Barack Obama presidential eligibility litigation

Barack Obama presidential eligibility litigation

The Barack Obama presidential eligibility litigation is a group of lawsuits filed in various United States Courts by numerous individuals who believe in the Barack Obama citizenship conspiracy theories and seek to have Barack Obama disqualified from standing or being confirmed for the Presidency of the United States, or to compel him to release additional documentation relating to his United States citizenship.[1] By mid-December 2008, at least 17 lawsuits had been filed challenging Obama's eligibility in states including North Carolina,[2] Ohio,[3] Pennsylvania,[4] Hawaii,[5] Connecticut,[6] New Jersey, Texas and Washington.[5][7] No such suit had resulted in the grant of any relief to the plaintiffs by any court.

A major obstacle to such citizen suits has been lack of standing, as the only plaintiff who was a presidential candidate or presidential elector was Alan Keyes. The importance of the doctrine of standing was explained by Judge R. Barclay Surrick of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania in dismissing one suit. He noted that one of the principal aims of the doctrine is to prevent courts from deciding questions "where the harm is too vague." This was especially true for a presidential election, where a disgruntled voter who suffered no individual harm "would have us derail the democratic process by invalidating a candidate for whom millions of people voted and who underwent excessive vetting during what was one of the most hotly contested presidential primary in living memory."[8]

Joseph Farah said via his World Net Daily publication that Obama has decided "to spend sums estimated in the hundreds of thousands of dollars to avoid releasing a state birth certificate that would put to rest all of the questions."[9] Farah's WorldNetDaily has since upped the claimed expenditure to $1.7 million, on the basis of the Obama presidential campaign paying out that much since the election to the law firm of Perkins Coie. However, as Mother Jones magazine has pointed out, the campaign has had to employ lawyers to wind down its post-election operations and meet campaign finance law requirements.[10] At least one attorney representing Obama in the litigation has stated that he is working without pay.[11] Other attorneys interviewed by Mother Jones have stated that the "birther" lawsuits have been so weak that they have been easily resolved with "extremely minimal" monetary costs.[10]


Federal courts

Berg v. Obama

On August 21, 2008, Pennsylvania attorney Philip J. Berg, a Democrat[12] and former deputy state attorney general, filed a complaint alleging that Obama was born in Kenya, not Hawaii, and was therefore a citizen of Kenya or possibly Indonesia, where he lived as a child.[13][14][15] He alleged that the "Certification of Live Birth" on Obama's website is a forgery.[16] U.S. District Judge R. Barclay Surrick dismissed the complaint in October 2008, finding that Berg lacked standing to bring the case and that his attempts to gain standing to pursue his claim were "frivolous and not worthy of discussion."[12][17]

Bypassing the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, Berg filed a petition for a writ of certiorari before judgment in the United States Supreme Court. On December 10, 2008, the Supreme Court denied Berg's request for an injunction against the seating of the Electoral College, scheduled for December 15.[18] On December 15, 2008, the petitioner refiled the application for injunction.[19] Two days later, Berg's appeal was denied without comment by Supreme Court Justice Anthony Kennedy.[15] Berg's previously denied request for an injunction was refiled with Justice Antonin Scalia on December 18, 2008.[19] On January 12, the Supreme Court denied the petition for certiorari. The application for stay addressed to Justice Scalia and referred to the Court was also summarily denied on January 21, 2009.[19]

On November 12, 2009, the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit affirmed the district court's ruling that Berg lacked standing.[20]

Kerchner v. Obama

Attorney Mario Apuzzo, on behalf of Charles Kerchner and other plaintiffs, sued Obama, the U.S. Congress, Dick Cheney, and Nancy Pelosi in January 2009 alleging Obama was ineligible to be president, and that Congress failed to verify Obama's ineligibility. A federal district court in New Jersey dismissed the suit, ruling the plaintiffs lacked standing. On July 3, 2010, the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, citing Berg v. Obama, affirmed the dismissal, and ordered Apuzzo to show cause why he should not be sanctioned for initiating a frivolous lawsuit.[21] Apuzzo's subsequent request for a hearing was denied, but the order to show cause was discharged.[22][23] On November 29, 2010, the U.S. Supreme Court declined, without comment, to hear the case.[24]

Barnett v. Obama

On the afternoon of January 20, 2009, Orly Taitz filed a lawsuit in federal court, Alan Keyes et al v. Barack H. Obama et al against Obama, with Wiley Drake as one of the named parties.[25] On July 13, 2009, the presiding judge dismissed the case without prejudice on technical grounds,[26] and on July 14, 2009, Taitz refiled a "First Amended Complaint" Captain Pamela Barnett v. Barack Hussein Obama[27] on behalf of Alan Keyes, Wiley Drake, Cynthia Davis, Gail Lightfoot, several other local politicians, and various armed service members. Taitz sought a declaratory judgment that Obama is ineligible for office and an injunction to void his actions and appointments as President.[28]

Two of the plaintiffs, Markham Robinson and Wiley S Drake, subsequently attempted to dismiss their attorney, Orly Taitz, who refused to sign their substitution-of-attorney documents and instead filed to dismiss the two of them as plaintiffs in the case. On September 8, 2009, Judge David O. Carter denied the dismissal of Drake and Robinson as plaintiffs, and granted their motion to substitute Gary Kreep of the United States Justice Foundation as counsel for them, refused to dismiss Magistrate Judge Arthur Nakazato from the case, and set a tentative trial date for January 26, 2010.[29]

At a hearing on October 5, 2009, Carter considered the defendants' Motion to Dismiss and declined to rule from the bench, saying that he would take the matter under advisement.[30] On October 7, 2009, he released a Minute Order finalizing the previously tentative dates for summary judgment motions and trial,[31] and on October 29, 2009, he dismissed the case.[32] The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit heard oral arguments for this case on May 2, 2011.[33]

Hollister v. Soetoro

On March 5, 2009, a lawsuit filed by Philip Berg on behalf of Gregory S. Hollister, a retired Air Force colonel, against Barack Obama (referenced as "Barry Soetoro", the name given at the time of his enrollment in an Indonesian elementary school). The suit was dismissed in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia. The presiding judge, James Robertson, said the case was a waste of the court's time, calling Berg and another lawyer "agents provocateurs" and their local counsel, John Hemenway, "a foot soldier in their crusade." He ordered Hemenway to show cause why he should not pay the legal fees for Obama's attorney as a penalty for filing a complaint "for an improper purpose such as to harass".[34] The district court ultimately reprimanded Hemenway for his actions, and the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit upheld the dismissal of the case and Hemenway's reprimand.[21] On January 18, 2011, the U.S. Supreme Court declined, without comment, to hear the case.[35]

Cook v. Good

On February 1, 2009, Stefan F. Cook, a Major in the United States Army Reserve, contacted Taitz via e-mail, asking to be part of her lawsuit. On May 8, he volunteered to serve for one year in Afghanistan beginning on July 15, 2009.[36] The Army accepted his offer and ordered him to report on that date.[36] On July 8, however, he filed suit, with Taitz as his lawyer, seeking a temporary restraining order and status as a conscientious objector, arguing that his deployment orders were invalid because Obama was not a natural-born U.S. citizen, and therefore ineligible to serve as commander-in-chief of the armed forces.[37] His orders were thereupon revoked; an Army spokesperson stated, "A reserve soldier who volunteers for an active duty tour may ask for a revocation of orders up until the day he is scheduled to report for active duty."[36] Accordingly, Cook's case was dismissed as moot on July 16.[38][39]

In the lawsuit, captioned Stefan Frederick Cook v. Wanda L. Good (Colonel Wanda L. Good -Commander, U.S. Army Human Resources Command - St. Louis) and filed in the United States District Court for the Middle District of Georgia, Cook asserted that he "would be acting in violation of international law by engaging in military actions outside the United States under this President's command. ... simultaneously subjecting himself to possible prosecution as a war criminal by the faithful execution of these duties."[37] In April, before Cook volunteered for deployment to Afghanistan, he had been included in Taitz's list of people she said she represented as plaintiffs, in a letter raising the citizenship issue.[40] A retired Army major general and an active reserve US Air Force lieutenant colonel subsequently joined the Georgia case as plaintiffs alongside Cook. Cook's deployment orders were canceled, and a government spokesman explained, "The Commanding General of SOCCENT (U.S. Special Operations Central Command) has determined that he does not want the services of Major Cook, and has revoked his deployment orders."[41] An Army CENTCOM spokesman rejected as false claims that the revocation validated Cook's claims: "This in no way validates any of the outlandish claims made by Maj. Cook or his attorney. The idea that this validates those charges about the president's fitness for office is simply false."[42]

After the case was filed, Taitz alleged that Cook had been terminated from his civilian job with a defense contractor, after the situation at his company had become "nutty and crazy".[43]

Cook received significant media coverage on July 16, 2009, from Fox News's Sean Hannity.[36][44][45][46][47] Hannity said in his second of two reports:

We told you Tuesday about an Army reserve soldier who challenged his deployment orders on the grounds that President Obama has not proven he is a U.S. citizen. Major Stefan Frederick Cook, who was supposed to deploy to Afghanistan in the coming days, has had his orders revoked. According to his lawyer, "They just said 'order revoked.' No explanation. No reasons. Just revoked." Major Cook and his lawyer expressed joy at this outcome and took it as an admission on the part of the military that the president is not in fact a legitimate citizen by birth.[45][46]

Hannity was criticized for publicizing the "birthers" movement.[46][47] News Hounds wrote:

Fox News had added legitimacy to the irrational and baseless conspiracy-theorist "birthers" who continue to insist, despite evidence to the contrary, that Barack Obama was not born in the United States and [is] thus an illegitimate president. One such effort came from Sean Hannity, reporting on a soldier challenging his deployment to Afghanistan on the grounds that Obama is not eligible to be president. Hannity had failed to note in his report the availability of Obama's birth certificate and how the birther claims have been completely investigated and debunked. Hannity gave an update to the Afghanistan story last night (7/15/09) and took it a step further by suggesting, along with the plaintiff, that the subsequent revocation of the soldiers [sic] deployment orders indicated that his allegations were proved true. But Hannity omitted key details that point to a scam by the soldier. ... Had Hannity bothered to do the simplest of Google searches, he would have also uncovered this key piece of information from that day's Georgia Ledger-Enquirer [sic] newspaper.... So, Maj. Cook filed a request to serve the Commander-in-Chief in Afghanistan on May 8, well after Obama had assumed the presidency, but now, about two months later, is claiming that Obama is not qualified to be president. And instead of going through the administrative process to revoke his orders, which would seem to be a pro forma matter, he sued in federal court.
—News Hounds,[46] citing The Ledger-Enquirer[36]

After the lawsuit was reported in the Columbus Ledger-Enquirer, the newspaper reported receiving "the highest volume of traffic ever by a single story in the history of, including written threats against the newspaper", with nearly half a million new readers and hundreds of e-mails. The threats prompted an increase in security around the courthouse where Cook's case was heard, as well as precautions being taken to protect the author of the newspaper's reports on the case. Executive Editor Ben Holden noted: "The chatter had the feel of a righteous cause – almost a religious cause – because some people hate this president."[48]

Rhodes v. Macdonald

In September 2009, Taitz, filed Rhodes v. MacDonald (Colonel Thomas MacDonald - Garrison Commander, Fort Benning, Georgia) on behalf of Captain Connie Rhodes, a U.S. Army physician, sought a restraining order to stop Rhodes' forthcoming deployment to Iraq. In the request for a restraining order, Taitz argued the order was illegal since Obama was illegally serving as President. On September 16, federal judge Clay D. Land (the same judge who heard Cook v. Good) rejected the motion and denounced it as frivolous.[49]

Within hours of Land's decision, Taitz told the news site Talking Points Memo that she felt Land's refusal to hear her case was an act of treason.[50] Two days later, she filed a motion to stay Rhodes' deployment pending rehearing of the dismissal order. She repeated her treason allegations against Land and made several other intemperate statements, including claims that Land was aiding and abetting purported aspirations of "dictatorship" by Obama.[51] Land rejected the motion as frivolous and ordered her to show cause why she should not be fined $10,000 for abuse of judicial process.[52]

A few hours later, a letter bearing Rhodes's signature arrived, stating that Taitz filed the motion without her knowledge or consent, asking Land to remove Taitz as her attorney of record in the case, and stating that it was her "plan to file a complaint with the California State Bar due to [Taitz's] reprehensible and unprofessional actions."[53] On September 26, 2009, Taitz filed a motion with the court seeking to withdraw as counsel for Rhodes, so she could divulge in court "privileged attorney-client communications" since the dismissed Rhodes case "is now a quasi-criminal prosecution of the undersigned attorney, for the purpose of punishment."[54]

On October 13, 2009, Judge Clay Land ordered "Counsel Orly Taitz ... to pay $20,000 to the United States, through the Middle District of Georgia Clerk's Office, within thirty days of the date of this Order as a sanction for her misconduct in violation of Rule 11 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure." Land's decision stated:

The Court finds that counsel's conduct was willful and not merely negligent. It demonstrates bad faith on her part. As an attorney, she is deemed to have known better. She owed a duty to follow the rules and to respect the Court. Counsel's pattern of conduct conclusively establishes that she did not mistakenly violate a provision of law. She knowingly violated Rule 11. Her response to the Court's show cause order is breathtaking in its arrogance and borders on delusional. She expresses no contrition or regret regarding her misconduct. To the contrary, she continues her baseless attacks on the Court.[55]

Upon learning of Land's ruling, Taitz said she would appeal the sanction, declaring that Judge Land was "scared to go against the regime" of the "oppressive" Obama administration, and that the sanction was an attempt to "intimidate" her.[56] On March 15, 2010, the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit affirmed the sanctions against Taitz.[57] On August 9, 2011, the federal government filed an abstract of judgment, a document placing a lien in the amount of $20,000 plus interest on all her real property,[58] prompting Taitz to say, "I will pay the money, and I will continue fighting."[59] On January 10, 2011, the U.S. Supreme Court declined, without comment, to hear the case.[60]

Taitz v. Obama

On January 27, 2010, Taitz, in propria persona, filed a petition for writ of quo warranto. On April 14, 2010, U.S. District Court Chief Judge Royce C. Lamberth dismissed the petition; and, alluding to the novel Don Quixote, he wrote, "The Court is not willing to go tilting at windmills with her."[61]

Taitz v. Astrue

In February 2011, Taitz filed, in propria persona, a Freedom of Information Act suit against the Social Security Administration, alleging the agency improperly refused to disclose to her information about Obama's social security number. After Taitz repeatedly failed to follow the court rule regarding the redaction of social security numbers in court filings, Chief Judge Lamberth wrote that Taitz "is either toying with the Court or displaying her own stupidity… There is no logical explanation she can provide as to why she is now wasting the Court’s time, as well as the staff’s time, with these improper redactions."[62][63] On August 30, 2011, the court granted summary judgment in favor of the government, writing "As her numerous filings with the Court demonstrate, plaintiff will stop at nothing to get to the bottom of this alleged conspiracy. Unfortunately for plaintiff, today is not her lucky day."[64][65]

Taitz v. Ruemmler

Taitz sought to compel White House Counsel Kathryn Ruemmler under FOIA to grant access to Obama's "long form" birth certificate.[66][67] On October 17, 2011, Chief Judge Lamberth noted Taitz's "Sisyphean quest" and dismissed the suit.[68]

Liberty Legal Foundation v. National Democratic Party

In October 2011, the Liberty Legal Foundation filed suit seeking to enjoin the Democratic National Committee from certifying Obama as its nominee for the 2012 U.S. presidential election on the ground that he does not have two citizen parents and thus, it contends, is not a natural-born citizen.[69][70]

State actions

Martin v. Lingle

On October 17, 2008, another lawsuit was filed in a state circuit court of Hawaii[71] by Andy Martin, who was earlier declared by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit to be a "notoriously vexatious and vindictive litigator who has long abused the American legal system", and who uses lawsuits as "a cruel and effective weapon against his enemies".[72]

Martin's lawsuit sought to order the state to release a copy of Sen. Obama's long-form birth certificate.[71] The short-form birth certificate that the Obama campaign posted online states his place of birth as Honolulu, Hawaii.[71] Martin's lawsuit claimed that because Martin "strives for factual accuracy and attempts to conduct thorough research", he should have a copy of Obama's birth certificate from the state and not a certificate "posted on a Web site". Under Hawaii law, only the person whom the record is concerned with, or a spouse, parents, descendant or someone with a common ancestor, or someone acting on behalf of such a person can obtain a copy of a vital record.

The court denied Martin's petition, saying that Martin lacked "a direct and tangible interest in the record".[73] The court cited Martin's lack of legal standing to obtain another person's birth document.[74]

Donofrio v. Wells

In October 2008, Leo Donofrio, an attorney from New Jersey, filed suit against Nina Mitchell Wells to challenge the eligibility of Obama, Republican presidential candidate John McCain (see details here) and the Socialist Workers Party candidate Roger Calero.[75] Donofrio asserted that all three candidates were ineligible: Obama due to having dual U.S. and British nationality at birth (the latter via Obama's father), McCain due to being born in the Panama Canal Zone, and Calero due to allegedly still having Nicaraguan citizenship.[76]

Donofrio was not among those who claimed Obama might have been born outside Hawaii.[77] Also, Donofrio did not challenge the fact that Obama is a U.S. citizen and instead challenged only whether Obama is a natural-born citizen.[78]

The case was referred to the Supreme Court by Justice Clarence Thomas. When the case reached the United States Supreme Court on December 8, 2008, the Court declined without comment to hear the case.[76]

Wrotnowski v. Bysiewicz

On October 31, 2008, Greenwich resident and health-food-store owner Cort Wrotnowski filed a suit in the Connecticut Supreme Court against Susan Bysiewicz challenging the authenticity of presidential candidate Obama's Hawaii birth certificate. The suit was dismissed after initial hearings.[79]

Wrotnowski appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court on November 25,[80] contending that the British citizenship of Obama's father made the president-elect ineligible to assume office. Leo Donofrio, whose earlier case against Obama's eligibility had been turned down, assisted Wrotnowski's Supreme Court appeal.[81] The request for stay or injunction was denied without comment on December 15, 2008.[80][82] Thomas Goldstein, who has argued numerous cases before the court and covers Supreme Court cases, commented that "The law has always been understood to be, if you are born here, you're a natural born citizen. And that is particularly true in this case, when you have a U.S. citizen parent like Barack Obama's mother".[82]

Keyes v. Bowen

On November 14, 2008, Alan Keyes and Markham Robinson, chairman of the American Independent Party and a California candidate for president elector, filed a lawsuit requesting that Obama provide documentation that he is a natural-born citizen of the United States.[83][84][85][86] Keyes also said in an interview that he would not be in favor of amending this requirement of the Constitution.[87] Keyes asserts that statements by Obama's paternal step-grandmother "raise doubts as to whether Barack Obama is in fact a natural born U.S. citizen, eligible to be president."[88][89][90]

California Superior Court Judge Michael P. Kenny sustained, without leave to amend, Secretary Bowen's and Obama's demurrers on Keyes' petition for writ of mandate and granted Obama's motion to quash the subpoena. Keyes was found not to be entitled to the records he sought, thereby declaring the case moot.[91][92] The California Court of Appeal affirmed the dismissal on October 25, 2010.[93] The California Supreme Court declined, without comment, to review the case on February 2, 2011.[94] On October 3, 2011, the U.S. Supreme Court declined, without comment, to hear the case.[95]

Ankeny v. Governor of the State of Indiana

In December 2008, Steve Ankeny and Bill Kruse filed a "Petition for Extraordinary Writ of Prohibition" against the Governor of Indiana to block "any popular votes for Barack Obama and Joe Biden for the appointment as Chief Electors [sic]." A hearing was held, and on March 16, 2009, the Governor's motion to dismiss was granted. The Plaintiffs appealed the ruling to the Indiana Court of Appeals, which upheld it on November 12, 2009.[96]

The appellate decision addressed the question of whether Obama's eligibility was affected by his father's lack of U.S. citizenship, saying that "[b]ased upon the language of Article II, Section 1, Clause 4 and the guidance provided by Wong Kim Ark, we conclude that persons born within the borders of the United States are “natural born Citizens” for Article II, Section 1 purposes, regardless of the citizenship of their parents."[97]

Taitz v. Fuddy

In August 2011, Taitz filed, in propria persona, a suit against the director of the Hawaii Department of Health, seeking to review Obama's "long form" birth certificate.[98] On October 12, 2011, the Hawaii Circuit Court dismissed Taitz's suit.[99]

2012 New Hampshire primary challenge

In November 2011, Taitz, backed by four New Hampshire state legislators, filed a complaint with the state's Ballot Law Commission challenging Obama's eligibility to compete in the primary election.[100] As Obama had paid the filing fee and his declaration of candidacy conformed to state law, the Commission unanimously voted to keep Obama on the ballot.[101]

In response, Taitz wrote to William L. O'Brien, the Speaker of the House of the New Hampshire House of Representatives, and demanded the removal of Bill Gardner, New Hampshire's Secretary of State, for "egregious elections fraud, aiding and abetting fraud, forgery and possibly treason." D.J. Bettencourt, House Majority Leader of the New Hampshire House of Representatives, wrote to Taitz and called her actions "unbecoming of any legitimate political dialogue, nevermind one as ridiculous as the continued obsession over President Obama's birth place." Bettencourt added, "I have spoken to the Representatives who were present and expressed to them my strong desire that they immediately disassociate themselves from you and this folly."[102]

Criminal cases

The refusal to accept that Obama is the lawful president has led to acts of civil disobedience that have been criminally prosecuted.

Walter Fitzpatrick III and Darren Huff

Walter Fitzpatrick III was unsuccessful in persuading the foreperson of the Monroe County, Tennessee, grand jury to indict Obama for treason because of Obama's purported ineligibility to serve as President.[103][104] In response, in April 2010, Fitzpatrick accused the foreperson of violating State laws governing the length of time that a foreperson can serve and attempted to make a citizen's arrest. Fitzpatrick and Darren Huff of Georgia, who assisted him, were prosecuted by Tennessee for disrupting a meeting of the grand jury.[105]

Later that month, Huff (who was armed with a Colt .45 and an AK-47), Carl Swensson, and others returned to Tennessee. Huff had told FBI investigators that he intended to assist Fitzpatrick in making citizen's arrests and to have the State charges against Fitzpatrick dropped. According to the FBI, Huff carried a copy of "arrest warrants", signed by Fitzpatrick, that accused two dozen officials as "domestic enemies of the United States engaged in treason". Federal prosecutors charged Huff with transporting a firearm in furtherance of a civil disorder, as well as using a firearm in relation to a violent crime.

Fitzpatrick was convicted in Tennessee of disturbing a meeting and served 60 days in jail; Huff pleaded guilty to the same charge and avoided jail time.

At his October 2011 federal trial, Huff testified Obama was ineligible to hold office and that he plotted to take over Madisonville, Tennessee after the Monroe Country grand jury there refused to indict Obama.[106] On October 25, 2011, Huff was convicted of transporting a firearm in furtherance of a civil disorder.[107]

Lieutenant Colonel Lakin

On April 13, 2010, the United States Army announced that it would court-martial Lt. Colonel Terrence Lee Lakin, a surgeon in the Army Medical Corps, for refusing to report for deployment to Afghanistan. Lakin asserted that, because of citizenship issues, Obama is not legally the Commander in Chief and, therefore, lacks the authority to send him to Afghanistan. The military revoked Lakin's Pentagon building pass and confiscated his government laptop computer.[108] Lakin was assigned to Walter Reed Army Medical Center while awaiting trial.[109]

Lakin's case differed from Stefan Cook's case in that Cook volunteered to deploy, received orders, and then filed a civil suit refusing to serve; the military responded by revoking Cook's voluntary orders.[41] Lakin was ordered to deploy and he refused the orders, whereupon the military eventually initiated a criminal law prosecution under the Uniform Code of Military Justice. On September 2, 2010, Presiding Judge Colonel Denise Lind issued a ruling in the case that Obama's status as a natural-born citizen is irrelevant in the court martial case against Lakin, as (1) his orders had come not from Obama himself but rather from senior officers with the independent legal authority to issue them and (2) Obama's eligibility is outside the jurisdiction of the military and falls within the jurisdiction of the United States Congress instead.[110]

Three retired generals publicly expressed support for Lakin. The first was Army Major General (retired) Paul E. Vallely, a senior military analyst for Fox News. In an interview, Vallely stated "I think many in the military, and many out of the military, question the natural-birth status of Barack Obama."[111] Following Vallely's announcement, Army Major General (retired) Jerry Curry and Air Force Lt. General (retired) Thomas G. McInerney also expressed public support for Lakin.[111][112]

On December 7, 2010, Lakin entered a guilty plea to the charges of disobeying his orders;[113] and, on December 15, 2010, a military jury convicted him on a charge of Missing Movement by Design.[114] He was sentenced to six months confinement and dismissed from service.[115] During the sentencing phase of the trial, the prosecution played a video that Lakin had posted online in which he challenged Obama's eligibility. Lakin tearfully responded that the video had been a mistake and that he "would not do this again".[115] Lakin served his time at the Midwest Joint Regional Correctional Facility at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas; and, on July 28, 2011, the United States Army Court of Criminal Appeals granted Lakin's request to withdraw his case from appellate review.[116]

Theresa Cao

On January 6, 2011, the United States Constitution was read on the floor of the House of Representatives. As the section regarding the president's qualifications was being read, Theresa Cao shouted from the gallery, "Except Obama, except Obama. Help us Jesus." Cao was arrested for disrupting Congress.[117]

Indictment attempts using "citizen grand juries"

Some campaigners, led by Carl Swensson, have sought to "finally expose the conspiracy behind President Obama's birth certificate" by forming what they term "citizen grand juries" to indict Obama.[118] The "grand juries" are based on the Fifth Amendment's premise that "no person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury". Although the activists managed to hand out copies of "indictments" to Congressional staff,[119] the courts have not regarded the "citizen grand juries" favorably. In June 2009, a group of 172 campaigners declared themselves to be a "Super American Grand Jury" and voted to charge Obama with treason and accused him of not being a US citizen.[120] Chief Judge Royce C. Lamberth of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia rejected the "indictment" on July 2 and declared: "[T]here is no authority under the Rules of Procedure or in the statutes of the United States for this court to accept [a presentment]... The individuals who have made this presentment were not convened by this court to sit as a grand jury nor have they been selected at random from a fair cross section of this district. Any self-styled indictment or presentment issued by such a group has no force under the Constitution or laws of the United States."[121]


  1. ^ "Eligibility Lawsuits". The RIGHT side of life. 
  2. ^ Gonzales, Veronica (November 14, 2008). “Hampstead man's suit contests President-elect Obama's citizenship”, Wilmington Star-News (North Carolina).
  3. ^ McLaughlin, Sheila (November 1, 2008). “Lawsuit tossed on Obama's birth site”, Cincinnati Enquirer.[dead link]
  4. ^ “Judge tosses suit over Obama's birth”, Washington Times. October 26, 2008.
  5. ^ a b Holmes, Jamie (October 23, 2008). "Obama citizenship questions continue", WPTV (West Palm Beach, Florida).
  6. ^ “Conn. court upholds Obama's place on ballot”, Associated Press via Hartford Courant. November 3, 2008.[dead link]
  7. ^ “State declares Obama birth certificate genuine”, Associated Press. October 31, 2008)[dead link]
  8. ^ Bravin, Jeff (February 2009). "Why Some Constitutional Suits Don't Stand a Chance in Court". The Wall Street Journal. 
  9. ^ "2 more sign on to demand birth certificates. House support for eligibility procedure growing". World Net Daily. July 9, 2009. 
  10. ^ a b Mercimer, Stephanie (2010-01-26). "What's Obama's Birther Legal Bill?". Mother Jones. Retrieved 2010-02-05. 
  11. ^ Smith, Ben (March 2, 2009). "Culture of conspiracy: the Birthers". The Politico. Retrieved 2009-09-24 
  12. ^ a b Memorandum and Order Granting Defendant's Motion to Dismiss, Berg v. Obama, No. 08-1256 (E.D. Pa. Oct. 24, 2008)
  13. ^ "Court: No review of Obama's eligibility to serve". KSDK News. Associated Press. November 12, 2008. Archived from the original on December 3, 2010. Retrieved December 3, 2010. 
  14. ^ Frank James (December 4, 2008). "Obama citizenship at SCOTUS tomorrow". The Swamp (The Chicago Tribune). Retrieved December 3, 2010. 
  15. ^ a b "Justice Kennedy rejects 2 more challenges to Obama". Associated Press. December 18, 2008. Retrieved October 31, 2010. 
  16. ^ Mikkelson, Barbara (August 3, 2009). "Claim: A certification of live birth document provided by the Obama campaign is a forgery - False". Retrieved December 3, 2010. 
  17. ^ "Judge rejects Montco lawyer's bid to have Obama removed from ballot," Philadelphia Daily News, October 25, 2008
  18. ^ Connolly, John P. (December 2008). "Injunction Request In Obama Case Denied". The Bulletin (Philadelphia). Retrieved December 13, 2008. 
  19. ^ a b c "Docket files". Philip J. Berg, Petitioner v. Barack Obama, et al.. United States Supreme Court. Retrieved December 3, 2010. 
  20. ^ Opinion of the Court. U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. November 12, 2009. 
  21. ^ a b United States Court of Appeals,Third Circuit : KERCHNER v. OBAMA II,
  23. ^ "Order No. 09-4209"., from United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. July 22, 2010. 
  24. ^ "Justices turn aside another challenge over Obama's citizenship". CNN. November 30, 2010. 
  25. ^ "KEYES v OBAMA - Complaint". 
  26. ^ Bob Allen (2009-07-14). "Wiley Drake wins round in legal battle challenging Obama's presidency". Associated Baptist Press. 
  27. ^ Captain Pamela Barnett v. Barack Hussein Obama, Case 8:09-cv-0082-DOC-AN
  28. ^ Matt Coker (2009-06-09). "Reverend Wiley Drake Prays for Obama's Death". Orange County Weekly. 
  29. ^ Bob Allen (2009-09-10). "Judge sets court date in 'birther' case filed by Wiley Drake". Associated Baptist Press. 
  30. ^ Bob Allen (2009-10-06). "Judge delays ruling on dismissal of Wiley Drake's 'birther' case". Associated Baptist Press. 
  31. ^ "Captain Pamela Barnett, et al. v. Barack Hussein Obama, et al." (PDF). October 5, 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-19. 
  32. ^ Carter, Judge David O. (2009-10-09). "Judge Carter Ruling on MTD". 
  33. ^ Williams, Carol (May 3, 2011). "Southern California 'birthers' keep the controversy going". LA Times. 
  34. ^ Pickler, Nedra (March 2009). "Obama Citizenship Case A Waste Of Time: Federal Judge". Huffington Post. Associated Press. Retrieved March 6, 2009. 
  35. ^ "Docket files". Hollister v. Soetoro. United States Supreme Court. Retrieved January 18, 2011. 
  36. ^ a b c d e Gordon, Lily (July 15, 2009). "Soldier who says Obama isn't president doesn't have to deploy, Army says". Columbus Ledger-Enquirer (Ohio). 
  37. ^ a b Gordon, Lily (July 14, 2009). "Soldier balks at deploying; says Obama isn't president". Columbus Ledger-Enquirer. 
  38. ^ Gordon, Lily (July 16, 2009). "Federal judge dismisses reservist's suit questioning Obama's presidency". Columbus Ledger-Enquirer. [dead link]
  39. ^ McCloskey, Megan (July 30, 2009). "Army caught up in reservist’s Obama conspiracy theory". Stars and Stripes. [dead link]
  40. ^ Taitz, Orly (April 2009). "I need volunteers in TX for follow up with the US attorney for the Eastern District of TX, Rebecca Gregory". Retrieved July 18, 2009. [dead link]
  41. ^ a b Gordon, Lily (July 15, 2009). "Retired general, lieutenant colonel join reservist's lawsuit over Obama's citizenship". Columbus Ledger-Enquirer. [dead link]
  42. ^ Weigel, David (July 2009). "Centcom: Yes, the President Is an American Citizen". The Washington Independent. 
  43. ^ Weigel, David (July 15, 2009). "Birther Soldier Fired From His Civilian Defense Contracting Job". The Washington Independent. 
  44. ^ Hannity, Sean (July 15, 2009). "'Secret' CIA Program Reported in 2002", Fox News.
  45. ^ a b Hannity, Sean (July 16, 2009). "Obama Uses Line McCain Was Slammed For: A quick trip around Hannity's America...", Fox News.
  46. ^ a b c d Ellen (July 16, 2009). "Fox Continues Promoting Birther Lawsuit While Ignoring Red Flags Indicating It's A Hoax,"
  47. ^ a b Lewison, Jed (July 16, 2009). "Sean Hannity joins the birther brigade", DailyKos.
  48. ^ Williams, Chuck (July 17, 2009). "Obama birth status story sparks storm of Web traffic and comments". Columbus Ledger-Enquirer. 
  49. ^ Anal Reiqelmy, Judge tosses out Army captain's complaint questioning president's birth; Orly Taitz on notice, September 16, 2009.
  50. ^ Justin Elliott (September 16, 2009). "Birther Orly Taitz Compares Self To Mandela, Wants Judge Tried For Treason". Talking Points Memo. 
  51. ^ Motion for stay of Connie Rhodes' deployment
  52. ^ Justin Elliott (September 18, 2009). "Judge Clay Land v. Orly Taitz, Part II". TPM Muckraker. 
  53. ^ Alan Riquelmy (September 19, 2009). "Letter signed Capt. Connie Rhodes says she had never agreed to an appeal, says Rhodes will file complaint against attorney Orly Taitz". Columbus Ledger-Enquirer. 
  54. ^ Justin Elliott (September 28, 2009). "New Filing From Birther Taitz: Case Is Now A 'Quasi-Criminal Prosecution' Of Me!". Talking Points Memo. 
  55. ^ Bookman, Jay (2009-10-13). "Judge Land's hard on Orly Taitz, Esq. It'll cost her $20,000". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. 
  56. ^ Wisckol, Martin (2009-10-16). "Lawyer Orly Taitz tries patience of federal court". The Orange County Register. 
  57. ^ Alan Riquelmy (March 15, 2010). "11th Circuit Court of Appeals: Attorney Orly Taitz must pay $20,000 in sanctions". Ledger-Enquirer. 
  58. ^ Riquelmy, Alan (August 9, 2010). "Court filing creates lien on property belonging to 'birther' attorney Orly Taitz". Ledger-Enquirer. 
  59. ^ Riquelmy, Alan (August 10, 2010). "Government files lien against property of 'birther' attorney Orly Taitz; attorney says she will pay". Ledger-Enquirer. 
  60. ^ "U.S. Supreme Court rejects appeal from 'birther' leader". Star Advertiser. January 11, 2011. 
  61. ^ Wisckol, Martin (April 16, 2010). "Birthplace lawyer has another suit dismissed". The Orange County Register. Retrieved August 15, 2010. 
  62. ^ Tillman, Zoe (July 26, 2011). "D.C. Judge Rebukes Birther Lawyer for Filing Errors". Legal Times. 
  63. ^ "Memorandum & Order". D.C. District Court. July 25, 2011.  Copy at "Memorandum & Order". Los Angeles Times. July 25, 2011. 
  64. ^ Tillman, Zoe (August 30, 2011). "Judge Dismisses Suit from Birther Taitz". Legal Times. 
  65. ^ "Memorandum & Opinion". August 30, 2011. 
  66. ^ Dolan, Eric (October 18, 2011). "Judge dismisses birther’s ‘Sisyphean quest’ against Obama". Raw Story. 
  67. ^ Doyle, Michael (October 17, 2011). "Birther queen Orly Taitz loses, big surprise, two more". The McClatchy Company. 
  68. ^ Memorandum and Order. D.C. District Court.
  69. ^ Ross, Jamie (October 28, 2011). "Birthers Sue Democratic National Committee". Courthouse News Service. 
  70. ^ Class Action Complaint for Declaratory and Injunctive Relief
  71. ^ a b c Roig, Suzanne (October 18, 2008). "Suit targets Obama document: Foe of presidential candidate wants birth certificate, related files". Honolulu Advertiser. 
  72. ^ Hayes, Christopher (October 25, 2007). "The New Right-Wing Smear Machine". The Nation. Retrieved May 27, 2010. "A 1993 opinion by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit, in Atlanta, described these lawsuits as 'a cruel and effective weapon against his enemies', and called Martin a 'notoriously vexatious and vindictive litigator who has long abused the American legal system'." 
  73. ^ The Supreme Court of the State of Hawaii. (October 22, 2008). Andy Martin, Petitioner, vs. Linda Lingle, Governor, State of Hawaii; Dr. Chiyome Fukino, in her capacity as Director of the Department of Health, State of Hawaii; and the Honorable Bert I. Ayabe, Judge of the Circuit Court of the First Circuit, State of Hawaii, respondents. Retrieved October 24, 2008.
  74. ^ Dooley, Jim (November 21, 2008). "Obama certificate lawsuit dismissed: Judge says Net author Martin had no standing to get birth document, Honolulu Advertiser.[dead link]
  75. ^ Weigel, David (2008-12-04). "Change They Can Litigate: The fringe movement to keep Barack Obama from becoming president.". Slate (The Washington Post Company). Retrieved 2009-12-15. 
  76. ^ a b Barnes, Robert (December 2008). "Obama Citizenship — Supreme Court Declines To Hear Challenge". The Washington Post. 
  77. ^ Orr, Jimmy (December 8, 2008). "Whew... Obama can still be President - Supreme Court declines case", The Vote Blog, Christian Science Monitor (Boston).
  78. ^ Jones, Tim (December 8, 2008). "Court won't review Obama's eligibility to serve". Chicago Tribune.,0,7258812.story. 
  79. ^ "Judge dismisses Obama birth certificate challenge". New York Post. November 3, 2008. 
  80. ^ a b "Docket for 08A469". Supreme Court of the United States. December 9, 2008. Retrieved December 10, 2008. [dead link]
  81. ^ Ramstack, Tom (December 10, 2008). "Justices to mull Obama citizenship again". Washington Times. 
  82. ^ a b "U.S. S.Ct. rejects another appeal questioning Obama's citizenship". CNN Political Ticker blog. December 15, 2008. Retrieved December 15, 2008. 
  83. ^ "Alan Keyes Doubts Obama's Citizenship", Courthouse News Service. November 17, 2008.
  84. ^ Rogers, Rich (November 17, 2008). “Former Obama opponent now suing to prove President-Elect's citizenship”, NBC Augusta (WAGT) (Georgia).[dead link]
  85. ^ Keyes, Alan (November 12, 2008). "Request for Writ of Mandate". Retrieved December 10, 2008. [dead link]
  86. ^ "Alan Keyes, AIP leaders sue in CA court to obtain Obama citizenship proof"[dead link], The Sacramento Union (California). November 15, 2008.
  87. ^ Gordy, Cynthia (November 21, 2008). "Alan Keyes Tells Us Why He Questions Obama's Presidency", Essence (New York).
  88. ^ Keyes, Alan (December 4, 2008). "The end of the constitutional republic?",
  89. ^ Koppelman, Alex (December 2008). "Sex, lies and creatively edited interviews with Sarah Obama". Retrieved December 31, 2008. 
  90. ^ Full audio of the interview (relevant portion 4:20 – 8:20).
  91. ^ Ruling: Case No. 34-2008-80000096-CU-WM-GDS, Superior Court of California, Sacramento County[dead link]
  92. ^ Notice of Entry of Judgment Dismissing First Amended Petition for Writ of Mandate, Superior Court of California, Sacramento County (order entered May 4, 2009, filed May 6, 2009)(document retrieved June 11, 2009).
  93. ^ "Disposition". California Appellate Courts. Retrieved October 25, 2010. 
  94. ^ >"Disposition". California Appellate Courts. Retrieved February 2, 2011. 
  95. ^ "Supreme Court turns away Keyes ‘birther’ lawsuit challenging Obama eligibility to be president". Washington Post. October 3, 2011. 
  96. ^ Brown, Judge Elaine (2009-11-12). "In the Court of Appeals of Indiana". 
  97. ^ Murray, Jon (2009-11-12). "Indiana appeals court upholds axing of Obama suit". IndyStar. [dead link]
  98. ^ "Attorney files suit to see President Obama's birth certificate". Honolulu Star-Advertiser. August 11, 2011. 
  99. ^ Cunningham, Jai (October 12, 2011). "Woman denied request to see Obama's birth certificate". KHON-TV. 
  100. ^ Spolar, Matthew (November 18, 2011). "'Birther' challenges Obama". Concord Monitor. 
  101. ^ Hanna, Maddie (November 18, 2011). "'Birther' bid to derail Obama blocked". Concord Monitor. 
  102. ^ Spolar, Matthew (November 22, 2011). "House majority leader dresses down 'birther'". Concord Monitor. 
  103. ^ Roth, Zachary (May 6, 2010). "Right-Wing Extremists Take On Local Law Enforcement, Lose". Talking Points Memo. 
  104. ^ Satterfield, Jamie (August 2, 2010). "'Birther' cites Constitution in bid for new lawyer". Knoxville News Sentinel. 
  105. ^ "Courthouse takeover suspect wants new lawyers". Atlanta Journal-Constitution. July 26, 2011. 
  106. ^ Coleman, Lance (October 21, 2011). "Accused militiaman tells jurors: 'I refuse to be intimidated'". Knoxville News Sentinel. 
  107. ^ Satterfield, Jamie (October 25, 2011). "Georgia man convicted of one crime, acquitted of another in alleged courthouse takeover plot". Knoxville News Sentinel. 
  108. ^ Sheridan, Michael (April 14, 2010). "'Birther' Lt. Col. Terry Lakin to be court-martialed for refusing order to deploy to Afghanistan". Daily News (New York). 
  109. ^ Montopoli, Brian (April 15, 2010). "Army Birther Terry Lakin Faces Court Martial". CBS News. 
  110. ^ "Judge removes 'birther' elements from Army doc's court martial". CNN. September 3, 2010. Retrieved November 13, 2010. 
  111. ^ a b Minor, Jack (August 9, 2010). "Second General backs Lakin, says President should produce birth certificate". Greeley Gazette. 
  112. ^ Linkins, Jason (September 1, 2010). "Fox News Military Analyst Comes Out As Birther". The Huffington Post. 
  113. ^ Shane III, Leo (December 14, 2010). "Lakin facing jail time for guilty plea at start of 'birther' court-martial". Stars and Stripes. 
  114. ^ "Military jury convicts 'birther' from Greeley of evading deployment". The Denver Post. Associated Press. December 15, 2010. Retrieved March 14, 2011. 
  115. ^ a b "'Birther' sentenced to six months in prison, kicked out of Army". Stars and Stripes. December 16, 2010. Retrieved December 16, 2010. 
  116. ^ "United States v. Terrence L. Lakin" (PDF). July 28, 2011. Retrieved 2011-8-2. 
  117. ^ "'Birther' arrested during Constitution reading". Politico (Arlington County, Virginia: Allbritton Communications Company). 2011-01-06. Archived from the original on 2011-01-06,. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  118. ^ Weigel, David (June 3, 2009). "Citizen Juries: The New Birther Style". The Washington Independent. 
  119. ^ Weigel, David (June 30, 2009). "What the Obama Birthers Are Handing Out". The Washington Independent. 
  120. ^ Weissmann, Jordan (March 6, 2009). "Judge Dismisses Obama "Indictment"". Retrieved March 6, 2009. 
  121. ^ Misc. No. 2009-0346 in Re SUPER AMERICAN GRAND JURY, Chief Judge Royce C. Lamberth, July 2.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Поможем написать курсовую

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Barack Obama citizenship conspiracy theories — A billboard questioning the validity of Barack Obama s birth certificate and by extension his eligibility to serve as President of the U. S.[1] The billboard is part of an …   Wikipedia

  • Economic policy of Barack Obama — Main article: Political positions of Barack Obama Barack Obama s current economic advisors are Austan Goolsbee of the University of Chicago and Jeffrey Liebman of Harvard University.[1] In 2006, Obama wrote: We should be asking ourselves what mix …   Wikipedia

  • Alan Keyes — Alan Lee Keyes Keyes at a 2008 Presidential campaign rally …   Wikipedia

  • United States — a republic in the N Western Hemisphere comprising 48 conterminous states, the District of Columbia, and Alaska in North America, and Hawaii in the N Pacific. 267,954,767; conterminous United States, 3,022,387 sq. mi. (7,827,982 sq. km); with… …   Universalium

  • Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act — Full title The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Acronym PPACA Colloquial name(s) Affordable Care Act, Healthcare Insurance Reform, Obamacare, Healthcare Reform Enacted by the …   Wikipedia

  • President of the United States — POTUS redirects here. For political talk radio, see P.O.T.U.S. (Sirius XM). For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). For a list, see List of Presidents of the United States. President of the United States of America …   Wikipedia

  • Political positions of John McCain — U.S. Senator John McCain (R AZ), a member of the U.S. Congress since 1983, a two time U.S. presidential candidate, and the nominee of the Republican Party in the 2008 U.S. Presidential election, has taken positions on many political issues… …   Wikipedia

  • Health care reform debate in the United States — See also: Health care reform in the United States, Health care in the United States, and Uninsured in the United States Health care in the United States Public health care Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Indian Health Service… …   Wikipedia

  • Mark B. Cohen — For other uses, see Mark Cohen (disambiguation). Mark B. Cohen Member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives from the 202nd district Incumbent Assumed office 1974 Preceded by Eugene Gelfand …   Wikipedia

  • France — /frans, frahns/; Fr. /frddahonns/, n. 1. Anatole /ann nann tawl /, (Jacques Anatole Thibault), 1844 1924, French novelist and essayist: Nobel prize 1921. 2. a republic in W Europe. 58,470,421; 212,736 sq. mi. (550,985 sq. km). Cap.: Paris. 3.… …   Universalium

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”