- UFO conspiracy theory
A UFO conspiracy theory is any one of many often overlapping conspiracy theories which argue that
evidenceof the reality of unidentified flying objects is being suppressed.
Such theories often incorporate the idea that governments are in fact in communication or cooperation with extraterrestrials. Some of these theories claim that the government is explicitly allowing
alien abductionin exchange for technology.
Since its inception, the concept has become embedded in popular culture and has become a staple in fiction, making regular appearances on franchises such as
Coast to Coast AMand the " X Files".
Popular culture and opinions
It has been suggested that UFO conspiracy theories have been presented to UFO enthusiasts as
disinformationdesigned to distract from prosaic but secretive government effort; there is one well-documented instance of this occurring; see Paul Bennewitz. Some UFO conspiracy theories have been studied as emergent folkloreor urban legends.
Various conspiratorial UFO ideas have flourished on the
internetand are frequently featured on George Noory's program, Coast to Coast AM.
In fiction, television programs ("
The X-Files" and " Stargate"), films ("Men in Black" and "Independence Day") and any number of novels have featured elements of UFO conspiracy theories.
Elements may include the government's sinister guy from
Men in Black, the military bases known as Area 51, RAF Rudloe Manoror Porton Down, a supposed crash site in Roswell, New Mexico, the infamous Rendlesham Forest Incident, a political committee dubbed the " Majestic 12" or afterrunner of the UK Ministry of Defence's Flying Saucer Working Partyor the FSWP.]
There have also been some notable persons to have publicly stated that UFO evidence is being suppressed. These have included Senator
Barry Goldwater, Admiral Lord Hill-Norton(former NATOhead and chief of the British Defence Staff), Brigadier-General Arthur Exon (former commanding officer of Wright-Patterson AFB), Vice-Admiral Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter(first CIA director), astronauts Gordon Cooperand Edgar Mitchell, former Canadian Defence Minister Paul Hellyer, and the 1999 French COMETAreport by various French generals and aerospace experts.
This is a list of lots of events and statements and personalities who have been in many UFO conspiracy theories.
On the night before
Halloweenin 1938, Orson Wellesdirected the Mercury Theatrein their live radio adaptation of H. G. Wells's classic novel, "The War of the Worlds". By mimicking a newsbroadcast, the show was quite realistic sounding for its time, and some listeners were famously fooled into thinking that an actual Martianinvasion was underway in the United States. There was widespread confusion, followed by outrage and controversy. Some later studies have argued that the extent of the panic was exaggerated by the contemporary press, but it remains clear that many people were caught up, to one degree or another, in the confusion.
According to U.S. Air Force Captain
Edward J. Ruppelt, [ [http://www.nicap.org/rufo/contents.htm rufo cover ] ] the Air Force's files often mentioned the panicked aftermath of the 1938 "War of the Worlds" broadcast as a possible reaction of the public to confirmed evidence of UFO reality.
West Coast Air Raid
In the "
West Coast Air Raid" of early 1943, a UFO was spotted over Los Angeles. Over 1400 rounds of AAA (Anti Aircraft Artillery) were expended and several people died from heart attacks due to the excitement. It was written off by the government as "wartime nerves" as a Japanese Sub was sighted off the coast days earlier., but later documents indicated the U.S. military was seriously worried about the incident.
In 1946 and 1947, numerous so-called
ghost rocketsappeared over Scandinavian countries, primarily Sweden, and then spread into other European countries. One USAF top secret document from 1948 stated that Swedish air intelligence informed them that some of their investigators felt that the objects were not only real but couldn't be explained as having earthly origins. Similarly, 20 years later, Greek physicist Dr. Paul Santorini publicly stated that in 1947 he was put in charge of a Greek military investigation into the ghost rockets sighted over Greece. Again, they quickly concluded the objects were real and not of conventional origin. Santorini claimed their investigation was killed by U.S. scientists and high military officials who had already concluded the objects were extraterrestrial in origin and feared public panic because there was no defense.
In 1947, the
United States Air Forceissued a press release stating that a "flying disk" had been recovered near Roswell, New Mexico(see Roswell UFO incident). This press release was quickly withdrawn, and officials stated that a weather balloonhad been misidentified. The Roswell case quickly faded even from the attention of most UFOlogists until the 1970s. There has been continued speculation that an alien spacecraft did indeed crash near Roswell despite the official denial. For example, retired Brigadier General Arthur E. Exon, former commanding officer of Wright-Patterson AFB, told researchers Kevin Randle and Donald Schmitt that a spacecraft had in fact crashed, alien bodies were recovered, and the event was covered up by the U.S. government. Exon further claimed he was aware of a very secretive UFO controlling committee made up primarily of very high-ranking military officers and intelligence people. His nickname for this group was " The Unholy Thirteen." [cite web|url=http://www.roswellproof.com/Exon.html Exon testimony|title=Brig. Gen. Arthur E. Exon]
The 1948 death of Air Force pilot Thomas Mantell (the so-called
Mantell Incident) may have contributed to a distrust of governmental UFO studies. Mantell's airplane crashed and he was killed following the pursuit of an aerial artifact he described as "a metallic object...of tremendous size." (Clark, 352) Project Signpersonnel investigated the case and determined that Mantell had been chasing the planet Venus, a conclusion which met with incredulity. Later this theory was changed to include a Skyhook ballooninstead of Venus, an explanation which continues to be debated to this day.
The U.S. Air Force may have planted the seeds of UFO conspiracy theories with
Project Sign(established 1947) (which became Project Grudgeand Project Blue Book). Edward J. Ruppelt, the first director of Blue Book, characterized the Air Force's public behavior regarding UFOs as " schizophrenic": alternately open and transparent, then secretive and dismissive. Ruppelt also revealed that in the summer of 1948, Project Sign issued a top secret Estimate of the Situationconcluding that the flying saucers were not only real but probably extraterrestrial in origin. According to Ruppelt, the Estimate was ordered destroyed by Air Force Chief of Staff Hoyt Vandenberg.
*The UK Ministry of Defence’s UFO Project has its roots in a study commissioned in 1950 by the MOD’s then Chief Scientific Adviser, the great radar scientist Sir
Henry Tizard. As a result of his insistence that UFO sightings should not be dismissed without some form of proper scientific study, the Department set up arguably the most marvellously-named committee in the history of the civil service, the Flying Saucer Working Partyor the FSWP.
Frank Scully's 1950 "Behind the Flying Saucers" suggested that the U.S. government had recovered a crashed flying saucer and its dead occupants near Aztec, New Mexico, in 1948. It was later revealed that Scully had been the victim of a prank by "two veteran confidence artists". There is still question about whether or not this is true.(Clark 1998, 295) Either way, Scully's book sold well and perhaps helped shape later UFO conspiracy theories.
*In August 1950, Montanan baseball manager Nicholas Mariana films several UFOs with his color 16mm camera.
Project Blue Bookis called in and, after inspecting the film, Mariana claimed they returned it to him with critical footage removed, clearly showing the objects as disc-shaped. The incident sparks nation-wide media attention.
Donald Keyhoewas a retired U.S. Marine who wrote a series of popular books and magazine articles (published beginning in 1950), arguing that the U.S. government was suppressing UFO evidence. In 1956, Keyhoe helped establish NICAP, a powerful civilian UFO investigating group with many inside sources. Keyhoe became its director and continued his attacks on the Air Force. Other contemporary critics also charged that the United States Air Forcewas perpetrating a cover-upwith its Project Blue Book.
Robertson Panelwas a secret, CIA-assembled scientific UFO review committee that met in January 1953. In part, it recommended a public relationscampaign to reduce public interest in UFOs, including ridiculing and discrediting those who claim UFO encounters, and to spy on civilian UFO groups. The Robertson Panel's existence was first disclosed in 1956 by former Blue Book director, Edward Ruppelt, who had participated in the discussions. Immediately after the Panel, Blue Book public relations officer Al Chop told Ruppelt that, "We've been ordered to work up a national debunking campaign, planting articles in magazines and arranging broadcasts to make UFO reports sound like poppycock." (Dolan, 193-202) This protocol is "still" in effect.
*A few weeks after the Robertson Panel, the Air Force issued Regulation 200-2, ordering air base officers to publicly discuss UFO incidents only if they were judged to have been solved, and to classify all the unsolved cases to keep them out of the public eye. In addition, UFO investigative duties started to be taken on by the newly formed 4602nd Air Intelligence Squadron (AISS) of the
Air Defense Command. The 4,602nd AISS was tasked with investigating only the most important UFO cases with intelligence or national security implications. These were deliberately siphoned away from Blue Book, leaving Blue Book to deal with the more trivial reports. (Dolan, 210-211)
*In 1954 an automatic working station for UFO monitoring was installed at
Shirley's Baynear Ottawa in Canada. After this station detected the first suspicious event, all data gained by this station was classified as secret, although the cameras of the monitoring station could not make any pictures because of fog.
*1956 saw the publication of
Grey Barker's " They Knew Too Much About Flying Saucers", the book which publicized the idea of sinister men in blackwho appear to UFO witnesses and warn them to keep quiet. There has been continued speculation that the men in black are government agents who harass and threaten UFO witnesses.
*Also in 1956, the group Foundation for Earth-Space Relations, led by film producer Tzadi Sophit, tested their own flying saucer outside the Long Island town of Ridge Landing. It is speculated in Robertson's "The Long Island Saucer" that an FBI cover-up silenced witnesses.
*On January 22, 1958, when
Donald Keyhoeappeared on CBS television, his statements on UFOs were precensored by the Air Force. During the show when Keyhoe tried to depart from the censored script to "reveal something that has never been disclosed before," CBS cut the sound, later stating Keyhoe was about to violate "predetermined security standards" and about to say something he wasn't "authorized to release." What Keyhoe was about to reveal were four publicly unknown military studies concluding UFOs were interplanetary (including the 1948 Project Sign Estimate of the Situationand a 1952 Project Blue Book engineering analysis of UFO motion presented at the Robertson Panel. [Timothy Good, 286-287; Richard Dolan 293-295]
Astronaut Gordon Cooperreported suppression of a flying saucer movie filmed in high clarity by two Edwards AFBrange photographers on May 3 1957. Cooper said he viewed developed negatives of the object, clearly showing a dish-like object with a dome on top and something like holes or ports in the dome. The photographers and another witness, when later interviewed by James McDonald, confirmed the story. Cooper said military authorities then picked up the film and neither he nor the photographers ever heard what happened to it. The incident was also reported in a few newspapers, such as the Los Angeles Times. The official explanation, however, was that the photographers had filmed a weather balloon distorted by hot desert air. [cite web|url=http://www.ufoevidence.org/Newsite/Files/MacDonaldSubmissionUFOSymposium.pdf|title=McDonald, 1968 Congressional testimony, Case 41]
*Throughout much of the 1960s, atmospheric physicist
James E. McDonaldsuggested—via lectures, articles and letters—that the U.S. Government was mishandling evidence which would support the extraterrestrial hypothesis.
In 1962, Charles Ranagan, witness to the Ridge Landing saucer, went public with his experience in the book "Secret Tragedy." There, Ranagan estimates that between 100 and 150 people were killed in the accident.Fact|date=May 2008
Although strictly unrelated to a UFO conspiracy theory, the Watergate affair brought the curtain down on the era when authorities were generally trusted by the public. A decade after the assassination of
John F. Kennedya cottage industry of JFK conspiracy theorists seemed to spring up out of the woodwork, fed by the tabloids. UFO conspiracy theories found fertile ground in this paranoid zeitgeist.
Clark also notes that many UFO conspiracy theory tales "can be traced to a mock documentary,
Alternative 3, broadcast on British television on June 20, 1977, and subsequently turned into a paperback book." (Clark, 213–4)
Holloman Air Force Base
Clark cites a 1973 encounter as perhaps the earliest suggestion that the U.S. government was involved with ETs. That year,
Robert Emeneggerand Allan Sandlerof Los Angeles, California, were in contact with officials at Norton Air Force Basein order to make a documentary film. Emenegger and Sandler report that Air Force Officials (including Paul Shartle) suggested incorporating UFO information in the documentary, including as its centerpiece genuine footage of a 1971 UFO landing at Holloman Air Force Basein New Mexico. Furthermore, says Emenegger, he was given a tour of Holloman AFB and was shown where officials conferred with EBEs. This was supposedly not the first time the U.S. had met these aliens, as Emenegger reported that his U.S. military sources had "been monitoring signals from an alien group with which they were unfamiliar, and did their ET guests know anything about them? The ETs said no." (Clark 1998, 144) No film was ever presented, however, and the documentary was released in 1974 as "" (narrated by Rod Serling). The alleged Holloman UFO landing was discussed in the documentary and was depicted with illustrations.
In 1988, Shartle said that the film in question was genuine, and that he had seen it several times.
The late 1970s also saw the beginning of an affair centered around
Paul Bennewitzof Albuquerque, New Mexico. See Paul Bennewitzfor further details.
Majestic 12documents surfaced in 1982, suggesting that there was secret, high-level U.S. government interest in UFOs dating to the 1940s.
Linda Moulton Howe
In the late 1970s,
Denver, Colorado-based journalist Linda Moulton Howehad produced " Strange Harvest", a documentary filmabout the suspicious deaths of cattle throughout the western U.S. (See cattle mutilation)
"Strange Harvest" was a modest success, and Howe became interested in UFO reports in general and the Bennewitz affair especially.
In 1983, Howe agreed to produce a new documentary called "UFO's: The ET Factor" for HBO. Peter Gersted (head of
Citizens Against UFO Secrecy) told Howe that Air Force Sergeant Richard C. Doty wanted to meet her and disclose some secret UFO information, specifically a supposed UFO account from Ellsworth Air Force Base. Howe says that she met Doty at Kirtland AFB, and rather than discuss the Elleman incident, he allowed her to read a secret document. "A Briefing Paper for the President of the United States on the Subject of Unidentified Flying Vehicles." (Clark 1998, 154) Howe says she was not allowed to copy the paper or take notes, and was required to read it in Doty's presence. The document, Howe reported, detailed a series of events: Several UFO crashes and recoveries, including some where the alien occupants were alive and remained in the care of the U.S. government. The aliens gave several aircraft to the U.S. as a gift, and the government were reverse engineeringthem to determine how they worked. A UFO landing had indeed been filmed at Holloman AFB but in 1964, not 1971.
Howe reported that Doty promised considerable confirmation, including documents, film and photographs. The U.S. government had wanted to reveal the reality of UFOs for some time, Doty allegedly reported, but had waited until the political and cultural climate was receptive. When she told HBO about Doty's statement, they were intrigued, but insisted on a letter of intent from the U.S. government before pursuing the documentary any further. Howe reported that Doty promised to obtain guarantees.
Through the summer of 1983, Howe says Doty repeatedly made and canceled various conferences with her: A meeting with a retired Air Force Colonel who had extensive contact with an EBE, and various opportunities for Howe to view UFO films or documents. Howe says she spoke to other ostensible government officials who confirmed parts of the UFO conspiracy she had read in the classified memo, but always with Doty as liaison. In July 1983, Howe says, Doty told her that he was no longer allowed to be involved with her UFO documentary. Without his aid, Howe says she lost her contacts with other officials. By 1984, HBO gave up on the documentary.
In 1989, UFOlogist William L. Moore would report that "I became aware that Rick (Doty) was involved with a team of several others ... in playing an elaborate
disinformationscheme against a major UFO researcher who, at the time, had close connections with a major television film company interested in doing a UFO documentary." Moore says that Howe was discredited due to her interest in Bennewitz. (Clark 1998, 156) Clark does note if Moore offered proof of his assertions.
In the late 1980s,
John Learbecame prominent in UFO circles. Citing "unnamed but well-connected sources" (Clark 1998, 157), Lear asserted that the U.S. government had in fact recovered dozens of UFOs over the decades. In exchange for advanced technology, the government allowed for a limited number of alien abductions.
This proceeded for some years, until in 1972 the government discovered that the aliens were kidnapping far more persons than their agreement had stipulated. This dispute culminated in a conflict between aliens and humans at a secret military base near
Dulce, New Mexico. The aliens supposedly killed about 40 high-ranking military officials or scientists, and many more military personnel who tried to invade the base.
Following this conflict, Lear reports, the aliens have essentially gone about their schemes with no interference. Up to 10% of the U.S. population has been abducted, and the
Strategic Defense Initiativewas actually proposed to protect from alien invaders, not Soviet missiles.
Lear relied heavily on Bennewitz's stories, which Bennewitz claimed to have heard from officials at Kirtland AFB.
Milton William Cooper
In the 1980s,
Milton William Cooperachieved a degree of prominence due to his conspiratorial writings; see the main page on Cooper for more information.
Lear remains active in UFO circles; Cooper was shot and killed in a confrontation with police.
Bob Lazarcame to public prominence in the late 1980s; he claimed to have taken part in the back-engineering of extraterrestrial craft at Area S-4 (approx. 10 miles south of Area 51).
"UFO Cover-Up?: Live!"
On October 14 1988, actor
Mike Farrellhosted "U.S. UFO Cover-Up: Live!" a two-hour prime-time syndicated television special that was broadcast in North America (and elsewhere). William Moore and Jamie Shanderaappeared (among many other guests) and discussed the acquisition of the Majestic 12documents, and introduced their sources "Falcon" and "Condor", allegedly high-level government intelligence officials. Interviewed in shadow and with masked voices, Falcon and Condor disclosed information about the U.S. government’s involvement in UFOs and alien interaction, UFO crashes and occupant retrievals, and alien biology. This broadcast also included the first known mention of Area 51on television. Also known as the "strawberry ice cream show" in reference to the informants' remark that a captured EBE enjoyed strawberry ice cream and Tibetan music.
July 1989 MUFON Convention
Mutual UFO Networkheld their 1989 annual convention in Las Vegas, Nevada, on July 1 1989.
Moore was scheduled as the main speaker, and he generated controversy even before his appearance: He refused to submit his paper for review prior to the convention, and also announced that he would not answer any follow-up questions as was common practice. Unlike most of the convention's attendees, Moore did not stay at the same hotel that was hosting the convention.
When he spoke, Moore said that he and others had been part of an elaborate, long-term
disinformationcampaign begun primarily to discredit Paul Bennewitz: "My role in the affair ... was primarily that of a freelancer providing information on Paul's (Bennewitz) current thinking and activities." (Clark, 1998, 163) Air Force Sergeant Richard C. Doty was also involved, said Moore, though Moore thought Doty was "simply a pawn in a much larger game, as was I." (ibid.) One of their goals, Moore said, was to disseminate information and watch as it was passed from person to person in order to study information channels.
Moore said that he "was in a rather unique position" in the disinformation campaign: "judging by the positions of the people I knew to be directly involved in it, [the disinformation] definitely had something to do with national security. There was no way I was going to allow the opportunity to pass me by ... I would play the disinformation game, get my hands dirty just often enough to lead those directing the process into believing I was doing what they wanted me to do, and all the while continuing to burrow my way into the matrix so as to learn as much as possible about who was directing it and why."(ibid., 164)
Once he finished the speech, Moore immediately left the hotel. He left Las Vegas that same night.
Moore's claims sent shock waves through the small, tight-knit UFO community, which remains divided as to the reliability of his assertions.
Rendlesham Forest Incident
Britain's most celebrated UFO incident, and one of the best-documented in the world, occurred outside the US Air Force base at Woodbridge in Suffolk, England, shortly after Christmas 1980. Various lights were seen in neighbouring Rendlesham Forest by numerous servicemen, who investigated and found an apparent landing site. This site was examined by the deputy base commander,
Charles I. Halt, who took readings with a geiger counter and was also witness to a flashing light in the direction of Orford Nessas well as starlike objects in the sky. [cite web| url = http://www.ianridpath.com/ufo/rendlesham.htm|title = The Rendlesham Forest UFO Case| accessdate = 2007-04-17| author = Ian Ridpath| format = HTML]
*On November 24, 1992, a UFO crashes in Southaven Park, Shirley, NY. [ [http://www.ufocasebook.com/southavenufo.html UFO Crash At Southaven Park ] at www.ufocasebook.com] John Ford, a Long Island MUFON researcher, investigates the crash. On June 12, 1996, Ford is arrested and charged with plotting to poison several local politicians by sneaking radium in their toothpaste. On advice of counsel Ford pleads insanity and is committed to the Mid Hudson Psychiatric Center. [ [http://www.20kweb.com/weird_stuff/ufo_landing_government_intercept.html 20kWeb: 1989 UFO Landing and Government Intercept ] at www.20kweb.com] Critics say the charges are a frame-up. [http://www.virtuallystrange.net/ufo/updates/2003/sep/m07-009.shtml]
Branton Fileshave circulated on the internet at least since the mid-1990s. They essentially recirculate the information presented above in rambling fashion, with many run-on parenthetical asides from "Branton", the document's editor.
Philip Schneidermade a few appearances at UFO conventions in the 1990s, espousing essentially a new version of the theories mentioned above. He claimed to have survived the Dulce Basecatastrophe and decided to tell his tale.
*In 1999 the French government published a study, "UFOs and Defense: What Must We Be Prepared For?" Among other topics, the study concludes that the United States government has withheld valuable evidence. [ [http://www.ufoevidence.org/topics/cometa.htm UFO Evidence : COMETA Report ] at www.ufoevidence.org]
UFO conspiracy theories show no signs of abating. The year of 2003 saw the publication of "Alien Encounters" (ISBN 1-57821-205-7), by
Chuck Misslerand Mark Eastman, which primarily re-states the notions presented above (especially Cooper's) and presents them as fact.
*In November 2005 former Canadian Senior Minister in the Cabinet
Paul Hellyersaid, "The United States military are preparing weapons which could be used against the aliens, and they could get us into an intergalactic war without us ever having any warning."
*On March 22nd, 2007, The French Space Agency released a secret UFO investigation archive online.Fact|date=March 2008 [http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=UFO_conspiracy_theory&action=edit§ion=25# Editing UFO conspiracy theory (section) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ] at en.wikipedia.org
MoD secret files
1978 to 1987 eight secret files on UFO sightings were first released on
May 14, 2008, to the National Archives' website by the Ministry of Defence. 200 files are set to be made public by 2012. The files are correspondence from the public sent to government officials, such as the MoD and Margaret Thatcher. The information can be downloaded. [ [http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/ufos UFO files from The National Archives ] at www.nationalarchives.gov.uk] The MoD released the files due to requests from UFO buffs and conspiracy theorists under the Freedom of Information Act. [cite news
title=Files released on UFO sightings
accessdate=2008-08-05] The files included, inter alia, alien crafts flying over
Liverpooland Waterloo Bridgein London. [ [http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5j0OnawpQKsmDXbJAce-OI5EiUgHQ afp.google.com, The truth is out there: Britons 'spotted' UFOs, records say] ]
*Aliens (Extraterrestrial life in popular culture)
The Disclosure Project
Kecksburg UFO incident
List of magazines of anomalous phenomena
List of major UFO sightings
New World Order (conspiracy)
Mutual UFO Network
*Clark, Jerome. "The Ufo Book: Encyclopedia of the Extraterrestrial". Visible Ink, 1998. ISBN 1-57859-029-9.
*Dolan, Richard M. "UFOs and the National Security State: An Unclassified History, Volume One: 1941-1973". Keyhole Publishing, 2000. ISBN 0-9666885-0-3.
*Fawcett, Lawrence and Greenwood, Barry J. "The UFO Cover-Up" (originally "Clear Intent"). New York: Fireside Books (Simon & Schuster), 1992. ISBN 0-671-76555-8.
*Good, Timothy. "Above Top Secret". New York: William Morrow & Co., 1988. ISBN 0-688-09202-0.
Philip J. Klass. "UFOs Explained"> New York: Random House, 1974. ISBN 0-394-49215-3.
* Peebles, Curtis. "Watch the Skies! A Chronicle of the Flying Saucer Myth". Washington, DC:
Smithsonian Institution, 1994. ISBN 1-56098-343-4.
* Rose, Bill and Buttler, Tony. "Flying Saucer Aircraft (Secret Projects)". Leicester, UK: Midland Publishing, 2006. ISBN 1-85780-233-0.
*Ruppelt, Edward J.. "The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects". 1956, available online: [http://www.nicap.org/rufo/contents.htm]
* [http://english.ohmynews.com/ArticleView/article_view.asp?menu=A11100&no=380494&rel_no=1&back_url=The Majestic Hall of Mirrors. Secrets of U.S. flying saucer recoveries revealed?]
* [http://www.abovetopsecret.com/ ATS] the internet's most popular conspiracy theory community
* [http://www.alienhub.com/ UFO conspiracy theory forums]
* [http://www.paranormalnetwork.net/wiki/index.php/Star_cruiser A collection of images photographed by the SOHO sun-watching satellite claimed to be possible extraterrestrial ships]
* [http://foia.fbi.gov/unusual.htm FBI Freedom of Information Act site on unusual phenomenon]
* [http://www.bluebookarchive.org Project Blue Book] microfilm archive of U.S. Air Force UFO investigation
* [http://www.coasttocoastam.com Coast to Coast AM] , an example of a popular radio show discussing paranormal phenomena and conspiracy theory.
* [http://ufos.about.com/library/weekly/aa093097.htm The Destruction of Paul Bennewitz, by Low Lawhon]
* [http://www.rense.com/ Jeff Rense Radio Show] , another radio show that discusses UFOs, abductions, Conspiracies, etc.
* [http://www.ufocasebook.com/ UFO Casebook Homepage]
* [http://www.maar.us/ Malevolent Alien Abduction Research Homepage: UFO/Alien Conspiracies]
* [http://www.wired.com/news/technology/space/0,70862-0.html?tw=wn_index_5 News report about Project Condign by Nigel Watson]
* [http://history.navy.mil/faqs/faq29-1.htm Naval Historic Centre]
* [http://alien-ufos.com Alien UFOs]
* [http://www.ufoaliens.info UFOs Alien Information]
* [http://ufos.about.com/b/a/256730.htm MOD Report]
* [http://www.pibburns.com/ufos.htm UFOs]
* [http://www.uk-ufo.org/condign/fswpcmnt.htm Flying Saucer Working Party] (The Real UFO Project)
* [http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/DefencePolicyAndBusiness/TheTruthIsOutThereUnderFoi.htm UK MoD 'UFO Project']
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