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Impermanence (Pāli: अनिच्चा anicca; Sanskrit: अनित्य anitya; Tibetan: མི་​རྟག་​པ་ mi rtag pa; Chinese: wúcháng; Japanese: 無常 mujō; Korean: 무상 musang; Thai: อนิจจัง anitchang, from Pali "aniccaŋ") is one of the essential doctrines or three marks of existence in Buddhism. The term expresses the Buddhist notion that all of conditioned existence, without exception, is in a constant state of flux. The Pali word anicca literally means "inconstant", and arises from a synthesis of two separate words, 'Nicca' and the "privative particle" 'a'.[1] Where the word 'Nicca' refers to the concept of continuity and permanence, 'Anicca' refers to its exact opposite; the absence of permanence and continuity.



Anicca or impermanence is understood by Buddhists as one of the three marks of existence, these being anicca (impermanence), dukkha (unsatisfactoriness) and anatta (non-selfhood).[2] All things in the universe are understood by Buddhists to be characterised by these three marks of existence. According to the impermanence doctrine, human life embodies this flux in the aging process, the cycle of birth and rebirth (samsara), and in any experience of loss. This is applicable to all beings and their environs including devas (mortal gods). The Buddha taught that because conditioned phenomena are impermanent, attachment to them becomes the cause for future suffering (dukkha).

Conditioned phenomena can also be referred to as compounded, constructed, or fabricated. This is in contrast to the unconditioned, uncompounded and unfabricated nirvana, the reality that knows no change, decay or death.

Impermanence is intimately associated with the doctrine of anatta, according to which things have no fixed nature, essence, or self. For example, in Mahayana Buddhism, because all phenomena are impermanent, and in a state of flux, they are understood to be empty of an intrinsic self (shunyata).[3]

Practical implications - meditation

One method Buddhists use to cultivate awareness of the true nature of reality is that of vipassana meditation. The practice of vipassana meditation involves the development of a heightened state of awareness whereby one is able to understand clearly the true nature of reality. Here, 'true nature' refers to an understanding of the three marks of existence (see above), the true nature of impermanence, the true nature of unsatisfactoriness and the true nature of insubstantiality or the non-self or soul. The contemplation of impermanence (anicca-nupassana) refers to seeing conditioned phenomena arising and passing away while observing their individual characteristics. According to the Visuddhimagga, one should understand three aspects of this contemplation: impermanence (anicca ), the characteristic of impermanence (anicca -lakkhana ), and the contemplation of impermanence (anicca-nupassana). The commentaries say that we should know three things regarding the contemplation of impermanence (anicca-nupassana ):[4]


The five aggregates, monks, are anicca, impermanent.
All is impermanent. And what is the all that is impermanent? The eye is impermanent, visual objects [ruupaa]... eye-consciousness... eye contact [cakku-samphassa]... whatever is felt [vedayita] as pleasant or unpleasant or neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant, born of eye-contact is impermanent. [Likewise with the ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind] (SN 35.43/vol. iv, 28)
All formations are impermanent
Whatever is subject to origination [samudaya] is subject to cessation [nirodha] (MN 56)

In arts and culture

Further reading

See also





  1. ^ Monk Sasana; (1999) Anicca (the impermanence): Translated 2001 by Thierry Lambrou.
  2. ^ Monk Dhamma Sami: (2001): 'Three Characteristics' Translated 2001 by Thierry Lambrou.
  3. ^ O'Brien. B; (2009) 'Anicca'
  4. ^ 'Three aspects regarding the contemplation of impermanence' (accessed 3.1.2010)

External links

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  • impermanence — ⇒IMPERMANENCE, subst. fém. Caractère de ce qui n est pas permanent, de ce qui ne dure pas. L Éternel est le seul dont on puisse raisonnablement penser qu il existe. Tout le reste se mêle et s embrouille dans l impermanence générale (GREEN,… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Impermanence — Im*per ma*nence, Impermanency Im*per ma*nen*cy, n. Lack of permanence. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • impermanence — index mortality Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 …   Law dictionary

  • impermanence — (n.) 1796, from IMPERMANENT (Cf. impermanent) + ENCE (Cf. ence). Impermanency is from 1640s …   Etymology dictionary

  • Impermanence — Anitya Anitya (sanskrit ; pali : anicca), l impermanence, est, selon le bouddhisme, l une des trois caractéristiques de toute chose. Selon Gautama Bouddha, l impermanence s avère la cause de la souffrance, dukkha, car ce qui est… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • impermanence — (in pèr ma nan s ) s. f. Qualité de ce qui n est pas permanent. L impermanence d un état de choses, d un équilibre …   Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré

  • impermanence — impermanent ► ADJECTIVE ▪ not permanent. DERIVATIVES impermanence noun impermanently adverb …   English terms dictionary

  • impermanence — noun Date: 1796 the quality or state of being impermanent …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • impermanence — See impermanent. * * * …   Universalium

  • impermanence — noun a) Want of permanence or continued duration. b) The quality or state of being impermanent …   Wiktionary

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