, Relativizing the Patriarchy: The Sacred History of the Feminist Spirituality Movement, in History of Religions, vol. 30, no. 3 (Feb., 1991), p. 287.
  82. ^ Eller, Cynthia, The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory (2000), op. cit., p. 12.
  83. ^ Eller, Cynthia, The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory (2000), op. cit., p. 12 (quoting also Mary Daly ("matriarchy 'was not patriarchy spelled with an "m."'", probably (per id., p. 12 n. 3) in Daly, Mary, Beyond God the Father, p. 94)).
  84. ^ Starhawk, Dreaming the Dark: Magic, Sex, and Politics (Boston, Mass.: Beacon Press, 15th Anniversary ed. 1997 (original 1982) (ISBN 0-8070-1037-5)), ch. 1 (original 1982 ed. cited in Eller, Cynthia, Relativizing the Patriarchy, op. cit., p. 287 n. 17).
  85. ^ Margot Adler wrote a matriarchy is "a realm where female things are valued and where power is exerted in non-possessive, non-controlling, and organic ways that are harmonious with nature." Adler, Margot, Drawing Down the Moon: Witches, Druids, and Goddess-Worshippers, and Other Pagans in America Today (Boston: Beacon, 1979), p. 187, as quoted in Eller, Cynthia, Relativizing the Patriarchy, op. cit., p. 287 & n. 18.
  86. ^ a b Quotation: Take No Prisoners, in The Guardian, May 13, 2000, as accessed Sep. 6, 2010.
  87. ^ Other than quotation: Dworkin, Andrea, Scapegoat: The Jews, Israel, and Women's Liberation (N.Y.: Free Press, 2000 (ISBN 0-684-83612-2)), p. 246 and see pp. 248 & 336.
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  89. ^ Chesler, Phyllis, Women and Madness (N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan, rev'd & updated ed., 1st ed. 2005 (ISBN 1-4039-6897-7)), p. 347 (italics so in original) and see pp. 335–336, 337–338, 340, 341, 345, 346, 347, & 348–349 and see also pp. 294–295 (author emerita prof. psychology & women's studies & affiliated with Haifa Univ. & Bar Ilan Univ.); see also Chesler, Phyllis, Women and Madness (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1972 (ISBN 0-385-02671-4)), p. 299 ("dominate public social institutions" (italics so in original)) and see pp. 284–285, 287, 290–291, 292, 297, 298, 299, & 301 and see also pp. 240–241, all respectively (author then asst. prof., psychology dep't, Richmond College, City Univ. of N.Y., Policy Council Member of Ass'n for Women in Psychology, & feminist) (sales 2.5 million copies, per id. (2005), cover I, & Douglas, Carol Anne, Women and Madness, in off our backs, vol. 36, no. 2, Jul. 1, 2006, p. 71, col. 1 (Review) (ISSN 00300071) (referencing the book's 2005 edition and its earlier edition without a date)).
  90. ^ Chesler, Phyllis, Women and Madness (2005), op. cit., p. 337 and see p. 340; see also Chesler, Phyllis, Women and Madness (1972), op. cit., p. 287 and see p. 291, respectively.
  91. ^ a b c Chesler, Phyllis, Women and Madness (2005), op. cit., p. 338; see also Chesler, Phyllis, Women and Madness (1972), op. cit., p. 287.
  92. ^ Chesler, Phyllis, in Spender, Dale, For the Record: The Making and Meaning of Feminist Knowledge (London: The Women's Press, 1985 (ISBN 0-7043-2862-3)), p. 214 (reply from Phyllis Chesler to Dale Spender).
  93. ^ Spender, Dale, For the Record, op. cit., p. 151 (emphasis in original).
  94. ^ Spender, Dale, For the Record, op. cit., p. 151.
  95. ^ Wittig, Monique, trans. David Le Vay, Les Guérillères (Boston, Mass.: Beacon Press, reprint 1985 (ISBN 0-8070-6301-0), © 1969 Les Editions de Minuit), passim and see pp. 114–115, 127, 131, & 134–135 (novel).
  96. ^ Wittig, Monique, trans. David Le Vay, Les Guérillères (1985, © 1969), op. cit., pp. 114–115 (probably equivalent to pp. 164–165 in French original, per Porter, Laurence M., Feminist Fantasy and Open Structure in Monique Wittig's Les Guérillères, in Morse, Donald E., Marshall B. Tymn, & Csilla Bertha, eds., The Celebration of the Fantastic: Selected Papers from the Tenth Anniversary International Conference on the Fantastic in the Arts (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1992 (ISBN 0-313-27814-8)), p. 267 (author prof. Fr. & comparative lit., Mich. State Univ.)).
  97. ^ Moi, Toril, Sexual/Textual Politics: Feminist Literary Theory (London: Routledge, 2d ed., 2002 (ISBN 0-415-28012-5)), p. 78 (author prof. lit. & romance studies, Duke Univ., N. Car.).
  98. ^ Auerbach, Nina, Communities of Women: An Idea in Fiction (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1978 (ISBN 0-674-15168-2)), p. 186.
  99. ^ a b Porter, Laurence M., Feminist Fantasy and Open Structure in Monique Wittig's Les Guérillères, op. cit., p. 267 (citing pp. 176–208 in the French ed.).
  100. ^ a b Porter, Laurence M., Feminist Fantasy and Open Structure in Monique Wittig's Les Guérillères, op. cit., p. 267.
  101. ^ Wittig, Monique, trans. David Le Vay, Les Guérillères (1985, © 1969), op. cit., p. 112 (probably equivalent to pp. 160–161 in French original, per Porter, Laurence M., Feminist Fantasy and Open Structure in Monique Wittig's Les Guérillères, op. cit., p. 267).
  102. ^ Zerilli, Linda M. G., Feminism and the Abyss of Freedom (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 2005 (ISBN 0-226-98133-9)), p. 80 n. 51, quoting Porter, Laurence M., Feminist Fantasy and Open Structure in Monique Wittig's Les Guérillères, op. cit., p. [261].
  103. ^ Zerilli, Linda M. G., Feminism and the Abyss of Freedom, op. cit., p. 80, purportedly quoting within the quotation Laurence M. Porter, Feminist Fantasy and Open Structure in Monique Wittig's Les Guérillères, in Morse, Donald E., et al., eds., The Celebration of the Fantastic, op. cit. (not The Celebration of the Fantastic, id., p. [261], a misquotation or misattribution of Linda Zerilli's, but possibly inferrable from The Celebration of the Fantastic, id., pp. [261] & 268) (for meaning in literary criticism of a structure or system being open or closed, see The Celebration of the Fantastic, id., p. 268).
  104. ^ Daly, Mary, Gyn/Ecology: The Metaethics of Radical Feminism (Boston, Mass.: Beacon Press, 1978 & 1990 (prob. all content except New Intergalactic Introduction 1978 & prob. New Intergalactic Introduction 1990) (ISBN 0-8070-1413-3)), p. 15 (New Intergalactic Introduction separate from Introduction: The Metapatriarchal Journey of Exorcism and Ecstasy). For another definition of hag by Mary Daly, see Daly, Mary, with Jane Caputi, Websters' First New Intergalactic Wickedary of the English Language (London, Great Britain: Women's Press, 1988 (ISBN 0-7043-4114-X)), p. 137 (author then assoc. prof. Boston College, Mass.).
  105. ^ Daly, Mary, Gyn/Ecology: The Metaethics of Radical Feminism, op. cit., p. xxvi (New Intergalactic Introduction).
  106. ^ Daly, Mary, Gyn/Ecology: The Metaethics of Radical Feminism, op. cit., p. xxxiii (New Intergalactic Introduction).
  107. ^ Daly, Mary, Gyn/Ecology: The Metaethics of Radical Feminism, op. cit., p. 375 & fnn. and see p. 384.
  108. ^ Daly, Mary, Gyn/Ecology: The Metaethics of Radical Feminism, op. cit., p. 29.
  109. ^ Zerilli, Linda M. G., Feminism and the Abyss of Freedom, op. cit., p. 101.
  110. ^ Eller, Cynthia, The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory: Why an Invented Past Won't Give Women a Future (Boston, Mass.: Beacon Press, 2000 (ISBN 0-8070-6792-X)), p. 3.
  111. ^ Eller, Cynthia, Living in the Lap of the Goddess, op. cit., pp. 183–184.
  112. ^ Eller, Cynthia, Living in the Lap of the Goddess, op. cit., p. 184.
  113. ^ a b Johnston, Jill, Lesbian Nation: The Feminist Solution (N.Y.: Simon & Schuster, 1973 (SBN (not ISBN) 671-21433-0)), p. 248 and see pp. 248–249.
  114. ^ Franklin, Kris, & Sara E. Chinn, Lesbians, Legal Theory and Other Superheroes, in Review of Law & Social Change, vol. XXV, 1999, pp. 310–311, as accessed Oct. 21, 2010 (citing in n. 45 Lesbian Nation, p. 15)).
  115. ^ Ross, Becki L., The House That Jill Built: A Lesbian Nation in Formation (Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press, 1995 (ISBN 0-8020-7479-0)), passim, esp. pp. 8 & 15–16 & also pp. 19, 71, 111, 204, 205, 212, 219, & 231 (author asst. prof. sociology/anthropology & women's studies, Univ. of British Columbia).
  116. ^ Ross, Becki L., The House That Jill Built, op. cit., p. 204 & n. 18, citing McCoy, Sherry, & Maureen Hicks, A Psychological Retrospective on Power in the Contemporary Lesbian-Feminist Community, in Frontiers, vol. 4, no. 3 (1979), p. 67.
  117. ^ Echols, Alice, Daring to Be Bad: Radical Feminism in America 1967–1975 (Minneapolis, Minn.: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1989 (ISBN 0-8166-1787-2)), pp. 183–184.
  118. ^ Tong, Rosemarie Putnam, Feminist Thought: A More Comprehensive Introduction (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 2d ed. 1998 (ISBN 0-8133-3295-8)), p. 23.
  119. ^ Echols, Alice, Daring to Be Bad, op. cit., p. 184 (quoting Barbara Mehrhof and Pam Kearon (full names per id., pp. 409 & 407 (Index) & memberships per id., p. 388, 383, & 382)) and see p. 253 ("moved toward ... matriarchalism").
  120. ^ Echols, Alice, Daring to Be Bad, op. cit., pp. 183–184 (n. 246 omitted from end of quotation here; foundership per id., p. 388).
  121. ^ Morgan, Robin, Going Too Far: The Personal Chronicle of a Feminist (N.Y.: Random House, 1st ed. 1977 (ISBN 0394482271)), p. 187 (italics so in original).
  122. ^ Adler, Margot, Drawing Down the Moon (2006), op. cit., p. 198 ("Maior" so in original) (same quotation also in Drawing Down the Moon: Witches, Druids, and Goddess-Worshippers, and Other Pagans in America Today (1979), op. cit., p. 191, as quoted in Eller, Cynthia, Relativizing the Patriarchy, op. cit., p. 289 & n. 24).
  123. ^ Matriarchal Studies (International Academy HAGIA), as accessed Jan. 30, 2011.
  124. ^ 1st World Congress on Matriarchal Studies, also known as Societies in Balance, both as accessed Jan. 29, 2011.
  125. ^ Societies of Peace: 2nd World Congress on Matriarchal Studies (home page), as accessed Jan. 29, 2011.
  126. ^ For a review of the conferences, esp. that of 2005, by a participant, see Mukhim, Patricia, Khasi Matriliny Has Many Parallels, Oct. 15, 2005, as accessed Feb. 6, 2011 (also published in The Statesman (India), Oct. 15, 2005).
  127. ^ Goettner-Abendroth, Heide, ed., Societies of Peace, op. cit., passim.
  128. ^ Goettner-Abendroth, Heide, trans. Karen Smith, The Deep Structure of Matriarchal Society: Findings and Political Relevance of Modern Matriarchal Studies, in Goettner-Abendroth, Heide, ed., Societies of Peace, op. cit., p. 23.
  129. ^ Goettner-Abendroth, Heide, The Deep Structure of Matriarchal Society, op. cit., p. 25 and see p. 24 and, in Goettner-Abendroth, Heide, ed., Societies of Peace, op. cit., see Introduction & pts. I & VIII.
  130. ^ Goettner-Abendroth, Heide, The Deep Structure of Matriarchal Society, op. cit., p. 25 (emphasis so in original).
  131. ^ a b c Eller, Cynthia, Relativizing the Patriarchy, op. cit., p. 290.
  132. ^ a b Eller, Cynthia, Relativizing the Patriarchy, op. cit., p. 291 n. 27.
  133. ^ a b c d e Eller, Cynthia, The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory (2000), op. cit., p. 10 (whether author's data global unspecified).
  134. ^ Dworkin, Andrea, Biological Superiority: The World's Most Dangerous and Deadly Idea (1977), from Dworkin, Andrea, Letters From a War Zone: Writings 1976–1989, Pt. III, Take Back the Day, as accessed Dec. 25, 2010 (first published in Heresies No. 6 on Women and Violence, vol. 2, no. 2 (Summer 1978)).
  135. ^ Badinter, Elisabeth, trans. Julia Borossa, Dead End Feminism (Polity, 2006 (ISBN 0745633811 & ISBN 9780745633817)), p. 32, in Google Books, as accessed Dec. 4, 2010 (no source cited for Ti-Grace Atkinson's statement); Amazon Continues Odyssey, in off our backs, Dec., 1979 (interview) (mentioning "female nationalism" (relevant herein insofar as the female nationalism is matriarchal) & women as nation); Atkinson, Ti-Grace, Amazon Odyssey (N.Y.: Links, 1974 (SBN (not ISBN) 0-8256-3023-1)) (may preclude female nationalism (relevant herein insofar as female nationalism is matriarchal)); also there exists (not read by this Wikipedia editor) Atkinson, Ti-Grace, Le Nationalisme Feminin, in Nouvelle Questions Feministes 6–7, Spring 1984, pp. 35–54 (French) (Eng. trans., Female Nationalism (unpublished), was held by author) (relevant herein insofar as female nationalism is matriarchal) (cited by Ringelheim, Joan, Women and the Holocaust: A Reconsideration of Research, in Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, vol. 10, no. 4 (Summer, 1985) (Communities of Women), pp. 741–761 ([§] Viewpoint) (also in Rittner, Carol, & John K. Roth, eds., Different Voices: Women and the Holocaust (N.Y.: Paragon House, 1993), pp. 373–418) & by Weiss, Penny A., & Marilyn Friedman, Feminism & Community (Temple Univ. Press, 1995 (ISBN 1566392772 & ISBN 9781566392778)), p. 330, in Google Books, as accessed Dec. 4, 2010 (author Penny A. Weiss dir. women's studies & prof pol. sci., St. Louis Univ., & author Marilyn Friedman prof. philosophy, Washington Univ.)).
  136. ^ a b c d e f Mansfield, Harvey C., Manliness (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 2006 (ISBN 978-0-300-10664-0)), pp. 241–242, citing Plato, Republic.
  137. ^ Mansfield, Harvey C., Manliness, op. cit., pp. 173–174 & nn. 14, 16–17, & 19, citing Hobbes, Leviathan, ch. 10, 14–15, & 21, Tuck, Richard, Natural Rights Theories (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1979), ch. 6, & Tarcov, Nathan, Locke's Education for Liberty (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1984), p. 38.
  138. ^ Ross, Becki L., The House That Jill Built, op. cit., p. 208.
  139. ^ A case is Andrea Dworkin's advocacy, on which see her comments in Take No Prisoners, in The Guardian, op. cit.
  140. ^ Stansell, Christine, The Feminist Promise: 1792 to the Present (N.Y.; Modern Library (Random House), 1st ed. 2010 (ISBN 978-0-679-64314-2)), p. 394 (author prof. history, Univ. of Chicago & feminist).
  141. ^ 1911.
  142. ^ Bartkowski, Frances, Feminist Utopias (Lincoln: Univ. of Neb. Press, 1989 (ISBN 0-8032-1205-4)), ch. 1.
  143. ^ Donovan, Josephine, Feminist Theory, op. cit., p. 48.
  144. ^ Gilman, Charlotte Perkins, What is "Feminism"?, in The Sunday Herald, Sep. 3, 1916, [§] Magazine, p. [7] [of §], of The Boston Herald (Boston, Mass.).
  145. ^ Roald, Anne Sofie, Women in Islam: The Western Experience (London: Routledge, 2001 (ISBN 0-415-24896-5)), p. 195 (stated in a passage criticizing this criticism, the latter attributed to a common belief) (author assoc. prof. at International Migration and Ethnic Relations, Malmö Univ., Sweden, & Muslim).
  146. ^ Donovan, Josephine, Feminist Theory, op. cit., p. 30, citing Grimké, Sarah M., Letters on Equality of the Sexes and the Condition of Woman (N.Y.: Burt Franklin, 1970 (1838)), p. 81 (objecting to women "participating in government", "reflecting perhaps the Victorian notion that public affairs were too sordid for women").
  147. ^ a b c d Herzog, Don, Poisoning the Minds of the Lower Orders (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Press, 1998 (ISBN 0-691-04831-2)), pp. 424–425 & nn. 34–37 (including sources cited) (author teaches law & poli. theory, Univ. of Mich.).
  148. ^ Ruden, Sarah, Paul Among the People, op. cit., p. 80 ("Athenians were extreme, but almost no Greeks or Romans thought women should participate in government. There was no approved public forum for any kind of women's self-expression, not even in the arts and religion [perhaps except "priestesses"]." (emphasis in original) (Athenians discussed in the context of play by Aristophanes, id., pp. 78–80)).
  149. ^ Roald, Anne Sofie, Women in Islam, op. cit., p. 269.
  150. ^ Mansfield, Harvey C., Manliness, op. cit., pp. 205–206.
  151. ^ Schüssler Fiorenza, Elisabeth, The Praxis of Coequal Discipleship, in Horsley, Richard A., ed., Paul and Empire: Religion and Power in Roman Imperial Society (Harrisburg, Penna.: Trinity Press Intntl., 1997 (ISBN 1-56338-217-2)), pp. 238–239 (probably from Schüssler Fiorenza, Elisabeth, In Memory of Her (Crossroad Publishing, 1983) & edited) (editor Richard A. Horsley prof. classics & religion, Univ. of Mass., Boston), quoting Aristotle (Politics I.1254b) ("the male is by nature superior and the female inferior, the male ruler and the female subject").
  152. ^ Editorial (title unknown) ("Mrs. Woodhull offers herself in apparent good faith as a candidate, and perhaps she has a remote impression, or rather hope, that she may be elected, but it seems that she is rather in advance of her time. The public mind is not yet educated to the pitch of universal woman's rights" and "At present man, in his affection for and kindness toward the weaker sex, is disposed to accord her any reasonable number of privileges. Beyond that stage he pauses, because there seems to him to be something which is unnatural in permitting her to share the turmoil, the excitement, the risks of competition for the glory of governing."), in New York Herald, May 27, 1870, p. 6, as quoted in Gabriel, Mary, Notorious Victoria, op. cit., pp. 56–57 & n. [8].
  153. ^ Herzog, Don, Poisoning the Minds of the Lower Orders, op. cit., p. 440.
  154. ^ a b Eller, Cynthia, Living in the Lap of the Goddess, op. cit., p. 207.
  155. ^ Siegel, Deborah, Sisterhood, Interrupted: From Radical Women to Grrls Gone Wild (N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007 (ISBN 978-1-4039-8204-9)), p. 65 (author PhD & fellow, Woodhull Institute for Ethical Leadership).
  156. ^ "'Holy Scripture inculcates for women a sphere higher than and apart from that of public life; because as women they find a full measure of duties, cares and responsibilities and are unwilling to bear additional burdens unsuited to their physical organization.'", a "signed ... petition against female suffrage" (Jan., 1871), in Gabriel, Mary, Notorious Victoria: The Life of Victoria Woodhull, Uncensored, op. cit., p. 83 & n. [9], citing The Press—Philadelphia, Jan. 14, 1871, p. 8 (author Mary Gabriel journalist, Reuters News Service).
  157. ^ Roald, Anne Sofie, Women in Islam, op. cit., p. [185].
  158. ^ Roald, Anne Sofie, Women in Islam, op. cit., pp. 186–187. "Koranic verse 4: 34 ... has been used to denounce female leadership" (relevant herein insofar as the female leadership is matriarchal), according to id., pp. 189–190 ("4: 34" spaced so in original), but the verse may apply to family life rather than to politics, per id., p. 190; the book, id., at pp. 189–190 & p. 189 n. 5, cites, respectively, Badawi, Jamal, Gender Equity in Islam: Basic Principles (Indianapolis: American Trust Publications, 1995), p. 38 & perhaps passim, and Roald, Anne Sofie, & Pernilla Ouis, Lyssna på männen: att leva i en patriarkalisk muslimsk kontext, in Kvinnovetenskaplig Tidskrift, pp. 91–108 (1997).
  159. ^ Roald, Anne Sofie, Women in Islam, op. cit., pp. 186–187 (hadith as translated). Another translation is, "A people which has a woman as a leader will not succeed." Id., p. 188. The 2001 author's paraphrase of the hadith, "the people who have a female leader will not succeed", is at id., p. [185].
  160. ^ Roald, Anne Sofie, Women in Islam, op. cit., pp. 186–189.
  161. ^ Roald, Anne Sofie, Women in Islam, op. cit., p. 190.
  162. ^ Roald, Anne Sofie, Women in Islam, op. cit., p. 196.
  163. ^ Roald, Anne Sofie, Women in Islam, op. cit., p. 196.
  164. ^ Roald, Anne Sofie, Women in Islam, op. cit., pp. 196–197.
  165. ^ Roald, Anne Sofie, Women in Islam, op. cit., pp. [185]–186.
  166. ^ Roald, Anne Sofie, Women in Islam, op. cit., p. 186.
  167. ^ Roald, Anne Sofie, Women in Islam, op. cit., ch. 8, passim.
  168. ^ Ikhwan web, Muslim Brotherhood on Muslim women in Islamic Society (Oct. 29, 2005) (trans.), as accessed Mar. 5, 2011, [§] The Woman's Right to Vote, Be Elected and Occupy Public and Governmental Posts., [sub§] Thirdly, Women's Holding of Public Office.
  169. ^ Roald, Anne Sofie, Women in Islam, op. cit., p. 198 (for study details, see id., ch. 3, e.g., quantity of 82 per p. 64).
  170. ^ Roald, Anne Sofie, Women in Islam, op. cit., p. 197, quoting The Muslim Brotherhood, The Role of Women in Islamic Society According to the Muslim Brotherhood (London: International Islamic Forum, 1994), 14.
  171. ^ The document stating it was not available at its official English-language website advanced search page, as accessed Mar. 5, 2011 (search for "Role of Women in Islamic Society" without quotation marks yielding no results), but a document with similar relevant effect is Ikhwan web , Muslim Brotherhood on Muslim women in Islamic Society (Oct. 29, 2005) (trans.), as accessed Mar. 5, 2011 ("social circumstances and traditions" as justifying gradualism, per [§] A General Remark).
  172. ^ Roald, Anne Sofie, Women in Islam, op. cit., p. 34, citing, at p. 34 n. 44, Shafiq, Duriyya, al-Kitab al-abiyad lil-huquq al-mar'a al-misriyya (The White Paper on the Rights of the Egyptian Woman) (Cairo: n.p., 1953) (bibliographic information partly per Roald, Anne Sofie, Women in Islam, op. cit., p. 25 n. 27).
  173. ^ Rostami Povey, Elaheh, Feminist Contestations of Institutional Domains in Iran, in Feminist Review, no. 69, pp. 49 & 53 (Winter, 2001).
  174. ^ Al-Mohamed, Asmaa, Saudi Women's Rights: Stuck at a Red Light (Arab Insight (World Security Institute), Jan. 8, 2008), p. 46, as accessed Dec. 28, 2010 (author online editor, Al Arabiya, Saudi Arabia, journalist, & women's rights activist).
  175. ^ Hartman, Tova, Feminism Encounters Traditional Judaism: Resistance and Accommodation (Waltham, Mass.: Brandeis Univ. Press & Hanover: Univ. Press of New England, 1st ed. 2007 (ISBN 978-1-58465-659-3)), p. 105 (author lecturer, Bar Ilan Univ.), attributing the argument to Rav Kook, or Rabbi Abraham Isaac Hacohen Kook, "a significant spiritual leader of the ["early twentieth century"]", id., p. 101, citing, at id., pp. 101–102, Kook, Rav, Open Letter to the Honorable Committee of the "Mizrahi" Association (1919) ("In the Torah, in the Prophets and in the Writings, in the Halacha and in the Aggadah, we hear ... that the duty of fixed public service falls upon men.").
  176. ^ Hartman, Tova, Feminism Encounters Traditional Judaism, op. cit., p. 106.
  177. ^ Freeman, Marsha, Women, Law, Religion, and Politics in Israel: A Human Rights Perspective, in Misra, Kalpana, & Melanie S. Rich, Jewish Feminism in Israel (Hanover, N.H.: Univ. Press of New England (Brandeis Univ. Press, 1st ed. 2003 (ISBN 1-58465-325-6)), pp. 59 & 65 & p. 65 n. 29 (author sr. fellow, Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, Univ. of Minn., dir., Intntl. Women's Rights Action Watch, law degree, Univ. of Minn., & doctoral degree in Eng. & Am. lit., Univ. of Penna., editor Kalpana Misra assoc. prof. pol. sci., Univ. of Tulsa), & editor Melanie S. Rich psychologist & chair, Partnership 2000 Women's Forum).
  178. ^ Freeman, Marsha, Women, Law, Religion, and Politics in Israel, op. cit., p. 65 & n. 29 (the tribunals are discussed in the context of "[t]he marital law regime in each religion", per id., p. 65, including Judaism, per ibid.)
  179. ^ Umanit, Irit, Violence Against Women, in Misra, Kalpana, & Melanie S. Rich, Jewish Feminism in Israel, op. cit., p. 133 (author activist & dir. women's crisis shelter).
  180. ^ Freeman, Marsha, Women, Law, Religion, and Politics in Israel, op. cit., p. 60.
  181. ^ Tsomo, Karma Lekshe, Mahāprajāpatī's Legacy: The Buddhist Women's Movement: An Introduction, in Tsomo, Karma Lekshe, ed., Buddhist Women Across Cultures: Realizations (Albany: State Univ. of N.Y. Press, 1999 (ISBN 0-7914-4138-5)), p. 6 and see pp. 6–7 (author/editor instructor of Buddhism, Chaminade Univ., & Degree Fellow, East-West Ctr.).
  182. ^ Tsomo, Karma Lekshe, Mahāprajāpatī's Legacy, op. cit., p. 5.
  183. ^ Tsomo, Karma Lekshe, Mahāprajāpatī's Legacy, op. cit., p. 5.
  184. ^ Bacchetta, Paola, Hindu Nationalist Women: On the Use of the Feminine Symbolic to (Temporarily) Displace Male Authority, in Patton, Laurie L., ed., Jewels of Authority: Women and Textual Tradition in Hindu India (N.Y.: Oxford Univ. Press, 2002 (ISBN 0-19-513478-8)), p. 168 & n. 76 (n. 76 citing Kelkar, Kakshmibai, Stri-Ek Urja Kendra: Strivishayak Vicharon Ka Sankalan (Nagpur: Sevika Prakashan, n.d.), ch. 2) (author Paola Bacchetta, PhD, jointly appointed in geography & women's studies, Univ. of Kentucky in Lexington, & editor dep't chair, religion, & assoc. prof., early Indian religions, both at Emory Univ.) (although India is majority Hindu, it is officially secular, per id., Hindu Nationalist Women, p. 157).
  185. ^ Bacchetta, Paola, Hindu Nationalist Women, op. cit., pp. 157 (quoted) & 168.
  186. ^ Bacchetta, Paola, Hindu Nationalist Women, op. cit., pp. 157 (quoted) & 168 (the "women's wing" being the Rashtra Sevika Samiti).
  187. ^ Eller, Cynthia, Relativizing the Patriarchy, op. cit., p. 281 and see pp. 282 & 287.
  188. ^ a b c Eller, Cynthia, Relativizing the Patriarchy, op. cit., p. 281.
  189. ^ Eller, Cynthia, Relativizing the Patriarchy, op. cit., p. 282.
  190. ^ Eller, Cynthia, Relativizing the Patriarchy, op. cit., p. 291.
  191. ^ Eller, Cynthia, Relativizing the Patriarchy, op. cit., p. 283, esp. 1st parenthetical comment.


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  • matriarchy — formed in English 1881 from MATRIARCH (Cf. matriarch) + Y (Cf. y) (1) …   Etymology dictionary

  • matriarchy — [mā′trēär΄kē] n. pl. matriarchies [ MATRI + ARCHY] 1. a form of social organization in which the mother is recognized as the head of the family or tribe, descent and kinship being traced through the mother 2. government, rule, or domination by… …   English World dictionary

  • matriarchy — /may tree ahr kee/, n., pl. matriarchies. 1. a family, society, community, or state governed by women. 2. a form of social organization in which the mother is head of the family, and in which descent is reckoned in the female line, the children… …   Universalium

  • matriarchy — There are two uses of the term matriarchy. The first is identical to common usage, denoting a type of social organization in which mothers head families, and descent may be reckoned through them. The occurrence may be idiosyncratic rather than… …   Dictionary of sociology

  • matriarchy — UK [ˈmeɪtrɪˌɑː(r)kɪ] / US [ˈmeɪtrɪˌɑrkɪ] noun [countable/uncountable] Word forms matriarchy : singular matriarchy plural matriarchies a family, community, or society that is ruled by women, especially one in which women also own and control… …   English dictionary

  • matriarchy — [[t]me͟ɪtriɑː(r)ki[/t]] matriarchies N VAR A matriarchy is a system in which power or property is passed from mother to daughter. Ant: patriarchy …   English dictionary

  • matriarchy — matriarch ► NOUN 1) a woman who is the head of a family or tribe. 2) a powerful older woman. DERIVATIVES matriarchal adjective matriarchy noun. ORIGIN from Latin mater mother , on the false analogy of patriarch …   English terms dictionary

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