- Women's rights
The term women's rights refers to the freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized, ignored or suppressed by law, custom, and behavior in a particular society. These liberties are grouped together and differentiated from broader notions of
human rightsbecause they often differ from the freedoms inherently possessed by or recognized for men and boys, and because activists for this issue claim an inherent historical and traditional bias against the exercise of rights by women and girls. Hosken, Fran P., 'Towards a Definition of Women's Rights' in "Human Rights Quarterly", Vol. 3, No. 2. (May, 1981), pp. 1-10.]
Issues commonly associated with notions of women's rights include, though are not limited to, the right: to bodily integrity and autonomy; to vote (universal suffrage); to hold public office; to work; to fair wages or equal pay; to own property; to education; to serve in the military or be conscripted; to enter into legal contracts; and to have marital, parental and religious rights. Lockwood, Bert B. (ed.), "Women's Rights: A "Human Rights Quarterly" Reader" (John Hopkins University Press, 2006), ISBN 9780801883743] Women and their supporters have campaigned and in some places continue to campaigned for the same rights as modern men.
Until the mid-nineteenth century, writers assumed that a patriarchal order was a natural order that had existedMaine, Henry Sumner. Ancient Law 1861] as
John Stuart Millwrote, since "the very earliest twilight of human society".JS Mill The subjection of women 1859] This was not seriously challenged until the eighteenth century when Jesuitmissionaries found matrilinealityin native North American peoples. [Lafitau, Joseph François, cited by Campbell, Joseph in, Myth, religion, and mother-right: selected writings of JJ Bachofen. Manheim, R (trans.) Princeton, N.J. 1967 introduction xxxiii]
Middle Ages, an early effort to improve the status of women occurred during the early reforms under Islam, when women were given greater rights in marriage, divorceand inheritance.Esposito (2005) p. 79 ] Women were not accorded with such legal status in other cultures, including the West, until centuries later. [Lindsay Jones, p.6224] "The Oxford Dictionary of Islam" states that the general improvement of the status of Arabwomen included prohibition of female infanticideand recognizing women's full personhood.Esposito (2004), p. 339] "The dowry, previously regarded as a bride-price paid to the father, became a nuptial gift retained by the wife as part of her personal property."Khadduri (1978)] Under Islamic law, marriage was no longer viewed as a "status" but rather as a " contract", in which the woman's consent was imperative. "Women were given inheritance rights in a patriarchal societythat had previously restricted inheritance to male relatives." Annemarie Schimmelstates that "compared to the pre-Islamic position of women, Islamic legislation meant an enormous progress; the woman has the right, at least according to the letter of the law, to administer the wealth she has brought into the family or has earned by her own work."Schimmel (1992) p.65] Some have claimed that women generally had more legal rights under Islamic law than they did under Western legal systems until more recent times.citation|last=Dr. Badawi|first=Jamal A.|title=The Status of Women in Islam|journal=Al-Ittihad Journal of Islamic Studies|volume=8|issue=2|date=September 1971|url=http://iaislam.tripod.com/TSOWII.htm] English Common Lawtransferred property held by a wife at the time of a marriage to her husband, which contrasted with the Sura: "Unto men (of the family) belongs a share of that which Parents and near kindred leave, and unto women a share of that which parents and near kindred leave, whether it be a little or much - a determinate share" ( Quran4:7), albeit maintaining that husbands were solely responsible for the maintenance and leadership of his wife and family."French married women, unlike their Muslim sisters, suffered from restrictions on their legal capacity which were removed only in 1965."citation|title=Islamic Criminal Justice|first=Gamal M.|last=Badr|journal=The American Journal of Comparative Law|volume=32|issue=1|date=Winter 1984|pages=167–169 167–8|doi=10.2307/840274]
In the 16th century, the
Reformationin Europe allowed more women to add their voices, including the English writers Jane Anger, Aemilia Lanyer, and the prophetess Anna Trapnell. However, it has been claimed that the Dissolution and resulting closure of convents had deprived many such women of one path to education. [Wright, Stephanie Hodgson. Women's writings of the early modern period 1588-1688. Edinburgh University 2002] [Hobby, Elaine. Virtue of necessity: English women's writing 1649-88. University of Michigan 1989] Lerner, Gerda. The Creation of Feminist Consciousness From the Middle Ages to Eighteen-seventy. Oxford University Press, 1993] Giving voice in the secular context became more difficult when deprived of the rationale and protection of divine inspiration. Queen Elizabeth I demonstrated leadership amongst women, even if she was unsupportive of their causes, and subsequently became a role model for the education of women. [ [http://www.womenwriters.net/editorials/elliott.htm Elliott, Kimberly] . "Eliza's works, wars, praise": Representations of Elizabeth I in Diana Primrose and Anne Bradstreet. Womenwriters.net December 1999]
The Enlightenment and "A Vindication of the Rights of Woman"
The Age of Enlightenmentwas characterized by secular intellectual reasoning, and a flowering of philosophical writing. The most important feminist writer of the time was Mary Wollstonecraft, often described as the first feminist philosopher. In " A Vindication of the Rights of Woman" (1792) Wollstonecraft argued that it was the education and upbringing of women that created limited expectations. Despite some inconsistencies (Brody refers to the "Two Wollestoncrafts" [Brody, Miriam. Mary Wollstonecraft: Sexuality and women's rights (1759-1797), in Spender, Dale (ed.) Feminist theorists: Three centuries of key women thinkers, Pantheon 1983, pp. 40-59 ISBN 0-394-53438-7] ) reflective of problems that had no easy answers, this book remains a foundation stone of feminist thought. Walters, Margaret, "Feminism: A very short introduction" (Oxford, 2005), ISBN 978019280510X]
In other parts of Europe,
Hedvig Charlotta Nordenflychtwas writing in Sweden, and what is thought to be the first scientific society for women was founded in Middelburg, in the south of Holland in 1785. This was the Natuurkundig Genootschap der Dames (Women's Society for Natural Knowledge). [Jacob, Margaret C., Sturkenboom, Dorothée. A women's scientific Society in the west: The late eighteenth-century assimilation of science. Isis 2003 9492): 217-52] [cite web|url=http://www.stilus.nl/sturkenboom/o-0505.htm|title=The electric kiss: Ladies, physics and friendship in the 18th and 19th centuries] which met regularly until 1881, finally dissolving in 1887. However Deborah Crocker and Sethanne Howard point out that women have been scientists for 4,000 years. [cite web|url=http://www.astr.ua.edu/4000WS/4000WS.html|title=Crocker, Deborah and Sethanne Howard. 4000 years of women in science] Journals for women which focused on science became popular during this period as well. [Phillips, Patricia. The scientific lady: A social history of women's scientific interests 1520-1918. St Martin's, N.Y. 1990]
uffrage, the right to vote
The ideas that were planted in the late 1700s took root during the 1800s. Women began to agitate for the
right to voteand participate in government and law making. Krolokke, Charlotte and Anne Scott Sorensen, 'From Suffragettes to Grrls' in Gender Communication Theories and Analyses:From Silence to Performance (Sage, 2005)] The ideals of Women's suffrage developed alongside that of universal suffrage, and women's movements took lessons from those in other countries.Today women's suffrage is considered a right (under the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women), although a few countries, mainly in the Middle East, continue to deny voting rights to women. [cite web|url=http://content.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=5193|title=Women's Suffrage | Scholastic.com ]
American women advocated women's right to vote from the 1820s onward. One colonial forerunner, Lydia Chapin Taft was granted the right to vote in 1756 by the town of Uxbridge,
Massachusetts colony. In the United States, this was first achieved in the relatively sparsely-populated territories of Wyoming (1869) and briefly in Utah (1870), although Utah women were disenfranchised by the U.S. Congress in 1887.Flexner, Eleanor, Century of Struggle: The Woman's Rights Movement in the United States (The Belknap Press, 1996), ISBN 9780674106539] The push to grant women's suffrage in Utah was at least partially fueled by outsiders' belief that, given the right to vote, Utah women would dispose of polygamy. After Utah women exercised their suffrage rights in favor of polygamy the U.S. Congress disenfranchised Utah women.Van Wagenen, Lola: "Sister-Wives and Suffragists: Polygamy and the Politics of Woman Suffrage 1870–1896," BYU Studies, 2001] Other territories and states granted women the right to vote in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, but national women's suffrage did not come until the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitutionwas ratified in 1920. [Stevens, Doris, Jailed for Freedom: American Women Win the Vote (NewSage Press, 1995), ISBN 9780939165252] [Wheeler, Marjorie Spruill, ed., One Woman, One Vote: Rediscovering the Woman Suffrage Movement (NewSage Press, 1995) ISBN 9780939165260]
Throughout the 19th century British women reformers developed their own dialogue through many various reforming groups until, by 1903, they had formed into two distinct organisations; the democratic
National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies, and the militant Women's Social and Political Union. Leaders in the struggle were the peaceful Millicent Fawcettand radical Emmeline Pankhurstwith her daughter Christabel. Their fight also proved slow and frustrating. In 1918 the British Parliamentfinally passed a bill allowing women over the age of 30 to vote. In 1928 the age limit was lowered to 21. Phillips, Melanie, The Ascent of Woman: A History of the Suffragette Movement (Abacus, 2004)]
Women first won the right to vote in
New Zealandin 1893, in Australiain 1902, and in Finlandin 1906, preceding the United States and Britain in affirming full voting rights. However, in some of these countries only women in the ruling population were able to vote at first. For example, Aboriginal women in Australia were not allowed to vote until they became citizens in 1967. [cite web|url=http://womenshistory.about.com/od/suffrage/a/intl_timeline_3.htm|title=Woman Suffrage Timeline International - Winning the Vote Around the World ] [cite web|url=http://www.parliament.vic.gov.au/women.html|title=Women in Parliament - Parliament of Victoria ] [cite web|url=http://faculty.marianopolis.edu/c.belanger/quebechistory/encyclopedia/Canada-WomensVote-WomenSuffrage.htm|title=Canada - Women's Vote - Women Suffrage ] Many other nations have proved much slower to change. For example, in Switzerland women gained the right to vote only in February 1, 1959, after a referendum on women's suffrage. [cite web|url=http://history-switzerland.geschichte-schweiz.ch/chronology-womens-right-vote-switzerland.html|title=Switzerland's Long Way to Women's Right to Vote]
In the subsequent decades women's rights again became an important issue in the English speaking world. By the 1960s the movement was called "
feminism" or "women's liberation." Reformers wanted the same pay as men, equal rights in law, and the freedom to plan their families or not have children at all. Their efforts were met with mixed results. [cite web|url=http://www.jofreeman.com/feminism/suffrage.htm|title=www.jofreeman.com/feminism/suffrage.htm ]
In the UK a public groundswell of opinion in favour of legal equality had gained pace, partly through the extensive employment of women in men's traditional roles during both world wars. By the 1960s the legislative process was being readied, tracing through MP
Willie Hamilton's select committee report, his Equal Pay For Equal Work Bill, the creation of a Sex Discrimination Board, Lady Sear's draft sex anti-discrimination bill, a government Green Paperof 1973, until 1975 when the first British Sex Discrimination Act, an Equal Pay Act, and an Equal Opportunities Commissioncame into force. [The Guardian, 29 December 1975] [The Times, 29 December 29 1975 "Sex discrimination in advertising banned"] With encouragement from the UK government, the other countries of the EECsoon followed suit with an agreement to ensure that discrimination laws would be phased out across the European Community.
In the USA, the US
National Organization for Women(NOW) was created in 1966 with the purpose of bringing about equality for all women. NOW was one important group that fought for the Equal Rights Amendment(ERA). This amendment stated that "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of sex." [cite web|url=http://www.now.org/history/purpos66.html|title=The National Organization for Women's 1966 Statement of Purpose ] But there was disagreement on how the proposed amendment would be understood. Supporters believed it would guarantee women equal treatment. But critics feared it might deny women the right be financially supported by their husbands. The amendment died in 1982 because not enough states had ratified it. ERAs have been included in subsequent Congresses, but have still failed to be ratified. [cite web|url=http://www.answers.com/topic/national-organization-for-women?cat=biz-fin&nr=1|title=National Organization for Women: Definition and Much More from Answers.com ]
In the last three decades of the 20th century, Western women knew a new freedom through
birth control, which enabled women to plan their adult lives, often making way for both career and family. The movement had been started in the 1910s by US pioneering social reformer Margaret Sanger[cite web|url=http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1676.html|title=Margaret Sanger ] and in the UK and internationally by Marie Stopes.
Over the course of the 20th century women took on a greater role in society. For example, many women served in government. In the
U.S. governmentsome served as U.S. Senators and others as members of the U.S. Cabinet. Many women took advantage of opportunities to become educated. In the United States at the beginning of the 20th century less than 20% of all college degrees were earned by women. By the end of the century this figure had risen to about 50%.cite web|url=http://www.wic.org/misc/history.htm|title=WIC - Women's History in America ]
Opportunities also expanded in the
workplace. Fields such as medicine, law, and science opened to include more women. At the beginning of the 20th century about 5% of the doctors in the United States were women. As of 2006, over 38% of all doctors in the United States were women, and today, women make almost 50% of the medical student population. While the numbers of women in these fields increased, many women still continued to hold clerical, factory, retail, or service jobs. For example, they worked as office assistants, on assembly lines, or as cooks. [cite web|url=http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/16229.html|title=www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/16229.html ]
United Nations and womens' rights
In 1946 the
United Nationsestablished a Commission on the Status of Women. [cite web|url=http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/Review/|title=UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Division for the Advancement of Women] [cite web|url=http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/CSW60YRS/CSWbriefhistory.pdf|title=Short History of the Commission on the Status of Women|format=PDF] Originally as the Section on the Status of Women, Human Rights Division, Department of Social Affairs, and now part of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).Since 1975 the UN has held a series of world conferences on women's issues, starting with the World Conference of the International Women's Year in Mexico City. These conferences created an international forum for women's rights, but also illustrated divisions between women of different cultures and the difficulties of attempting to apply principles universallyCatagay, N., Grown, C. and Santiago, A. 1986. "The Nairobi Women's Conference: Toward a Global Feminism?" Feminist Studies, 12, 2:401–412] Emerging from the 1985 Nairobi conference was a realization that feminism is not monolithic but "constitutes the political expression of the concerns and interests of women from different regions, classes, nationalities, and ethnic backgrounds. There is and must be a diversity of feminisms, responsive to the different needs and concerns of women, and defined by them for themselves.This diversity builds on a common opposition to gender oppression and hierarchy which, however, is only the first step in articulating and acting upon a political agenda."Sen, G., Grown, C. Development, crisis and alternative visions: Third World women's perspectives. Monthly Review Press,N.Y. 1987] At the Fourth World Conference on Womenin Beijing, "The Platform for Action" was signed. This included a commitment to achieve " gender equalityand the empowerment of women". [cite web|url=http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/index.html|title=Fourth World Conference on Women. Beijing, China. September 1995. Action for Equality, Development and Peace] [United Nations [http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/text/econvention.htm#intro "Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women": Introduction] ]
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted in 1948, enshrines "the equal rights of men and women", and addressed both the equality and equity issues. [cite web|url=http://www.unhchr.ch/udhr/|title=Universal Declaration of Human Rights] In 1979 the United NationsGeneral Assembly adopted the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). Described as an international bill of rightsfor women, it came into force on 3 September 1981. The United Statesis the only developed nation that has not ratified the CEDAW.
The Convention defines discrimination against women in the following terms:
Any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field.It also establishes an agenda of action for putting an end to sex-based discrimination: States ratifying the Convention are required to enshrine
gender equalityinto their domestic legislation, repeal all discriminatory provisions in their laws, and enact new provisions to guard against discrimination against women. They must also establish tribunals and public institutions to guarantee women effective protection against discrimination, and take steps to eliminate all forms of discrimination practiced against women by individuals, organizations, and enterprises.
The CEDAW has been controversial for statements seen by some as promoting
radical feminism. Particularly referenced is a 2000 report which said that in Belarus, "the Committee is concerned by the continuing prevalence of sex-role stereotypes and by the reintroduction of such symbols as a Mothers' Dayand a Mothers' Award, which it sees as encouraging women's traditional roles." [cite web|url=http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/reports/a5538.pdf|title=www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/reports/a5538.pdf |format=PDF]
Reproductive rights are rights relating to
sexual reproductionand reproductive health.cite journal |last=Cook |first=Rebecca J. |coauthors=Mahmoud F. Fathalla |year=1996 |month=September |title=Advancing Reproductive Rights Beyond Cairo and Beijing |journal="International Family Planning Perspectives" |volume=22 |issue=3 |pages=115–121 |url=http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0190-3187%28199609%2922%3A3%3C115%3AARRBCA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-E |accessdate=2007-12-08 |doi=10.2307/2950752 |unused_data=|quote ] Reproductive rights are understood as rights of both men and women, but are most frequently advanced as women's rights. The United Nations Population Fund(UNPF) and the World Health Organization(WHO) advocate for reproductive rights with a primary emphasis on women's rights. The idea of these rights were first discussed as a subset of human rights at the United Nation's 1968 International Conference on Human Rights. The sixteenth article of the Proclamation of Teheran recognises reproductive rightsas a subset of human rightsand states, "Parents have a basic human right to determine freely and responsibly the number and the spacing of their children."cite journal |last=Freedman |first=Lynn P. |coauthors=Stephen L. Isaacs |year=1993 |month=Jan. - Feb. |title=Human Rights and Reproductive Choice" |journal="Studies in Family Planning" |volume=24 |issue=1 |pages=18–30 |url=http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0039-3665%28199301%2F02%2924%3A1%3C18%3AHRARC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-A |accessdate=2007-12-08]
The realisation of reproductive rights is interlinked with the realisation of a series of recognised international human rights, including the
right to health, the right to freedom from discrimination, the right to privacy, and the right not to be subjected to torture or ill-treatment.cite web |url=http://www.amnestyusa.org/Stop_Violence_Against_Women_SVAW/Reproductive_Rights/page.do?id=1108242&n1=3&n2=39&n3=1101 |title=Stop Violence Against Women: Reproductive rights |accessdate=2007-12-08 |author=Amnesty International USA |year=2007 |format=HTML |work=SVAW |publisher=Amnesty International USA ] Reproductive rights as recognised by the Proclamation of Teherean are however not recognised in international human rights law. "Reproductive rights" is an umbrella terms that may include some or all of the following rights: the right to legal or safe abortion, the right to control one's reproductive functions, the right to access quality reproductive healthcare, and the right to education and access in order to make reproductive choices free from coercion, discrimination, and violence. Reproductive rights may also be understood to include education about contraceptionand sexually transmitted infections, and freedom from coerced sterilization and contraception, protection from gender-based practices such as female genital cutting, or FGC, and male genital mutilation, or MGM. [cite web|url=http://www.nocirc.org/symposia/fourth/zavales4.html|title=www.nocirc.org/symposia/fourth/zavales4.html ]
Women's access to safe and legal
abortions is restricted in law or in practice in most countries in the world. Even where abortionis permitted by law, women may only have limited access to safe abortion services. Only a small number of countries prohibit abortion in all cases. In most countries and jurisdictions, abortion is allowed to save the pregnant woman's life, or where the pregnancy is the result of rapeor incest.cite web|url=http://www.hrw.org/women/abortion.html|title=www.hrw.org/women/abortion.html ]
Some human rights groups, such as
Human Rights Watchconsider abortionwithin the context of human rights. Human Rights Watchargues that: "Abortion is a highly emotional subject and one that excites deeply held opinions. However, equitable access to safe abortion services is first and foremost a human right. Where abortion is safe and legal, no one is forced to have one. Where abortion is illegal and unsafe, women are forced to carry unwanted pregnancies to term or suffer serious health consequences and even death. Approximately 13% of maternal deaths worldwide are attributable to unsafe abortion—between 68,000 and 78,000 deaths annually." Human Rights Watchfurthermore argues that "...international human rights legal instruments and authoritative interpretations of those instruments compel the conclusion that women have a right to decide independently in all matters related to reproduction, including the issue of abortion." Human Rights Watchargues that abortionthat "the denial of a pregnant woman's right to make an independent decision regarding abortion violates or poses a threat to a wide range of human rights." Basing its analysis on the authoritative interpretations of international human rights instruments by UN expert bodies Human Rights Watchstates that where women's access to safe and legal abortion services are restricted, the following human rightsmay be at risk: the right to life, the right to health(or health care), right to freedom from discrimination, right to security of person, the right to liberty, the right to privacy, the right to information, the right to be free from cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment , the right to decide the number and spacing of children ( reproductive rights), the right to freedom of thought, and the right to freedom of religion. [cite web|url=http://www.hrw.org/backgrounder/americas/argentina0605/|title=www.hrw.org/backgrounder/americas/argentina0605/ ] [cite web|url=http://www.hrw.org/backgrounder/americas/argentina0605/#issue|title=www.hrw.org/backgrounder/americas/argentina0605/#issue ]
Rape and sexual violence
Rape, sometimes called
sexual assault, is an assaultby a person involving sexual intercoursewith or sexual penetrationof another person without that person's consent. Rape is generally considered a serious sex crimeas well as a civil assault. When part of a widespread and systematic practice rapeand sexual slavery are now recognised as crime against humanityand war crime. Rape is also now recognised as an element of the crime of genocidewhen committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a targeted group.
Rape as an element of the crime of genocide
Genocide, International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, Rwandan genocideIn 1998, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwandaestablished by the United Nationsmade landmark decisions that rapeis a crime of genocideunder international law. The trial of Jean-Paul Akayesu, the mayor of Taba Commune in Rwanda, established precedents that rapeis a element of the crime of genocide. The Trial Chamber held that "sexual assault formed an integral part of the process of destroying the Tutsiethnic group and that the rape was systematic and had been perpetrated against Tutsi women only, manifesting the specific intent required for those acts to constitute genocide."Fourth Annual Report of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwandato the General Assembly (September, 1999), accessed at [http://126.96.36.199/ENGLISH/annualreports/a54/9925571e.htm] .]
Navanethem Pillaysaid in a statement after the verdict: "From time immemorial, rape has been regarded as spoils of war. Now it will be considered a war crime. We want to send out a strong message that rape is no longer a trophy of war." Navanethem Pillayis quoted by Professor Paul Walters in his presentation of her honorary doctorate of law, Rhodes University, April 2005 [http://www.ru.ac.za/academic/graduation/addresses_and_citations/2005/Judge_Pillay_citation.doc] ] An estimated 500,000 women were raped during the 1994 Rwandan Genocide. [cite web|url=http://www.amnesty.org.nz/web/pages/home.nsf/0/e57ea3f05f6aa848cc256e460012f365?OpenDocument|title=Violence Against Women: Worldwide Statistics]
The Akayesu judgement includes the first interpretation and application by an international court of the 1948
Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. The Trial Chamber held that rape, which it defined as "a physical invasion of a sexual nature committed on a person under circumstances which are coercive", and sexual assault constitute acts of genocide insofar as they were committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a targeted group, as such. It found that sexual assault formed an integral part of the process of destroying the Tutsiethnic group and that the rape was systematic and had been perpetrated against Tutsi women only, manifesting the specific intent required for those acts to constitute genocide.
Rape and sexual enslavement as crime against humanity
The Rome Statute, which defines the jurisdiction of the
International Criminal Court, recognises rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution, forced pregnancy, enforced sterilization, "or any other form of sexual violence of comparable gravity" as crime against humanity if the action is part of a widespread or systematic practice. As quoted by Guy Horton in " [http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/Horton-2005.pdf Dying Alive - A Legal Assessment of Human Rights Violations in Burma] " April 2005, co-Funded by The Netherlands Ministry for Development Co-Operation. See section "12.52 Crimes against humanity", Page 201. He references RSICC/C, Vol. 1 p. 360 ] [cite web|url=http://untreaty.un.org/cod/icc/statute/romefra.htm|title=untreaty.un.org/cod/icc/statute/romefra.htm ]
Rape was first recognised as
crime against humanitywhen the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslaviaissued arrest warrants based on the Geneva Conventionsand Violations of the Laws or Customs of War. Specifically, it was recognised that Muslim women in Foca(southeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina) were subjected to systematic and widespread gang rape, torture and enslavement by Bosnian Serb soldiers, policemen and members of paramilitary groups after the takeover of the city in April 1992.cite web|url=http://www.haverford.edu/relg/sells/rape.html|title=www.haverford.edu/relg/sells/rape.html ]
The indictment was of major legal significance and was the first time that sexual assaults were investigated for the purpose of prosecution under the rubric of torture and enslavement as a
crime against humanity. The indictment was confirmed by a 2001 verdict of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslaviathat rape and sexual enslavement are crimes again humanity. This ruling challenged the widespread acceptance of rape and sexual enslavement of women as intrinsic part of war. [cite web|url=http://asiapacific.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGEUR630042001?open&of=ENG-BIH|title=asiapacific.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGEUR630042001?open&of=ENG-BIH ]
Legal rights of women in history
List of suffragists and suffragettes
List of women's rights activists
Pregnant patients' rights
* [http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/ UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women]
* [http://www.hrw.org/women/ Human Rights Watch: Women's Rights]
* [http://www.omct.org/index.php?id=EQL&lang=eng World Organization Against Torture: No Violence Against Women]
* [http://www.history.com/minisite.do?content_type=mini_home&mini_id=1286/ Women's History Month by History.com]
* [http://www.law-lib.utoronto.ca/Diana/ Women's Human Rights Resources Programme]
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