- Freedom (political)
Political freedom is the absence of interference with the sovereignty of an individual by the use of coercion or aggression. The members of a free society would have full dominion over their public and private lives. The opposite of a free society would be a
totalitarianstate, which highly restricts political freedom in order to regulate almost every aspect of behavior. In this sense ‘freedom’ refers solely to the relation of men to other men, and the only infringement on it is coercion by men. [Friedrich August von Hayek, ‘Freedom and Coercion’ in David Miller (ed), Liberty (1991) pp. 80, 81.]
The concept of political freedom is very closely allied with the concepts of
civil libertiesand individual rights, which in most democraticsocieties is the profession characterized by various freedoms which are afforded the legal protection of the state. Some of these freedoms may include (in alphabetical order):
Freedom of assembly
Freedom of association
*Freedom to bear arms
Freedom of education
Freedom of movement
Freedom of the press
Freedom of religion
Freedom of speech
Freedom of thought
Various groups along the
political spectrumnaturally differ on what they believe constitutes "true" political freedom.
Left wing political philosophy generally couples the notion of freedom with that of
positive liberty, or the enabling of an individual to realize her own potential. Freedom, in this sense, may include freedom from poverty, starvation, treatable disease, and oppression, as well as freedom from force and coercion, from whomever they may issue.
Friedrich Hayek, a well-known classical liberal, criticized this as a misconception of freedom, instead emphasizing the aspects of negative liberty.
Quotation|the use of ‘liberty’ to describe the physical ‘ability to do what I want’, the power to satisfy our wishes, or the extent of the choice of alternatives open to us...has been deliberately fostered as part of the socialist argument...Once this identification of freedom with power is admitted, there is no limit to the sophisms by which the attractions of the word ‘liberty’ can be used to support measures which destroy individual liberty, no end to the tricks by which people can be exhorted in the name of liberty to give up their liberty. It has been with the help of this equivocation that the notion of collective power over circumstances has been substituted for that of individual liberty and that in totalitarian states liberty has been suppressed in the name of liberty. [Friedrich August von Hayek, ‘Freedom and Coercion’ in David Miller (ed), Liberty (1991) pp. 80, 85-86]
Hayek also famously noted [Friedrich August von Hayek, The Road to Serfdom (1944) p. 14] that "liberty" and "freedom" have probably been the most abused words in recent history.
Milton Friedman, another classical liberal, strongly incorporated the absence from coercion into his description of political freedom.
Many social anarchists see negative and positive liberty as complementary concepts of freedom. They describe the negative liberty-centric view endorsed by
capitialistsas "selfish freedom". According to [http://www.spunk.org/texts/intro/faq/sp001547/secF2.html#secf22 Anarchism FAQ]
Somewho|date=June 2008 treat freedom as if it were almost synonymous with
democracy, while otherswho|date=June 2008 see conflicts or even opposition between the two concepts. For example, some people argue that Iraqwas free under Paul Bremeron the grounds that it was a rational, humanist, non-subjugating government, long before elections were held Fact|date=April 2007. Others have argued that Iraq was free under Saddam Husseinbecause Iraq was not a colony Fact|date=April 2007, while a third claim is that neither dictatorial nor colonial rule in Iraq are examples of political freedom. Environmentalists often argue that political freedoms should include some constraint on use of ecosystems. They maintain there is no such thing, for instance, as "freedom to pollute" or "freedom to deforest" given that such activities create negative externalities. The popularity of SUVs, golf, and urban sprawlhas been used as evidence that some ideas of freedom and ecological conservationcan clash. This leads at times to serious confrontations and clashes of values reflected in advertising campaigns, e.g. that of PETAregarding fur.
There have been numerous philosophical debates over the nature of freedom, the claimed differences between various types of freedom, and the extent to which freedom is desirable. Determinists argue that all human actions are pre-determined and thus freedom is an illusion.
Isaiah Berlinsaw a distinction between negative libertyand positive liberty.
jurisprudence, freedom is the rightto determine one's own actions autonomously ; generally it is granted in those fields in which the subject has no obligations to fulfill or laws to obey, according to the interpretation that the hypothetical natural unlimited freedom is limited by the law for some matters.
Joseph Garcia(Not the politition) states his belief that freedom in
politicsis generally used as a governing tool: "For what we call freedom is given only to those who obey, it is then when you stand for what you believe and fight back against oppression you lose those freedoms, and when what is taken away should be your inalienable rightswhat choice does one have but to obey?"
* [http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=1 Freedom House]
* [http://www.ifex.org/ International Freedom of Expression Exchange]
* [http://politicaltribute.com/wordpress/?page_id=642 Political Navigator] Directory of major US related political sources
* [http://ksghome.harvard.edu/~aabadie/povterr.pdf Poverty, Political Freedom, and the Roots of Terrorism] from Alberto Abadie – Harvard University and NBER, October 2004 (pdf)
* [http://gsociology.icaap.org/report/polsum.html Brief review of trends in political change: freedom and conflict] Global trends
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