Satellite corot.jpg
Model of the Corot satellite
General information
NSSDC ID 2006-063A
Organization Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales
European Space Agency
Launch date 2006-12-27 14:24:00 UTC
Launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome
Launch vehicle Soyuz 2.1b/Fregat
Mission length 2.5 + 4 years
(4 years, 10 months and 26 days elapsed)
Mass 630 kg
Type of orbit Polar
Orbit height 827 km
Location Earth orbit
Telescope style Afocal
Diameter 27 cm

COROT (French: COnvection ROtation et Transits planétaires; English: COnvection ROtation and planetary Transits) is a space mission led by the French Space Agency (CNES) in conjunction with the European Space Agency (ESA) and other international partners. The mission's two objectives are to search for extrasolar planets with short orbital periods, particularly those of large terrestrial size, and to perform asteroseismology by measuring solar-like oscillations in stars.[1] It was launched at 14:28:00 UTC on 27 December 2006, atop a Soyuz 2.1b carrier rocket,[2][3][4] reporting first light on 18 January 2007.[5] Subsequently, the probe started to collect science data on 2 February 2007.[6] COROT is the first spacecraft dedicated to the detection of transiting extrasolar planets, opening the way for more advanced probes such as Kepler and possibly TESS and PLATO. It detected its first extrasolar planet, COROT-1b, in May 2007,[7] just 3 months after the start of the observations. Mission flight operations were originally scheduled to end 2.5 years from launch[8] but operations were extended to 2013.[9]



Spacecraft design

The COROT optical design minimizes stray light coming from the Earth and provides a field of view of 2.7° by 3.05°. The COROT optical path consists of a 27 cm (10.6 in) diameter off-axis afocal telescope housed in a two-stage opaque baffle specifically designed to block sunlight reflected by the Earth and a camera consisting of a dioptric objective and a focal box. Inside the focal box is an array of four CCD detectors protected against radiation by aluminum shielding 10mm thick. The asteroseismology CCDs are defocused by 760μm toward the dioptric objective to avoid saturation of the brightest stars. A prism in front of the planet detection CCDs gives a small spectrum designed to disperse more strongly in the blue wavelengths.[10]

The four CCD detectors are model 4280 CCDs provided by E2V Technologies. These CCDs are frame-transfer, thinned, back-illuminated designs in a 2048 pixel by 2048 pixel array. Each pixel is 13.5 × 13.5μm2 in size which corresponds to an angular pixel size of 2.32 arcsec. The CCDs are cooled to −40 °C (233.2 K; −40.0 °F). These detectors are arranged in a square pattern with two each dedicated to the planetary detection and asteroseismology. The data output stream from the CCDs are connected in two chains. Each chain has one planetary detection CCD and one asteroseismology CCD. The field of view for planetary detection is 3.5°.[10]

The satellite, built in the Cannes Mandelieu Space Center, has a launch mass of 630 kg, is 4.10 m long, 1.984 m in diameter and is powered by two solar panels.[8]

Mission design

The satellite observes perpendicular to its orbital plane, meaning there will be no Earth occultations, allowing up to 150 days of continuous observation. These observations session, called "Long Runs", allow the detections of smaller and long-period planets. During the remaining 30 days between the two main observation periods, COROT observes other patches of sky for a few weeks long "Short Runs", in order to analyze a larger number of stars for the asteroseismic program. After the loss of half the field of view due to failure of Data Processing Unit #1 in March 2009, the observation strategy changed to 3 months observing runs, in order to optimize the number of observed stars and detection efficiency. In order to avoid the Sun entering in its field of view, during the northern summer COROT will observe in an area around Serpens Cauda, toward the galactic center, and during the winter it will observe in Monoceros, in the Galactic anticenter. Both this "eyes" of COROT have been studied in preliminary observations carried out between 1998 and 2005,[11] allowing the creation of a database, called COROTSKY,[12] with data about the stars located in this two patches of sky. This work allow to select the best fields to be observed: the exoplanet research program requires a large number of dwarf stars to be monitored, and to avoid giant stars, for which planetary transits are too shallow to be detectable. The asteroseismic program requires stars brighter than magnitude 9, and to cover as many as possible different type of stars. In addition, in order to optimize the observations, the fields shouldn't be too sparse - fewer targets observed - or too crowded - too many stars overlapping. Several fields have been already observed[13]:

  • IRa01, from 18 January 2007 to 3 April 2007 - 9879 stars observed;
  • SRc01, from 3 April 2007 to 9 May 2007 - 6975 stars observed;
  • LRc01, from 9 May 2007 to 15 October 2007 - 11408 stars observed;
  • LRa01, from 15 October 2007 to 3 March 2008 - 11408 stars observed;
  • SRa01, from 3 March 2008 to 31 March 2008 - 8150 stars observed;
  • LRc02, from 31 March 2008 to 8 September 2008 - 11408 stars observed;
  • SRc02, from 8 September 2008 to 6 October 2008 - 11408 stars observed;
  • SRa02, from 6 October 2008 to 12 November 2008 - 10265 stars observed;
  • LRa02, from 12 November 2008 to 30 March 2009 - 11408 stars observed;
  • LRc03, from 30 March 2009 to 2 July 2009 - 5661 stars observed;
  • LRc04, from 2 July 2009 to 30 September 2009 - 5716 stars observed;
  • LRa03, from 30 September 2009 to 1 March 2010 - 5289 stars observed;
  • SRa03, from 1 March 2010 to 2 April 2010;
  • LRc05, from 2 April 2010 to 5 July 2010;
  • LRc06, from 5 July 2010 to 27 September 2010;
  • LRa04, from 27 September 2010 to 16 December 2010;
  • LRa05, from 16 December 2010 to 5 April 2011;
  • LRc07, from 5 April 2011 to 30 June 2011;
  • SRc03, from 1 July 2011 to 5 July 2011 - a run made to reobserve the transit of COROT-9b;
  • LRc08, from 6 July 2011 to 30 September 2011;
  • SRa04, from 4 Ocotber 2011, in progress.

The probe monitors the brightness of stars over time, searching for the slight dimming that happens in regular intervals when planets transit their primary sun. In every fields, COROT records the brightness of thousands stars in the V-magnitude range from 11 to 16 for the extrasolar planet study. In fact, stellar targets brighter than 11 will saturate the exoplanets CCD detectors, yielding inaccurate data, whilst stars dimmer than 16 don't deliver enough photons to allow planetary detections. COROT will be sensitive enough to detect rocky planets with a radius two times larger than Earth orbiting stars brighter than 14;[14] it is also expected to discover new gas giants in the whole magnitude range.[15]

COROT will also undertake asteroseismology. It can detect luminosity variations associated with acoustic pulsations of stars. This phenomenon allows calculation of a star's precise mass, age and chemical composition and will aid in comparisons between the sun and other stars. For this program, in each field of view there will be one main target star for the asteroseismology as well as up to nine other targets. The number of observed targets have dropped to half after the loss of Data Processing Unit #1.

The mission began on 27 December 2006 when a Russian Soyuz 2-1b rocket lifted the satellite into a circular polar orbit with an altitude of 827 km . The first scientific observation campaign started on 3 February 2007.[16]


The primary contractor for the construction of the COROT vehicle was CNES,[17] to which individual components were delivered for vehicle assembly. The COROT equipment bay, which houses the data acquisition and pre-processing electronics, was constructed by the LESIA Laboratory at the Paris Observatory and took 60 person-years to complete.[17] The COROT camera, also constructed by the LESIA Laboratory, took 25 person-years to complete.[17]


Before the beginning of the mission, the team stated with caution that COROT would only be able to detect planets few times larger than Earth or greater, and that it was not specifically designed to detect habitable planets. According to the press release announcing the first results, COROT's instruments are performing with higher precision than had been predicted, and may be able to find planets down to the size of Earth with short orbits around small stars.[7] The transit method requires the detection of at least two transits, hence the planets detected will mostly have an orbital period under 75 day. Candidates that show only one transit have been found, but uncertainty remains about their exact orbital period.

COROT should be assumed to detect a small percentage of planets within the observed star fields, due to the low percentage of exoplanets that would transit from the angle of observation of our Solar System. The chances of seeing a planet transiting its host star is inversely proportional to the diameter of the planet's orbit, thus close in planets detections will outnumber outer planets ones. The transit method is also biased toward large planets, since their very depth transits are more easily detected than the shallows eclipses induced by terrestrial planets.

Failure of Data Processing Unit #1

On March 8, 2009 the satellite suffered a loss of communication with Data Processing Unit #1, processing data from one of the two photo-detector chains on the spacecraft. Science operations resumed early April with Data Processing Unit #1 offline while Data Processing Unit #2 operating normally. The loss of photo-detector chain number 1 results in the loss of one CCD dedicated to asteroseismology and one CCD dedicated to planet detection. The field of view of the satellite is thus reduced by 50%, but without any degradation of the quality of the observations. The loss of channel 1 appears to be permanent.[18]

Follow-up program

The rate of discoveries of transiting planets is dictated by the need of ground based follow-up observations, needed to verify the planetary nature of the transit candidates. Candidate detections have been obtained for about 2,3% of all COROT targets, but finding periodic transit events isn't enough to claim a planet discovery, since several configurations could mimic a transiting planet, such as stellar binaries, or an eclipsing fainter star very close to the target star, whose light, blended in the light curve, can reproduce transit-like events. A first screening is executed on the light curves, searching hints of secondary eclipses or a rather V-shaped transit, indicative of a stellar nature of the transits. For the brighter targets, the prism in front of the exoplanets CCDs provides photometry in 3 different colors, enabling to reject planet candidates that have different transit depths in the three channels, a behaviour typical of binary stars. These tests allow to discard 83% of the candidate detections,[19] whilst the remaining 17% are screened with photometric and radial velocity follow-up from a network of telescopes around the world. Photometric observations, required to rule out a possible contamination by a diluted eclipsing binary in close vicinity of the target,[20] is performed on several 1 m-class instruments, but also employs the 2 m Tautenburg telescope in Germany and the 3,6 m CFHT/Megacam in Hawaii. The radial velocity follow-up allows to discard binaries or even multiple star system and, given enough observations, provide the mass of the exoplanets found. Radial velocity follow-up is performed high-precision spectrographs, namely SOPHIE, HARPS and HIRES[21]. Once the planetary nature of the candidate is established, high-resolution spectroscopy is performed on the host star, in order to accurately determine the stellar parameters, form which further derive the exoplanet characteristics. Such work is done with large aperture telescopes, as the UVES spectrograph or HIRES.

Interesting transiting planets could be further followed-up with the infrared Spitzer Space Telescope, to give an independent confirmation at a different wavelength and possibly detect reflected light from the planet or the atmospheric compositions. COROT-7b and COROT-9b have already been observed by Spitzer.

Papers presenting the results of follow-up operations of planetary candidates in the IRa01[22], LRc01[23], LRa01[24], SRa01 and SRa02[25] fields have been published. Sometimes the faintness of the target star or its characteristics, such as a high rotational velocity or strong stellar activity, do not allow to determine unambiguously the nature or the mass of the planetary candidate.



By revealing their microvariability, measuring their oscillations at the ppm level, COROT provides a new vision at stars, never reached before by any ground-based observation[26]. More than one hundred star have already been observed in the asteroseismic channels. A review of the results is presented:

Solar-like pulsators

COROT measured Solar-like oscillations and granulation in stars hotter than the Sun[27]. With the scientist surprise, the granulation signature suggest time scales 30% larger than the Sun and granule size 4 times bigger than the Sun. Oscillations amplitudes were found 25% larger than the ones predicted from current theoretical models, which suggest the need to reformulate current star models.

Red Giants

COROT provided evidence that both radial e non radial modes in Red Giants are excited, confriming the existence of modes with lifetimes in order of a month. It seems that the distribution of frequencies at maximum power among all the observed red giants, present a rather narrow peak, which scientists think has to bear the print of the evolution of our galaxy.

Chimera, a new type of pulsators

The study of the star HD 180872 revealed, at a very low amplitude, the existence of higher frequency modes, due to stochastic oscillations. This discovery opens new perspectives in the study of these objects, where low frequency oscillations and higher frequency ones could be used in a complementary way to probe the centre and outer layers of the stars.

Additional programmes

Albeit with a lower Signal to noise ratio, interesting science on stars is obtained also on the exoplanets channel data, where the probe records several thousands of light curves from every observed field. Stellar activity, rotation period, star spots evolution, differential rotation, pulsations are nice extras in addition to the main asteroseismic program. Star-planets interactions have also been studied for the first time, and statistics about binary and multiple star system could be defined by the large sample of star observed.

In October 2009 the COROT mission was the subject of a special issue of the Astronomy and Astrophysics Journal, dedicated to the early results of the probe.[28] Several papers with results on the asteroseismic field were published.


The COROT exoplanet science team has decided to publish confirmed and fully characterized planets only and not simple candidate lists. This strategy, different from the one pursued by the Kepler mission, where the candidates are regularly updated and made available to the public, is quite lengthy. On the other hand, the approach also increases the scientific return of the mission, as the set of published COROT discoveries constitute some of the best exoplanetary studies carried out so far.

Timelines of Planets discoveries

COROT discovered its first two planets in 2007: the hot Jupiters COROT-1b and COROT-2b.[7][29] Results on asteroseismology were published in the same year.[30] By further analysis, COROT-1b became the first exoplanets to have its secondary eclipse detected in the optical,[31] thanks to the high precision lightcurve delivered by COROT.

In May 2008, two new exoplanets of Jupiter size, COROT-4b and COROT-5b, as well as an unknown celestial object, COROT-3b, were announced by ESA. COROT-3b, for its mass, appears to be "something between a brown dwarf and a planet." According to the definition of planet proposed by the owners of the database[32] three years later, COROT-3b, being less massive than 25 Jupiter masses, is classified as an exoplanet.

In February 2009, during the First Corot Symposium, the super-earth COROT-7b was announced, which at the time was the smallest exoplanet to have its diameter confirmed, at 1.58 Earth diameters. The discoveries of a second non transiting planet in the same system, COROT-7c, and of a new Hot Jupiter, COROT-6b, were also announced at the Symposium.

In March 2010 COROT-9b was announced. With 80% of Jupiter mass, and an orbit similar to the Mercury one, this is the first transiting temperate planet found known to be similar to those within our own Solar System.[33] At the time of the discovery, it was the second longest period exoplanet found in transit, after HD80606 b.

In June 2010 the COROT team announced[34] six new planets, COROT-8b, COROT-10b, COROT-11b, COROT-12b, COROT-13b, COROT-14b, and a brown dwarf, COROT-15b.[35] All the planets announced are Jupiter sized, except COROT-8b, which appears to be somewhat between Saturn and Neptune.

In an August 2010 paper, COROT detected the ellipsoidal and the relativistic beaming effects in the COROT-3 lightcurve.[36] The probe was also able to tentatively detect the reflected light at optical wavelengths of HD46375 b, a non transiting planet.[37]

In June 2011, during the Second Corot Symposium, the probe added ten new objects to the Exoplanet catalogue[38]: COROT-16b, COROT-17b, COROT-18b, COROT-19b, COROT-20b, COROT-21b, COROT-22b, COROT-23b, COROT-24b, COROT-24c. The last two planets are of Neptune size, and orbit the same star, thus rappresenting the first multiple transiting system detected by COROT. COROT-22b is also notable for its small size, having less than half the mass of Saturn.

As of June 2011, 401 further planet candidates are being screened for confirmation.

List of Planets discovered

The following transiting planets have been announced by the mission.

Star Constellation Right
Declination App.
Distance (ly) Spectral
Planet Mass


COROT-1 Monoceros 06h 48m 19s −03° 06′ 08″ 13.6 1560 G0V b 1.03 1.49 1.5089557 0.0254 0 85.1 2007 [39]
COROT-2 Aquila 19h 27m 07s +01° 23′ 02″ 12.57 930 G7V b 3.31 1.465 1.7429964 0.0281 0 87.84 2007 [40]
COROT-3 Aquila 19h 28m 13.265s +00° 07′ 18.62″ 13.3 2200 F3V b 21.66 1.01 4.25680 0.057 0 85.9 2008 [41]
COROT-4 Monoceros 06h 48m 47s −00° 40′ 22″ 13.7 F0V b 0.72 1.19 9.20205 0.090 0 90 2008 [42]
COROT-5 Monoceros 06h 45mm 07ss +00° 48′ 55″ 14 1304 F9V b 0.459 1.28 4.0384 0.04947 0.09 85.83 2008 [43]
COROT-6 Ophiuchus 18h 44m 17.42s +06° 39′ 47.95″ 13.9 F5V b 3.3 1.16 8.89 0.0855 < 0.1 89.07 2009 [44]
COROT-7 Monoceros 06h 43m 49.0s −01° 03′ 46.0″ 11.668 489 G9V b 0.0151 0.150 0.853585 0.0172 0 80.1 2009 [45]
COROT-8 Aquila 19h 26m 21s +01° 25′ 36″ 14.8 1239 K1V b 0.22 0.57 6.21229 0.063 0 88.4 2010 [46]
COROT-9 Serpens 18h 43m 09s +06° 12′ 15″ 13.7 1500 G3V b 0.84 1.05 95.2738 0.407 0.11 >89.9 2010 [47]
COROT-10 Aquila 19h 24m 15s +00 ° 44 ′ 46″ 15.22 1125 K1V b 2.75 0.97 13.2406 0.1055 0.53 88.55 2010 [48]
COROT-11 Serpens 18h 42m 45s +05° 56′ 16″ 12.94 1826 F6V b 2.33 1.43 2.99433 0.0436 0 83.17 2010 [49]
COROT-12 Monoceros 06h 43m 04s −01° 17′ 47″ 15.52 3750 G2V b 0.917 1.44 2.828042 0.04016 0.07 85.48 2010 [50]
COROT-13 Monoceros 06h 50m 53s −05° 05′ 11″ 15.04 4272 G0V b 1.308 0.885 4.03519 0.051 0 88.02 2010 [51]
COROT-14 Monoceros 06h 53m 42s −05° 32′ 10″ 16.03 4370 F9V b 7.58 1.09 1.51215 0.027 0 79.6 2010 [52]
COROT-16 15.64 2740 G5V b 0.535 1.17 5.35227 0.0618 0.33 ~ 85.01 2011
COROT-17 Scutum 18h 34m 47s -06° 36′ 44 ″ 15.46 3001 G2V b 2.43 1.02 3.768125 0.0461 0 88.34 2011 [53]
COROT-18 Monoceros 06h 32m 41s -00° 01′ 54″ 14.99 2838 G9 b 3.47 1.31 1.9000693 0.0295 <0.08 86.3 2011 [54]
COROT-19 Monoceros 06h 28m 08s -00° 01′ 01″ 14.78 2609 F9V b 1.14 1.45 3.89713 0.0518 0.047 87.61 2011
COROT-20 Monoceros 06h 30m 53s +00° 13′ 37 ″ 14.66 4012 G2V b 4.24 0.84 9.24 0.0902 0.562 88.21 2011 [55]
COROT-21 b 2.53 1.3 2.72474 0.0417 2011
COROT-22 Serpens 18h 42m 40s +06° 13′ 08″ 11.93 2052 G0IV b < 0.15 0.52 9.7566 0.094 < 0.6 89.4 2011
COROT-23 Serpens 18h 39m 08s +04° 21′ 28″ 15.63 F9/G0V b 2.8 1.05 3.632421 0.04769 0.16 88.27 2011
COROT-24 Monoceros 06h 47m 41s -03° 43′ 09″ 4413 b < 0.1 0.236 5.1134 2011
COROT-24 Monoceros 06h 47m 41s -03° 43′ 09″ 4413 c 0.173 0.38 11.749 2011

Other discoveries

The following table illustrates brown dwarf detected by COROT as well as non transiting planets detected in the follow-up program:

Star Constellation Right
Declination App.
Distance (ly) Spectral
Object Type Mass


COROT-7 Monoceros 06h 43m 49.0s −01° 03′ 46.0″ 11.668 489 G9V c planet 0.0264 - 3.69 0.046 0 - 2009 [56]
COROT-15 Monoceros 06h 28m 27.82s +06° 11′ 10.47″ 16 4140 F7V b brown dwarf 63.3 1.12 3.06 0.045 0 86.7 2010 [57]

See also


  1. ^ "Europe goes searching for rocky planets" (Press release). ESA. 2006-10-26. Retrieved 2008-08-03. 
  2. ^ "Successful launch of the COROT satellite, on 27 December 2006". COROT 2006 Events. CNES. 2007-05-24. Retrieved 2008-08-02. 
  3. ^ Clark, Stephen (2006-12-27). "Planet-hunting space telescope launched". Spaceflight Now (Pole Star Publications). Retrieved 2008-08-02. 
  4. ^ Bergin, Chris (2006-12-27). "Soyuz 2-1B launches with COROT". NASA Archived from the original on June 29, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-03. 
  5. ^ Hellemans, Alexander (2007-01-18). "COROT sees first light". Physics World (online edition) (IOP Publishing). Retrieved 2008-08-02. 
  6. ^
  7. ^ a b c "COROT discovers its first exoplanet and catches scientists by surprise" (Press release). ESA. 2007-05-03. Retrieved 2008-08-02. 
  8. ^ a b "COROT Satellite". COROT. Cannes Mandelieu Space Center. 18 September 2006. Retrieved 2008-08-02. 
  9. ^ "CoRoT Mission Extended Until 2013". Spacedaily. 2009-10-29. Retrieved 2009-10-30. 
  10. ^ a b Auvergne, M.; et al. (2009). "The CoRoT satellite in flight: Description and performances". Astronomy and Astrophysics 506: 411–424. arXiv:0901.2206. Bibcode 2009A&A...506..411A. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200810860. 
  11. ^ Travail de préparation
  12. ^ Corotsky Tool
  13. ^ CoRoT N2 Public Archive
  14. ^ Deleuil; Moutou; Bordé; the CoRoT exoplanet science team (2011). "The CoRoT Exoplanet program : Status & results". Detection and Dynamics of Transiting Exoplanets, St. Michel l'Observatoire, France, Edited by F. Bouchy; R. D\'iaz; C. Moutou; EPJ Web of Conferences, Volume 11. arXiv:1105.1887. doi:10.1051/epjconf/20111101001. 
  15. ^ P. Bordé, D. Rouan, A. Léger (2003). "Exoplanet detection capability of the COROT space mission". Astronomy & Astrophysics 405 (3): 1137–1144. arXiv:astro-ph/0305159. Bibcode 2003A&A...405.1137B. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20030675. 
  16. ^ "First scientific observations by Corot" (in French) (Press release). CNES. 2007-02-05. Retrieved 2008-08-02. 
  17. ^ a b c "Completion and delivery of equipment bay and camera to CNES mark major project milestone" (Press release). Observatoire de Paris, CNES and CNRS-INSU. 2005-06-30. Retrieved 2008-08-03. 
  18. ^ "CoRoT back on track, on April 7th, 2009". Retrieved 2011-02-27. 
  19. ^ Almenara, J. M.; et al. (2009). "Rate and nature of false positives in the CoRoT exoplanet search". Astronomy and Astrophysics 506: 337. Bibcode 2009A&A...506..337A. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200911926. 
  20. ^ Deeg, H. G.; et al. (2009). "Ground-based photometry of space-based transit detections: Photometric follow-up of the CoRoT mission". Astronomy & Astrophysics 506 (1): 343–352. arXiv:0907.2653. Bibcode 2009A&A...506..343D. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200912011. 
  21. ^ Santerne, A.; et al. (CoRoT radial velocity team) (2011). "Radial velocity follow-up of CoRoT transiting exoplanets". EPJ Web of Conferences 11: 02001. arXiv:1101.0463. Bibcode 2011EPJWC..1102001S. doi:10.1051/epjconf/20101102001. 
  22. ^ Moutou, C.; et al. (2009). "Planetary transit candidates in the CoRoT initial run: Resolving their nature". Astronomy and Astrophysics 506: 321. Bibcode 2009A&A...506..321M. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200911911. 
  23. ^ Cabrera, J.; et al. (2009). "Planetary transit candidates in CoRoT-LRc01 field". Astronomy and Astrophysics 506: 501. Bibcode 2009A&A...506..501C. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200912684. 
  24. ^
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^ Michel, E.; et al. (2008). "CoRoT measures solar-like oscillations and granulation in stars hotter than the Sun". Science 322 (5901): 558–560. Bibcode 2008Sci...322..558M. doi:10.1126/science.1163004. PMID 18948534. 
  28. ^ "The CoRoT space mission: early results". Astronomy & Astrophysics 506 (1). October 2009. 
  29. ^ "Success for the first observations by the Corot satellite : An exoplanet discovered and first stellar oscillations" (Press release). CNRS. 2007-05-03. Retrieved 2008-08-02. 
  30. ^ "COROT surprises a year after launch" (Press release). ESA. 2007-12-20. Retrieved 2008-08-02.  Papers describing the two exoplanets, with radial-velocity follow-up, appeared in Astronomy and Astrophysics in May 2008 (Barge 2008, Alonso 2008 and Bouchy 2008).
  31. ^ Alonso, R.; et al. (2009). "The secondary eclipse of CoRoT-1b". Astronomy and Astrophysics 506: 353. Bibcode 2009A&A...506..353A. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200912102. 
  32. ^
  33. ^ Doreen Walton (17 March 2010). "New exoplanet like 'one of ours'". BBC News. Retrieved 15 June 2010. 
  34. ^ Rich exoplanet harvest for CoRoT - CNRS Web site - CNRS
  35. ^ Six new planets discovered
  36. ^ Tsevi Mazeh; Simchon Faigler (2010). "Detection of the ellipsoidal and the relativistic beaming effects in the CoRoT-3 lightcurve". arXiv:1008.3028 [astro-ph.EP]. 
  37. ^ Gaulme; Vannier; Guillot; Mosser; Mary; Weiss; Schmider; Bourguignon et al. (2010). "Possible detection of phase changes from the non-transiting planet HD 46375b by CoRoT". Astronomy and Astrophysics 518 (153): L153. arXiv:1011.2690. Bibcode 2010A&A...518L.153G. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201014303. 
  38. ^ ESA Science & Technology: CoRoT's new detections highlight diversity of exoplanets
  39. ^ Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission - I. CoRoT-Exo-1b: a low-density short-period planet around a G0V star | A&A
  40. ^ Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission - II. CoRoT-Exo-2b: a transiting planet around an active G star | A&A
  41. ^ Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission - VI. CoRoT-Exo-3b: the first secure inhabitant of the brown-dwarf desert | A&A
  42. ^ Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission - IV. CoRoT-Exo-4b: a transiting planet in a 9.2 day synchronous orbit | A&A
  43. ^ Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission - VII. The “hot-Jupiter”-type planet CoRoT-5b | A&A
  44. ^ Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission - IX. CoRoT-6b: a transiting “hot Jupiter” planet in an 8.9d orbit around a low-metallicity star | A&A
  45. ^ A. Léger, D. Rouan (2009). "Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission VIII. CoRoT-7b: the first Super-Earth with measured radius". Astronomy & Astrophysics 506 (1): 287. arXiv:0908.0241. Bibcode 2009A&A...506..287L. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200911933. 
  46. ^ Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission - XI. CoRoT-8b: a hot and dense sub-Saturn around a K1 dwarf | A&A
  47. ^ A transiting giant planet with a temperature between 250[thinsp]K and 430[thinsp]K : Abstract : Nature
  48. ^ Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission - X. CoRoT-10b: a giant planet in a 13.24 day eccentric orbit | A&A
  49. ^ Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission - XIV. CoRoT-11b: a transiting massive “hot-Jupiter” in a prograde orbit around a rapidly rotating F-type star | A&A
  50. ^ Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission - XII. CoRoT-12b: a short-period low-density planet transiting a solar analog star | A&A
  51. ^ Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission - XIII. CoRoT-13b: a dense hot Jupiter in transit around a star with solar metallicity and super-solar lithium content | A&A
  52. ^ Tingley; et al. (2011). "Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission: XIII. CoRoT-14b: An unusually dense very hot Jupiter". arXiv:1101.1899 [astro-ph.EP]. 
  53. ^ Csizmadia; et al. (2011). "Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission XVII. The hot Jupiter CoRoT-17b: A very old planet". Astronomy & Astrophysics 531 (41). arXiv:1106.4393. Bibcode 2011A&A...531A..41C. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201117009. 
  54. ^ Hebrard; et al. (2011). "Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. XVIII. CoRoT-18b: A massive hot jupiter on a prograde, nearly aligned orbit". Astronomy & Astrophysics. arXiv:1107.2032. Bibcode 2011A&A...533A.130H. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201117192. 
  55. ^
  56. ^
  57. ^

External links

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать курсовую

Look at other dictionaries:

  • COROT — COnvection ROtation and planetary Transits …   Википедия

  • COROT-7b — Extrasolar planet List of extrasolar planets Size comparison of COROT 7b with Earth and Neptune. Parent star Star …   Wikipedia

  • COROT — (télescope spatial) Pour les articles homonymes, voir Corot. CoRoT …   Wikipédia en Français

  • CoRoT — (télescope spatial) Pour les articles homonymes, voir Corot. CoRoT …   Wikipédia en Français

  • COROT — Typ: Sonnenforschungssatellit Land (Organisation): Europa (ESA) Missionsdaten Masse: 630 kg Größe: 4,1 x 1,98 x 1,98 m Trägerrakete: Sojus 2.1b Start: 27. Dezember 2006 Startplatz: Baikonur …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • CoRoT — Typ: Sonnenforschungssatellit Land (Organisation): Europa (ESA) Missionsdaten Masse: 630 kg Größe: 4,1 x 1,98 x 1,98 m Trägerrakete: Sojus 2.1b Start: 27. Dezember 2006 Startplatz: Baikonur …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • COROT-3b — Extrasolar planet List of extrasolar planets Size comparison of COROT 3b with Jupiter. Parent star Star …   Wikipedia

  • COROT-7b — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda COROT 7b Planeta extrasolar Lista de planetas extrasolares Concepción artística del planeta COROT 7b transitando la enana naranja COROT 7 …   Wikipedia Español

  • COROT-2b — Extrasolar planet List of extrasolar planets Size comparison of COROT 2b with Jupiter. Parent star Star …   Wikipedia

  • COROT-7 — is a G9V class star somewhat less massive than the Sun (G2V) Observation data …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”