Efficiency as a technical term may refer to:
* Algorithmic efficiency, optimizing the speed and memory requirements of a computer program
* Efficient energy use, useful work per quantity of energy
** Energy conversion efficiency, desired energy output per energy input
** Energy conservation, reducing the use of energy
** Electrical efficiency, useful power output per electrical power consumed
** Fuel efficiency, converting energy in fuel to kinetic energy or work
*** Specific impulse, in propulsion systems, a measure of fuel-efficiency
** Volumetric efficiency, in internal combustion engine design
** Lighting efficiency, visible light from a light source per unit of energy, in lumens per watt
** Mechanical efficiency, the effectiveness of a simple machine, mechanical advantage over ideal mechanical advantage
** In thermodynamics:
*** Exergy efficiency, measure of 2nd-law thermodynamic loss
*** Thermal efficiency, useful work per the higher heating value of the fuel
** Radiation efficiency, ratio of radiated power to power absorbed at the terminals of an antenna
* The Efficiency factor in data communications
* Lift-to-drag ratio
* Economic efficiency, a general term, to capture the amount of waste or other undesirable features
** Pareto efficiency, making one individual better off, without making any other individual worse off
** Kaldor-Hicks efficiency, like a less stringent Pareto efficiency
** Allocative efficiency, an optimal distribution of goods
** Efficiency wages, paying workers more than the market rate for increased productivity
* Efficiency (statistics), a measure of desirability of an estimator
* Business efficiency, expenses as a percentage of revenue, etc.
* Efficiency Movement, of the Progressive Era 1890-1932, advocated efficiency in the economy, society and government
* Material efficiency, compares material requirements between construction projects or physical processes
* Faraday Efficiency, electrolysis
* Textual efficiency, density of a message
* Grating efficiency, a generalization of the reflectance of a mirror extended to a diffraction grating.
* Quantum efficiency, a measure of sensitivity of a photosensitive device: the percentage of photons hitting the photoreactive surface that will produce an electron–hole pair
* Efficient (horse), winner of the 2007 Melbourne Cup.
* Studio apartment, a one-room apartment, also called an efficiency apartment

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