Stefan Nemanja

Stefan Nemanja
Stefan Nemanja
Стѣфань Неманя
Стефан Немања
Grand Prince of Rascia
The fresco of Saint Simeon (Stefan Nemanja), King's Church in Studenica monastery
Grand Prince of Serbia
Reign 1166–1196
Coronation 1166
Predecessor Stefan Tihomir
Successor Stefan II Nemanjić
Vukan Nemanjić of Serbia

Stefan II Nemanjić
Rastko Nemanjić

Posthumous name
Simeon the Myrrh-streaming
Dynasty House of Nemanjić Grb Nemanjica.jpg
Father Zavida
Born 1113/4
Died February 13, 1199(1199-02-13)
Monastery of Hilandar
Burial Studenica monastery
Signature Seal of Nemanja
Religion Serbian Orthodox

Stefan Nemanja (Old Church Slavonic: Стѣфань, Serbian: Стефан Немања, pronounced [ˈstɛfan ˈnɛmaɲa]  ; ca 1113 – 13 February 1199) was the Grand Prince (Veliki Župan) of the Grand Principality of Serbia (Rascia) from 1166 to 1196, a heir of the Vukanović dynasty that marked the beginning of a greater Serbian realm (he is the founding father of the Nemanjić dynasty).

He is remembered for his contributions to Serbian culture and history, being the founder of the powerful Serbian state that would evolve into the Serbian Empire, and the national church. He was the father of Stefan Nemanjić, the first King of Serbia, and of Saint Sava, the first archbishop of the Serbian Orthodox Church.

After his death, Stefan Nemanja was canonized by the Serbian Orthodox Church under the name Saint Simeon the Myrrh-streaming (Свети Симеон Мироточиви) after numerous alleged miracles following his death. He is regarded the most remarkable Serb according to the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts.[1]



St Simeon the Myrrh-streaming
Venerated in Eastern Orthodox Church
Canonized 1200 by Serbian Orthodox Church
Commemorated 26 February [O.S. 13 February]
Saints Portal

Nemanja was born around the year 1113 AD in Ribnica, Zeta, in the vicinity of present day Podgorica, capital of Montenegro. He was the youngest son of Zavida, a Prince of Zahumlje, who after a conflict with his brothers was sent to Ribnica where he had the title of Lord. Zavida (Beli Uroš) was most probably a son of Uroš I[disambiguation needed ] or Vukan I. As western Zeta was under Roman Catholic jurisdiction, Nemanja received a Catholic baptism.[2]

Church of Peter on a hill of Stari Ras, the capital of Rascia (Serbia)

After the defeat of Nemanja's kinsmen Đorđe of Duklja and Desa Urošević and the exodus of that branch of the Vojislavljević family by the Byzantines, Zavida and his family went to the hereditary family estates of Rascia. Upon his arrival in Ras, the capital of Rascia, Nemanja was re-baptised in the Eastern Orthodox Church, in the Church of St. Apostles Peter and Paul which was an episcopal see.


When he reached adulthood, Nemanja became "Prince (Župan) of Ibar, Toplica[disambiguation needed ], Rasina and Reke" after receiving the česti (parts of the state) by Manuel I. Manuel had appointed the first-born Tihomir as the supreme Grand Prince of the Serb lands, Stracimir ruled West Morava, Miroslav ruled Zahumlje and Travunia.[3]

In 1163, Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos installed Nemanja's older brother Tihomir as Grand Župan of Rascia in Desa's place, which disappointed Nemanja greatly, as he expected that he would get the throne. Nemanja met Emperor Manuel in Niš in 1162, who gave him the region of Dubočica to rule over and declared him independent. The Emperor gave him a Byzantine court title as it was important for the Emperor to have the borderlands of the Empire ruled by loyal leaders. Nemanja's Serb squadrons fought in the Imperial Army in 1164 in Srem during the wars against the Kingdom of Hungary. Nemanja ruled independently, as he built the Monastery of Saint Nicholas in Kuršumlija and the Monastery of the Holy Mother of Christ near Kosanica-Toplica, without the approval of his older brother, the Grand Župan of Rascia. His brothers invited him to a council at Ras, supposedly to resolve the situation, but instead they imprisoned him and held him in a nearby cave. The lands of Nemanja were seized but Nemanja's supporters conspired to the church that Tihomir had done all this because of a disapproval of church building and thus became targeted by the clergy, something that would help Nemanja greatly.[4] According to a myth, Saint George himself freed him from the cave.[5]

Between 1166 and 1168, Prince Nemanja rebelled against his older brother, the Grand Župan of Rascia, deposed him and exiled him with his brothers, Miroslav and Stracimir. The Byzantine Emperor raised a mercenary army for Tihomir, made up of Greeks, Francs and Turks, which was defeated by Nemanja at the Battle of Pantino, south of Zvečan. Tihomir drowned in the river of Sitnica, and the other brothers surrendered to Nemanja, continuing to rule their previous lands.[3] Nemanja assumed the title of Grand Župan of all Serbia , and took the first name Stefan (from Greek Stephanos meaning "crowned").

Nemanja married a Serbian noblewoman, Ana, with whom he had three sons: Vukan, Stefan and Rastko.

Grand Prince

Đurđevi Stupovi monastery, founded by Stefan Nemanja

Stefan Nemanja built the church of Đurđevi Stupovi (Pillars of St. George) in Ras in 1171. According to the legend, this was to thank Saint George for freeing him from the cave in which he was imprisoned by his brothers. The same year, Nemanja had his third son - Rastko. Nemanja attributed his rise to power to none other than Saint George.

In 1171, Grand Župan Stefan Nemanja sided with the Venetian Republic in a dispute with the Byzantine Empire, with the aim of gaining full independence from Byzantine rule. The Venetians incited the Slavs of the eastern Adriatic littoral to rebel against Byzantine rule and Nemanja wished to join them, launching an offensive towards the coastal city of Kotor. A German fleet was formed to replace the Venetian navy, and it advanced eastwards in the September of 1171, capturing Ragusa. Nemanja was ready to make a full-scale rebellion. Nemanja also made an alliance with the Kingdom of Hungary, and, though the Hungarians, with the Duchy of Austria. Grand Prince Nemanja dispatched a force to the Morava valley in 1172, to jeopardise communications and the traffic between Niš and Belgrade and to instigate a rebellion amongst the local Serbs at Ravno. As a result, the Serb citizens of Ravno refused to allow passage to the King of Saxony Heinrich the Lion. The Serbs organised a surprise attack on the German camp; they then attacked their own neighbours and disturbed the peace in the local region. In 1172, Nemanja joined the anti-Byzantine coalition with the Kingdom of Hungary, the Venetian Republic and the Holy Roman Empire. The alliance, however, soon collapsed as Venice faced a mutiny and an outbreak of plague that devastated her navy, while the King of Hungary died and a new, pro-Byzantine, King ascended the throne, so the Rascian Grand Prince was left alone. The same year the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos launched an expedition against Rascia and defeated Nemanja's forces, so the Grand Župan met him in Niš to surrender. He came to the Emperor with his head and feet bare, bowed before him and gave him his own personal sword as a mark of surrender. Emperor Manuel had him imprisoned and brought him to the Imperial Capital of Constantinople as a personal slave. In the Byzantine Empire's capital, Nemanja was tutored by and befriended Manuel. Nemanja vowed to never again attack Manuel, while the Emperor in return recognized Stefan Nemanja and his bloodline as the rightful Grand Župans of the Rascian lands. William, archbishop of Tyre, who visited Constantinople in 1179, described the "rebellious Serbs" as "an uneducated people, lacking discipline, living in mountains and forests, unskilled in agriculture. They are rich in herds and flocks and unusually well supplied with milk, cheese, butter, meat, honey and wax".[6]

Maps of Stefan Nemanja's Serbia
1183-1196Serbia 1183-1196.png
Council against Bogomilism, organized by Stefan. Fresco from 1290

Nemanja used the following decade to deal with the Bogomil heresy that was present in his realm, as well as strengthening Eastern Orthodox Christianity. He declared the Bogomils heretics and punished them because of their religious beliefs, burning their books. He had their lands confiscated, burned some at the stake, and exiled others. By the end of his reign, Stefan Nemanja had completely rooted out the Bogomils. Stefan Nemanja forced his brothers, Stracimir of West Moravia and Miroslav of Zachlumia and Lim to accept his supreme rule in return for his forgiveness; he also made Tihomir's son Stefan Prvoslav give up his claim to the throne. His army was involved only in a single conflict at the request of his Byzantine liege; in Asia Minor. In the meantime, Prince Stracimir built the Monastery of the Mother of Christ in his capital at Moravian Grac (today Čačak), while Great Prince Miroslav raised the Monastery of Saint Peter on Lim. Miroslav also married the sister of Kulin Ban of Bosnia, creating an important bloodline link between the ruling dynasties of Serbia and Bosnia.

Death of the Emperor

Following the death of Emperor Manuel I Komnenos in 1180, Stefan Nemanja no longer considered he owed any allegiance to the Byzantines since he viewed his vows as being to the Emperor, not the Empire, so he took advantage of the Empire's weakened state. Prince Miroslav put under his protection the Narentine Kačić family, the pirates that had robbed and murdered Rainer (Arnerius), the archbishop of Split. The pope complained to Miroslav, demanding death to the perpetrators and giving back the sum taken. Miroslav refused, and expelled the Bishop of Ston. Because of this, Miroslav was excommunicated by the Papacy, but he was not troubled by this, and replaced the vacant church buildings in the vicinity of Ston.[5]

In 1183, Stefan Nemanja formed alliances with King Bela III of Hungary and invaded Byzantine soil. The main reason was the new usurper to the Imperial throne, Andronicus Comnenus, who was not recognized; as well as the Massacre of the Latins in Constantinople. Nemanja was also assisted by his relative, Kulin Ban of Bosnia. The Byzantine forces in the eastern Serb borderlands were led by Alexios Brannes and Andronicus Lapardas[citation needed]. Inner fights occurred, as Brannes supported the new Emperor and Lapardas, opposing, deserted with his troops. Without difficulties the Hungaro-Serbian military pushed the Greeks out of the Valley of Morava, advanced all the way to Sofia, raiding Belgrade, Braničevo[disambiguation needed ], Ravno, Niš and Sophia itself. But the Hungarians soon withdrew from the war, leaving Nemanja's forces raiding across western Bulgaria.

In 1184, the Great Prince of Zahumlje Miroslav went to retake the islands of Korčula and Vis. On 18 August 1184, Miroslav's fleet was devastated by the Ragusian navy at Poljice[disambiguation needed ] near Koločep, and signed peace with the Republic of Ragusa. He channelled the order to his brother, Prince Stracimir. In 1185, Prince Stracimir raided Korčula and Vis with the Doclean fleet. He joined the war against the Republic of Ragusa, but was forced to withdraw because Miroslav already made peace by the time Stracimir marshaled his forces. The same year the Byzantines launched a counter-attack on Serbia, but a Bulgarian uprising was raised in the Danubian areas which made the offensive get called-off, so Stefan Nemanja utilized the situation and conquered the Timok Frontier with Niš and sacked Svrljig, Ravno and Koželj. While Stefan Nemanja held Niš, it served as his capital and base of operations.

Campaign of Doclea

In 1186, Stefan Nemanja launched a campaign to invade and annex the area of his birth - Doclea. Already in 1185, he annexed and victouriously entered the city of Kotor - sparing it from any destruction - where he built himself a Chateu. Doclea, as a coastal land, had a dominant Catholic Christian character spreading from the City of Bar with a Roman Catholic Archbishopric and also from Kotor and Ragusa. Rascia stood as an ethnicly purer, patriarchal, more conservative, with the national language and heritage staying at large and with an insignificant number of Romanized nomads, over Doclea — significantly populated by the autochthonous Romanized populace and Arbanasses next to Slavs and having almost all inscriptions written in Latin alphabet. This ethnic mixture greatly affected its political life. Doclea was no longer in its high ages of glory. The time was ripe for a final decision between the two conflicting elements over the Serbian people - the West or East. When Stefan's forces reached Bar on their road, they besieged it. As a ransom, Nemanja demanded that the city pays him 800 perpers[disambiguation needed ]. The City was defended by its patriotic Archbishop, Primate Gregory (Grgur). He has been writing his Chronicle since 1171, in which he presented a calling the return of former Doclean power and celebrated the fame and longevity of Dioclea's Latin Cities. Archbishop Grgur requested reinforcements from Doclea's ruling Prince Mihailo, but Mihailo was being attacked by Nemanja's brothers Stracimir and Miroslav. In 1186, Stefan Nemanja appointed his oldest son Vukan as the ruler of the province of Zeta (Kingdom of Dioclea and Dalmatia), and made his second son, Stefan II, the successor to the Grand Župan throne. To confirm his grip over Doclea, Nemanja harshly persecuted the local Greek nobility, charging them for molesting and torturing his people for centuries, and ultimately cursing the Greeks and exterminating them in Duklja through exiles.

On 27 September 1186, a peace treaty was negotiated in Ragusa. The Serbian side was represented by župan Nevdal and Družina Vidošević, while Ragusa's Prince Krvaš and Archbishop Tribun together with a Norman emissary from the Kingdom of Sicily represented the Ragusian side. It was arranged that ever since there would be eternal peace between Serbia and the Republic of Ragusa. The Ragusan traders received free passage rights across the Serbian lands and were entitled to use Nemanja's fields and forests that surrounded the city. In turn, the Republic's border would be always open to the Zachlumians and its Government had to pay taxes to the Serbian Lords.

Third Crusade

Monument to Barbarossa

In 1188 Stefan Nemanja sent an envoy to Nuremberg, Friedrich Barbarossa's Capital of the Holy Roman Empire, inviting him to stay during while Crusading to the Holy Land with Count Berthold Andex of Istria's Krain who was at the same time Duke of Croatia and Slavonia. The Holy Roman Emperor disembarked on the Third Crusade and arrived on 27 July 1189 to Niš with 100,000 Crusaders, where Stefan Nemanja and Stracimir accepted and guested Emperor Friedrich. A marriage was arranged between Barthold Andex's daughter and Miroslav's son Toljen to strengthen Serbian-German relations. Nemanja's proposals to Barbarossa that he should abandon the Holy War and strike at the Byzantines with him met little approval. Friedrich needed Byzantine help to move his military might to Asia. Friedrich's plans changed when a Byzantine force stopped him from reaching his next stop - Sophia. The Greeks also started raiding his Army, which infuriated the Emperor so much that he planned an offensive to Constantinople itself. Stefan Nemanja offered 20,000 men to support the Emperor's military campaign, while the Bulgarians offered more than twice that amount. Despite being in his early 70s, Stefan Nemanja followed the Crusaders with his Army to the border at Gate of Trajan, when he moved to new conquests and dispatched envoys to Adrianopolis to officialize the Alliance with Emperor Friedrich. While his envoys were negotiating with Berthold Andex, who was negoatiating in Friedrich's place, Nemanja took Pernik, Zemen, Velbužd, Žitomisk, Stobi, Prizren and rest of Kosovo and Metohija and even Skopje. The alliance with the Crusaders was not forged, because Friedrich signed peace with the Byzantines on 14 February 1190 in Adrianopolis.

Death of Mihailo of Duklja

In 1189, Duklja's Prince Mihailo died, leaving the future rulers of his demesne indisputable. Realizing that their time has passed, his wife Desislava went with the remaining still loyal Doclean nobility in her two ships seeking shelter in the Republic of Ragusa. She was accompanied by Grgur who was just exiled from the Bar Archbishopric by Nemanja's order. She would then gift the two ships to the Republic and retire to Omiš. Grgur left to Split seeking the local Archbishop for assistance, but found no one seated there. He would continue to travel and finish his famous Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja upon his death in 1196. Stefan Nemanja introduced Orthodox Christianity in Zeta, putting a halt to the dominating Latin culture and language and Catholic religion as masses of the population were being forcibly converted to Eastern Orthodoxy and the Latin books were burnt and no longer written. Thankful to Nemanja's rapid actions, Bogumilism didn't breach to Zeta and lastly, Nemanja exiled the Greeks from this new land. In 1189, Prince Miroslav of Zahumlje created the omnibus of the Medieval Slavic litteratrue - the famous Miroslav Gospels. The work was so inspiring that Ban Kulin of Bosnia had his edict to the Republic of Ragusa written by the same scribes. Around this time, Nemanja's brother Stracimir died, so Stefan acquired his demesne - West Moravia.

Conflict with Byzantines and successions

Donor's portrait of Stefan Nemanja, fresco in the Virgin's Church of the Studenica Monastery

In 1190, the new Byzantine Emperor Isaac II Angelus prepared a massive and experienced Army to strike against Nemanja. The same year, Stefan Nemanja finished his magnificent Virgin's Church in the Studenica monastery out of the White Marble as his dynasty's endowment. It became the Temple of the House of Nemanjić. Also in 1190 Prince Miroslav died of old age, so Stefan Nemanja implaced his own son Rastko as the new Prince of Zahumlje in Ston, who induced the religious spirit of the populace greatly.

In fall of 1191, this well-prepared Byzantine Army, led by the Emperor himself, clashed with Nemanja and his forces in South Moravia. Stefan Nemanja suffered a terrifying defeat, which made him retreat to the mountains. The Byzantines raided all lands around the bank of the river and even burned down Stefan's Court in Kuršumlija. Nemanja had the tactical advantage and began raiding the Byzantine armies, so Emperor Isaac decided to negotiate a final peace treaty. Stefan Nemanja had to give up a large part of his conquests, east of the river of Velika Morava and recognize the Byzantine Emperor's supreme rule, while the Emperor recognized him as the rightful Grand Župan. To signify the final peace, Nemanja's son Stefan married the Byzantine Princess Eudokia Angelina and received the title of Sebastokrator - among the highest Byzantine Courtier titles, only given to the Emperor's family members. The Emperor only wanted to separate the Serbs from the Bulgarians, so he kept Niš and Ravno; while the Greek Lands of Zeta, Kosovo with Lipljan, Metohija to Prizren and the Arbanass Pilot were kept by Stefan Nemanja.

In 1192 Rastko fled his Monastery in Ston to Mount Athos in the Byzantine Empire where he accepted monastic vows and asserted the name Sava. This greatly saddened Nemanja. In Rastko's place, Miroslav's son Toljen became Prince of Zahumlje and founded a local dynasty. Rascia was in danger once more as Nemanja's former ally, King Bela of Hungary invaded his realm from the north. Nemanja's quick military activities pushed the Hungarians across the border northwards in 1193.

In 1195, Stefan Nemanja's brother-in-law Alexius III inherited the Eastern Roman Imperial throne. Nemanja, tired of ruling, expanded the power and lands of his son Vukan. He put Zeta with Trebinje, Hvosno and his capital of Toplica under Vukan's absolute rule.

Abdication, later life and death

Saint Symeon (Stefan Nemanja), fresco from Bogorodica Ljeviška church in Prizren (1307—1309)
Scanned copy of Monk Simeon's edict to Hilandar from 1198-1199, from the Dubrovnik Archive

On March 25, 1196, Stefan Nemanja summoned a Council in Ras, where he officially abdicated in favour of his second son, Stefan, to whom he bequeathed all his earthly possessions. This decision was not in accordance with the traditional right of primogeniture, according to which Vukan, his first son, should inherited the throne. This was not accepted lightly by Vukan. Nemanja took monastic vows with his wife Ana in the Church of Saint Peter and Paul in Ras and adopted the monastic name of Simeon. His wife took the name Anastasia. Simeon subsequently retired to his Studenica monastery and Anastasia retired to the Monastery of the Mother of Christ in Kuršumlija. After numerous pleas by his son Sava (originally Rastko), Simeon left to the Mount Athos, and joined his son in 1197 in the Vatopedi monastery. In 1199, the two rebuilt together the ruined Eastern Orthodox Monastery of Hilandar given to the Serbian people by the Byzantine Emperor, which became the heart of Serbian spiritual culture. Simeon died in front of his son Sava, on 13 February 1199, in front of the icon of the Virgin Hodegetria in his 86th year of life. He was buried in the grounds of Hilandar monastery. His last words were to request that Sava take his remains to Serbia, "when God permits it, after a certain period of time". Nemanja's son Sava wrote the Liturgy of Saint Simeon in Nemanja's honour.

According to a belief, a holy oil (myrrh) seeped from his tomb. This is how he gained the epithet the Myrrh-streaming. This miracle is said to have not occurred in the past 300 years. His body is, however, even in modern times supposed to give off "a sweet smell, like violets".[7] It is because of this and numerous miracles that occurred over his dead body that the Serbian Orthodox Church canonised him in 1200, and declared his feast-day on 26 February [O.S. 13 February]. In 1206 his son Sava brought his remains to Rascia. The civil war between Nemanja's other sons Stefan and Vukan was tearing apart the Serb lands. It is over Simeon's deceased body that the two brothers made peace and returned to their demesnes. Simeon was re-buried in 1207 in his personal foundation, the Studenica monastery, where holy oil again seeped, from his new grave. The cult of Saint Simeon that was founded maintained his heritage and the foundations of a firm national identity amongst the Serbs. The Cult still lives on in Studenica and among the monks of Mount Athos, cherishing his life, works and remains.

Name and title

Shield of Nemanja, symbol of Serbia

Various names have been used to refer to Stefan Nemanja, including Stefan I and the Latin Stephanus Nemanja. Sometimes the spelling of his name is anglicised, to become Stephen Nemanya. In the latter part of his life, he became a monk and hence was referred to as Monk Simeon or Monk Symeon. After his death, he was canonised by the Orthodox Church, and became St. Symeon the Myrrh-streaming. His son and successor, Stefan the First-Crowned, called him The Gatherer of the Lost Pieces of the Land of his Grandfathers, and also their Rebuilder. His other son Sava, called him Our Lord and Autocrat, and ruler of the whole Serbian land.[8]


Nemanja was married to a Serb noblewoman by the name of Ana. They had three sons and three daughters:

  • Stefan Nemanjić - Nemanja's successor, first King of All Serbian lands, 1196–1228
  • Rastko Nemanjić (Saint Sava) (1171–1236) - The first archbishop and saint of the Serbian Orthodox Church.
  • Vukan Nemanjić - Prince of Doclea and briefly Grand Prince of Rascia.
  • Jefimija - married Manuel Angelus Ducas Regent of Thesaloniki (+1241).[9]
  • unknown daughter - married an unknown member of the Asen family, gave birth to the Bulgarian Tsar Constantine Tih Asen (reigned 1257–1277).


Saint Sava and Saint Simeon, founder of Hilandar.

Stefan Nemanja founded, restored and reconstructed several monasteries. He also established the Rascian architectural style, that spanned from 1170-1300.



  • Church of Lord, Holy Grave and Christ's Arrisal, in Jerusalem
  • Church of Saint John the Forerunner, in Jerusalem
  • Church of Saint Theodosios, in the Desert of Bethlehem
  • Church Saint Apostole Peter and Paul, in Rome
  • Church of Saint Nicholas, in Bari
  • Monastery/Church of the Virgin of Evergethide, in Constantinople
  • Monastery/Church of Saint Demetrios, in Thessalonika

See also

Stefan Nemanja
Born: 1114 Died: 13 February 1199
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Grand Prince of Serbia
Succeeded by
Stefan Nemanjić
Royal titles
Preceded by
Mihailo III
Prince of Doclea
cc 1186–1190
Succeeded by


  1. ^ „100 najznamenitijih Srba“, Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, 1993, ISBN 86-82273-08-X : He has the first place
  2. ^ The Late Medieval Balkans, p. 3
  3. ^ a b The Serbs, p. 31
  4. ^ The Late Medieval Balkans, p. 4
  5. ^ a b The Late Medieval Balkans, p. 20
  6. ^ William of Tyre, Historia Transmarina 20.4.
  7. ^ Kindersley, 23
  8. ^ Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, p. 390
  9. ^ Genealogy of the Nemanjić


  • John V.A. Fine. (1991). The early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the 6th to the Late 12th Century. The University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08149-7
  • John V.A. Fine. (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. The University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08260-4
  • Judah, Tim (1997). The Serbs: History, Myth & the Destruction of Yugoslavia, Yale University Press.
  • Kindersley, Anne (1976). The Mountains of Serbia: Travels through Inland Yugoslavia, John Murray (Publishers) Ltd.
  • Mandic, O. Dominic (1970). Croats and Serbs: Two old and different Nations. Translated by Vicko Rendic and Jacques Perret. Available at:
  • Pavlowitch, Stevan K. (2002). Serbia: the History behind the Name, Hurst & Company.
  • The Serbian Unity Congress.
  • Servia/Serbia, Catholic Encyclopedia (1907)
  • Veselinović, Andrija & Ljušić, Radoš (2001). Српске династије, Platoneum.
  • CD Chilandar by Studio A, Aetos, Library of Serb Patriarchate and Chilandar monastery, Belgrade, 1998
  • Ćorović, Vladimir, Istorija srpskog naroda, Book I, (In Serbian) Electric Book, Rastko Electronic Book, Antikvarneknjige (Cyrillic)
    • Treci Period, I, Stevan Nemanja

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