- Pat Robertson
Robertson during an Operation Blessing International appearance at Victory Fellowship Church in Metairie, Louisiana, providing relief to Hurricane Katrina victims (February 12, 2006)
Born Marion Gordon Robertson
March 22, 1930
Lexington, Virginia, United States
Occupation Televangelist Spouse Adelia Elmer Children Timothy Bryan Robertson
Elizabeth Faith Robertson
Gordon Perry Robertson
Anne Carter Robertson
Parents Absalom Willis Robertson
Marion Gordon "Pat" Robertson (born March 22, 1930) is a media mogul, television evangelist, ex-Baptist minister and businessman who is politically aligned with the Christian Right in the United States.
He is the founder of numerous organizations and corporations, including the American Center for Law and Justice (ACLJ), the Christian Broadcasting Network (CBN), the Christian Coalition, Flying Hospital, International Family Entertainment Inc., Operation Blessing International Relief and Development Corporation, CBN Asia and Regent University. He is the host of The 700 Club, a Christian TV program airing on channels throughout the United States and on CBN network affiliates worldwide.
The son of U.S. Senator A. Willis Robertson, Robertson is a Southern Baptist and was active as an ordained minister with that denomination for many years, but holds to a charismatic theology not traditionally common among Southern Baptists. He unsuccessfully campaigned to become the Republican Party's nominee in the 1988 presidential election. As a result of his seeking political office, he no longer serves in an official role for any church. His media and financial resources make him a recognized, influential, and controversial public voice for conservative Christianity in the United States.
- 1 Life and career
- 2 Political activism
- 3 Controversies and criticisms
- 4 Predictions
- 5 Works
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
Life and career
Robertson was born in Lexington, Virginia, into a prominent political family. His parents were Absalom Willis Robertson, a conservative Democratic United States Senator, and his wife Gladys Churchill (née Willis). He married Adelia "Dede" Elmer on August 26, 1954. His family includes four children, among them Gordon P. Robertson and Tim Robertson and, as of mid-2005, 14 grandchildren.
At a young age, Robertson was nicknamed Pat by his six-year-old brother, Willis Robertson, Jr., who enjoyed patting him on the cheeks when he was a baby while saying "pat, pat, pat". As he got older, Robertson thought about which first name he would like people to use. He considered "Marion" to be effeminate, and "M. Gordon" to be affected, so he opted for his childhood nickname "Pat". His strong awareness for the importance of names in the creation of a public image showed itself again during his presidential run when he threatened to sue NBC news for calling him a "television evangelist", which later became "televangelist", at a time when Jimmy Swaggart and Jim Bakker were objects of scandal.
Education and military service
When he was eleven, Robertson was enrolled in the preparatory McDonogh School outside Baltimore, Maryland. From 1940 until 1946 he attended The McCallie School in Chattanooga, Tennessee. He graduated with honors and enrolled at Washington and Lee University, where he majored in history. The claim that he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa is not substantiated by the Phi Beta Kappa membership directory. He also joined Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity. Robertson has said, "Although I worked hard at my studies, my real major centered around lovely young ladies who attended the nearby girls schools."
In his words, "We did long, grueling marches to toughen the men, plus refresher training in firearms and bayonet combat." In the same year, he transferred to Korea, "I ended up at the headquarters command of the First Marine Division," says Robertson. "The Division was in combat in the hot and dusty, then bitterly cold portion of North Korea just above the 38th Parallel later identified as the 'Punchbowl' and 'Heartbreak Ridge.' For that service in the Korean War, the Marine Corps awarded me three battle stars for 'action against the enemy.'"
However, former Republican Congressman Paul "Pete" McCloskey, Jr., who served with Robertson in Korea, wrote a public letter which said that Robertson was actually spared combat duty when his powerful father, a U.S. Senator, intervened on his behalf, and that Robertson spent most of his time in an office in Japan. According to McCloskey, his time in the service was not in combat but as the "liquor officer" responsible for keeping the officers' clubs supplied with liquor. Robertson filed a $35 million libel suit against McCloskey in 1986. He dropped the case in 1988, before it came to trial and paid McCloskey's court costs.
Robertson was promoted to first lieutenant in 1952 upon his return to the United States. He then went on to receive a Bachelor of Laws degree from Yale University Law School in 1955. However, he failed to pass the bar exam, shortly thereafter underwent his religious conversion, and decided against pursuing a career in law. Instead, Robertson attended the New York Theological Seminary, and was awarded a Master of Divinity degree in 1959.
In 1956 Robertson found his faith through Dutch missionary Cornelius Vanderbreggen, who impressed Robertson both by his lifestyle and his message. Vanderbreggen quoted Proverbs (3:5, 6), "Trust in the Lord with all thine heart; and lean not unto thine own understanding. In all thy ways acknowledge Him, and He shall direct thy paths", which Robertson considers to be the "guiding principle" of his life. He was ordained as a minister of the Southern Baptist Convention in 1961.
In 1960, Robertson established the Christian Broadcasting Network in Virginia Beach, Virginia. He started it by buying a small UHF station in nearby Portsmouth. Later in 1977 he purchased a local Leased access cable TV channel in the Hampton Roads area and called it CBN. Originally he went door-to-door in Virginia Beach, Hampton Roads, and other surrounding areas asking Christians to buy cable boxes so that they could receive his new channel. He also canvassed local churches in the Virginia Beach area to do the same, and solicited donations through public speaking engagements at local churches and on CBN. One of his friends, John Giminez, the pastor of Rock Church Virginia Beach, was influential in helping Robertson establish CBN with donations, as well as offering the services of volunteers from his church.
CBN is now seen in 180 countries and broadcast in 71 languages. He founded the CBN Cable Network, which was renamed the CBN Family Channel in 1988 and later simply the Family Channel. When the Family Channel became too profitable for Robertson to keep it under the CBN umbrella without endangering CBN's non-profit status, he formed International Family Entertainment Inc. in 1990 with the Family Channel as its main subsidiary. Robertson sold the Family Channel to the News Corporation in 1997, which renamed it Fox Family. A condition of the sale was that the station would continue airing Robertson's television program, The 700 Club, twice a day in perpetuity, regardless of any changes of ownership. The channel is now owned by Disney and run as "ABC Family". On December 3, 2007, Robertson resigned as chief executive of CBN; he was succeeded by his son, Gordon.
Robertson founded CBN University in 1977 on CBN's Virginia Beach campus. It was renamed Regent University in 1989. Robertson serves as its chancellor. He is also founder and president of the American Center for Law and Justice, a public interest law firm that defends Christians whose First Amendment rights have allegedly been violated. The law firm, headquartered in the same building that houses Regent's law school, focuses on "pro-family, pro-liberty and pro-life" cases nationwide.
In 1994, he was a signer of the document Evangelicals and Catholics Together.
Pat Robertson was a fundraiser for the Nicaraguan Contras. In March 1986, he told Israeli Foreign Affairs that South Africa was a major contributor to the Reagan administration's efforts to help the anti-Sandinista forces.
1988 presidential bid
In September 1986, Robertson announced his intention to seek the Republican nomination for President of the United States. Robertson said he would pursue the nomination only if three million people signed up to volunteer for his campaign by September 1987. Three million responded, and by the time Robertson announced he would be running in September 1987, he also had raised millions of dollars for his campaign fund. He surrendered his ministerial credentials and turned leadership of CBN over to his son, Tim. His campaign, however, against incumbent Vice President George H. W. Bush, was seen as a long shot.
Robertson ran on a standard conservative platform. Among his policies, he wanted to ban pornography, reform the education system, and eliminate departments such as the Department of Education and the Department of Energy. He also supported a constitutional amendment requiring a balanced federal budget.
Robertson's campaign got off to a strong second-place finish in the Iowa caucus, ahead of Bush. He did poorly in the subsequent New Hampshire primary, however, and was unable to be competitive once the multiple-state primaries began. Robertson ended his campaign before the primaries were finished. His best finish was in Washington, winning the majority of caucus delegates. He later spoke at the 1988 Republican National Convention in New Orleans and told his remaining supporters to cast their votes for Bush, who ended up winning the nomination and the election. He then returned to CBN and has remained there as a religious broadcasting broadcaster.
In his published writings, especially his 1991 book The New World Order, Pat Robertson has propagated theories about a worldwide Jewish conspiracy. Michael Land raised the issue in February in The New York Times Book Review, and in April Jacob Heilbrun, writing in The New York Review of Books, cited chapter and verse of Robertson's borrowings from well-known anti-Semitic works.
Robertson is the founder and chairman of The Christian Broadcasting Network (CBN) Inc., and founder of International Family Entertainment Inc., Regent University, Operation Blessing International Relief and Development Corporation, American Center for Law and Justice, The Flying Hospital, Inc. and several other organizations and broadcast entities. Robertson was the founder and co-chairman of International Family Entertainment Inc. (IFE).
Formed in 1990, IFE produced and distributed family entertainment and information programming worldwide. IFE's principal business was The Family Channel, a satellite delivered cable-television network with 63 million U.S. subscribers. IFE, a publicly held company listed on the New York Stock Exchange, was sold in 1997 to Fox Kids Worldwide, Inc. for $1.9 billion, whereupon it was renamed Fox Family Channel. Disney acquired FFC in 2001 and its name was changed again, to ABC Family.
Robertson is a global businessman with media holdings in Asia, the United Kingdom, and Africa. He struck a deal with Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania-based General Nutrition Center to produce and market a weight-loss shake he created and promoted on The 700 Club.
In 1999, Robertson entered into a joint venture with the Bank of Scotland to provide financial services in the United States. However, the move was met with criticism in the UK due to Robertson's views on homosexuality. Robertson commented that “In Europe, the big word is tolerance. You tolerate everything. Homosexuals are riding high in the media ... And in Scotland, you can't believe how strong the homosexuals are." Shortly afterward, the Bank of Scotland canceled the venture.
Robertson's extensive business interests have earned him a net worth estimated between $200 million and $1 billion.
A fan of Thoroughbred horse racing, Robertson paid $520,000 for a colt he named Mr. Pat. Trained by John Kimmel, Mr. Pat was not a successful runner. He was nominated for, but did not run in, the 2000 Kentucky Derby.
According to a June 2, 1999, article in The Virginian-Pilot, Robertson had extensive business dealings with Liberian president Charles Taylor. According to the article, Taylor gave Robertson the rights to mine for diamonds in Liberia's mineral-rich countryside. According to two Operation Blessing pilots who reported this incident to the state of Virginia for investigation in 1994, Robertson used his Operation Blessing planes to haul diamond-mining equipment to Robertson's mines in Liberia, despite the fact that Robertson was telling his 700 Club viewers that the planes were sending relief supplies to the victims of the genocide in Rwanda. In response to Taylor's alleged crimes against humanity, the United States Congress passed a bill In November 2003 that offered two million dollars for his capture. Robertson accused President George W. Bush of "undermining a Christian, Baptist president to bring in Muslim rebels to take over the country." At the time Taylor was harboring Al Qaeda operatives who were funding their operations through the illegal diamond trade. On February 4, 2010, at his war crimes trial in the Hague, Taylor testified that Robertson was his main political ally in the U.S., and that he had volunteered to make Liberia's case before U.S. administration officials in exchange for concessions to Robertson's Freedom Gold, Ltd., to which Taylor gave a contract to mine gold in southeast Liberia. In 2010, a spokesman for Robertson said that the company's arrangements — in which the Liberian government got a 10 percent equity interest in the company and Liberians could purchase at least 15 percent of the shares after the exploration period — were similar to many American companies doing business in Africa at the time.
After his unsuccessful presidential campaign, Robertson started the Christian Coalition, a 1.7 million member Christian right organization that campaigned mostly for conservative candidates. It was sued by the Federal Election Commission "for coordinating its activities with Republican candidates for office in 1990, 1992 and 1994 and failing to report its expenditures".
In 1994, the Coalition was fined for "improperly [aiding] then Representative Newt Gingrich (R-GA) and Oliver North, who was then the Republican Senate nominee in Virginia." Robertson left the Coalition in 2001.
While usually associated with the political right, Pat Robertson has recently begun endorsing environmental causes. He appears in a commercial with Al Sharpton, joking about this, and urging people to join the We can Solve it Campaign against global warming.
In January 2009, on a broadcast of The 700 Club, Robertson stated that he is "adamantly opposed" to the division of Jerusalem between Israel and the Palestinians. He also stated that Armageddon is "not going to be fought at Megiddo" but will be the "battle of Jerusalem," when "the forces of all nations come together and try to take Jerusalem away from the Jews. Jews are not going to give up Jerusalem — they shouldn't — and the rest of the world is going to insist they give it up." Robertson added that Jerusalem is a "spiritual symbol that must not be given away" because "Jesus Christ the Messiah will come down to the part of Jerusalem that the Arabs want," and that's "not good."
Controversies and criticisms
Robertson has made numerous statements on a wide-range of issues that have attracted criticism. Some of his remarks, such as those concerning the September 11th attacks, have been condemned by sitting Presidents and have been the subject of national and international media attention. Despite a long history of often extremely controversial statements, Robertson has remained a powerful figure both religiously and politically.
Controversies surrounding Robertson include his earlier work as a faith healer, his claim that some Protestant denominations harbor the spirit of the Antichrist, and his claims of having the power to deflect hurricanes through prayer; he has also denounced Hinduism as "demonic" and Islam as "Satanic." Robertson has issued multiple condemnations of feminism, homosexuality, abortion and liberal college professors. Robertson also had financial ties to former presidents Charles Taylor of Liberia and Mobutu Sese Seko of Zaire, both internationally denounced for their human rights violations. Robertson was criticized worldwide for his call for Hugo Chavez’s assassination and for his remarks concerning Ariel Sharon's health as an act of God.
The week of September 11, 2001, Robertson discussed the terror attacks with Jerry Falwell, who said that "the ACLU has to take a lot of blame for this" in addition to "the pagans, and the abortionists, and the feminists, and the gays, and the lesbians [who have] helped [the terror attacks of September 11th] happen." Robertson replied, "I totally concur." Both evangelists came under attack from President George W. Bush for their statements, for which Falwell later issued an apology.
Less than two weeks after Hurricane Katrina killed 1,836 people, Robertson implied on the September 12th broadcast of The 700 Club that the storm was God's punishment in response to America's abortion policy. He suggested that September 11 and the disaster in New Orleans "could... be connected in some way".
On November 9, 2009, Robertson said that Islam is "a violent political system bent on the overthrow of the governments of the world and world domination." He went on to elaborate that "you're dealing with not a religion, you're dealing with a political system, and I think we should treat it as such, and treat its adherents as such as we would members of the communist party, members of some fascist group."
Robertson's response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake also drew controversy and condemnation. Robertson claimed that Haiti's founders had sworn a "pact to the Devil" in order to liberate themselves from the French slave owners and indirectly attributed the earthquake to the consequences of the Haitian people being "cursed" for doing so. CBN later issued a statement saying that Robertson's comments "were based on the widely-discussed 1791 slave rebellion led by Dutty Boukman at Bois Caiman, where the slaves allegedly made a famous pact with the devil in exchange for victory over the French." Various prominent voices of mainline and evangelical Christianity promptly denounced Robertson's remarks as false, untimely, insensitive, and not representative of Christian thought on the issue.
Several times near New Year, Robertson has announced that God told him several truths or events that would happen in the following year. "I have a relatively good track record," he said. "Sometimes I miss."
In late 1976, Robertson predicted that the end of the world was coming in October or November 1982. In a May 1980 broadcast of The 700 Club he stated, "I guarantee you by the end of 1982 there is going to be a judgment on the world."
In September 2011, Robertson and several others who incorrectly predicted various dates for the end of world were jointly awarded an Ig Nobel Prize for "teaching the world to be careful when making mathematical assumptions and calculations".
2006: Pacific Northwestern tsunami
In May 2006, Robertson declared that storms and possibly a tsunami would hit America's coastline sometime in 2006. Robertson supposedly received this revelation from God during an annual personal prayer retreat in January. The claim was repeated four times on The 700 Club.
On May 8, 2006, Robertson said, "If I heard the Lord right about 2006, the coasts of America will be lashed by storms." On May 17, 2006, he elaborated, "There well may be something as bad as a tsunami in the Pacific Northwest." While this claim didn't garner the same level of controversy as some of his other statements, it was generally received with mild amusement by the Pacific Northwest media. The History Channel's initial airing of its new series, Mega Disasters, debut episode "West Coast Tsunami", was broadcast the first week of May.
2007: Terror attack
On the January 2, 2007, broadcast of The 700 Club, Robertson said that God spoke to him and told him that "mass killings" were to come during 2007, due to a terrorist attack on the United States. He added, "The Lord didn't say nuclear. But I do believe it will be something like that." When a terrorist attack failed to happen in 2007, Robertson said, in January 2008, "All I can think is that somehow the people of God prayed and God in his mercy spared us."
2008: Worldwide violence and American recession
On the January 2, 2008 episode of The 700 Club, Pat Robertson predicted that 2008 would be a year of worldwide violence. He also predicted that a recession would occur in the United States that would be followed by a stock market crash by 2010. However, there was a decrease in overall deaths for the period, and the American economy had already entered a recession in 2007, with increased household debt and the collapse of financial institutions.
2008: Mideast meltdown
In October 2008, Robertson posted a press release on the Georgian Conflict speculating that the conflict is a Russian ploy to enter the Middle East, and that instability caused by a predicted pre-emptive strike by Israel on Iran would result in Syria's and Iran's launching nuclear strikes on other targets. He also said that if the United States were to oppose Russia's expansion, nuclear strikes on American soil are also pending. "We will suffer grave economic damage, but will not engage in military action to stop the conflict. However, we may not be spared nuclear strikes against coastal cities. In conclusion, it is my opinion that we have between 75 and 120 days before the Middle East starts spinning out of control."
2009: Economic chaos and recovery
On the January 1, 2009 broadcast of The 700 Club, Robertson said, "If I'm hearing [God] right, gold will go to about $1900 an ounce and oil to $300 a barrel." He also suggested that Americans would broadly accept socialism. Despite these predictions, he also said that economically, "things are getting ready to turn around."
- Shout it from the Housetops an autobiography with Jamie Buckingham (1972, repr 1995)
- The Secret Kingdom (1982)
- Answers to 200 of Life's Most Probing Questions (c1984)
- Beyond Reason: How Miracles can Change your Life (1985)
- America's Dates with Destiny (1986)
- The Plan (1989)
- The New Millennium (1990)
- The New World Order (1991)
- Turning Tide: The Fall of Liberalism and the Rise of Common Sense (c1993)
- The End of the Age (1995, fiction)
- Bring It On (2003)
- The Ten Offenses (2004)
- Courting Disaster (2004)
- The 700 Club
- Christian Broadcasting Network
- Christian right
- Christian fundamentalism
- Christian Coalition of America
- Christian Zionism
- Moral majority
- Operation Blessing
- ^ a b c "Official biography". http://www.patrobertson.com/Biography/index.asp. Retrieved 2007-03-31.
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- ^ "Pat Robertson". Media Matters for America. Archived from the original on March 20, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070320132805/http://mediamatters.org/issues_topics/people/patrobertson. Retrieved 2007-03-31.
- ^ a b c David John Marley. Pat Robertson: An American Life. ISBN 978-0-7425-5295-1
- ^ Phi Beta Kappa Membership Directory, Vol 1. 2000.
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- ^ "ROBERTSON'S LIBEL SUIT BY JUDGE EX-CONGRESSMAN RULED THE LEGAL VICTOR". Philadelphia Daily News: p. 14. March 7, 1988.
- ^ "Spiritual Journey", The Official Site of Pat Robertson.
- ^ Web Site Design and Hosting by LogicalSolutions.net – An Internet Marketing Company (2007-10-18). "Student Press Law Center – News Flashes". Splc.org. http://www.splc.org/newsflash.asp?id=1655&year. Retrieved 2009-07-26.
- ^ Goldberg, Michelle. 2006. Kingdom Coming: The Rise of Christian Nationalism. 1st ed. W. W. Norton.
- ^ Marshall, Jonathan; Scott, Peter Dale; and Hunter, Jane. "The Iran-Contra Connection" Black Rose Books. Montreal & New York. 1987.
- ^ "About the caucuses: Meaningful test", Johan Bergenas, Iowa Presidential Politics.com.
- ^ "Primary versus caucus fight rolls on among state politicians", Niki Sullivan, Tacoma News Tribune.
- ^ " Bush routs Dole in primaries", Michale Oreskes, New York Times.
- ^ Ephraim Radner, New world order, old world anti-Semitism — Pat Robertson of the Christian Coalition, Christian Century, September 13, 1995. Retrieved December 11, 2006.
- ^ "The Company File | Bank drops evangelist". BBC News. 1999-06-05. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/the_company_file/361736.stm. Retrieved 2009-07-26.
- ^ Braid, Mary (1999-06-03). "Gay jibe may lead to bank boycott". London: The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/gay-jibe-may-lead-to-bank-boycott-1097726.html. Retrieved 2010-02-01.
- ^ "Palast investigates Pat Robertson". Sullivan-county.com. http://www.sullivan-county.com/news/pat_quotes/palst.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-26.
- ^ "Complete list of Triple Crown nominees". Thoroughbred Times. 2002-02-10. http://www.thoroughbredtimes.com/racing-news/2002/February/10/Complete-list-of-Triple-Crown-nominees.aspx. Retrieved 2009-07-26.
- ^ "Mr Pat Horse Pedigree". Pedigreequery.com. 2007-04-30. http://www.pedigreequery.com/mr+pat. Retrieved 2010-01-15.
- ^ Sizemore, Bill. "Robertson, Liberian Leader Hope to Strike Gold in Coastal Africa." The Virginian-Pilot. 2 June 1999. ( Copy found at .) Charles Taylor...
- ^ a b c Blumenthal, Max (2005-09-07). "Pat Robertson's Katrina Cash". The Nation Online. http://www.thenation.com/doc/20050919/blumenthal. Retrieved 2008-01-19.
- ^ "Charles Taylor: Pat Robertson was my man in Washington | Turtle Bay". Turtlebay.foreignpolicy.com. http://turtlebay.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2010/02/05/charles_taylor_pat_robertson_was_my_man_in_washington. Retrieved 2010-08-06.
- ^ Anna Schecter (February 4, 2010). "Prosecutor: Pat Robertson Had Gold Deal with African Dictator; Prosecutors in Human Rights Trial Allege Pat Robertson Lobbied George Bush on Behalf of Liberian Warlord Charles Taylor". ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/pat-robertsons-gold-deal-african-dictator/story?id=9749341.
- ^ "In Closed-Door Session with Christian Coalition State Leaders, Pat Robertson Unveils Plan to Control GOP Presidential Nomination", September 18, 1997, Americans United for Separation of Church and State.
- ^ "Christian Coalition wins on voter guides — allowed to distribute guides, but can not support candidates", Rns, Christian Century, August 11, 1999.
- ^ See also Barbara A. Simon, Esq., CNP's radical agenda, Institute for First Amendment Studies, Inc., which makes several mentions of Robertson's role in CNP
- ^ "Pat Robertson Backs Giuliani's Bid". Breitbart.com. 2007-11-07. http://www.breitbart.com/article.php?id=D8SOUT000&show_article=1&lst=1. Retrieved 2009-07-26.
- ^ [dead link]
- ^ Robertson sees Armageddon in Jerusalem struggle by Eric Fingerhut, Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA), February 3, 2009.
- ^ Randi, James (1989). The Faith Healers. Prometheus Books. ISBN 0-87975-535-0 pages 197–206.
- ^ "'I don't have to be nice to the spirit of the Antichrist: Right-wing TV evangelist and former Presidential candidate Pat Robertson is the man Bank of Scotland has chosen to spearhead its US subsidiary. Why?", by Greg Palast, Guardian Unlimited, May 23, 1999.
- ^ ^ "Pat Robertson's contradictory theology: God won't stop a tsunami — but might respond to Gay Days with an earthquake", N.C., May 2, 2005, Media Matters for America.
- ^ Rajan, Valli J. (1995-07). "Christian Pat Robertson Denounces Hinduism as "Demonic"". Hinduism Today. http://www.hinduismtoday.com/modules/smartsection/item.php?itemid=3502.
- ^ "Robertson says Islam isn't a faith of peace: Televangelist calls radicals 'demonic'", Sonja Barisic, March 14, 2006, Associated Press.
- ^ "Equal Rights Initiative in Iowa Attacked", Washington Post, August 23, 1992.
- ^ ^ "California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger Keeps Promise and Will Veto Abominable Homosexual 'Marriage' Bill Passed By Legislature Which Ignored Overwhelming Vote of California Voters in Proposition 22 Banning Homosexual 'Marriage'". Christian Coalition. 2005-09-09. http://www.cc.org/content.cfm?id=253. Retrieved 2007-03-31.
- ^ "Abortion to Die by 1,000 Cuts After Today's Supreme Court Ruling". Christian Coalition. 2007-01-18. http://www.cc.org/archives/abortion/index.html. Retrieved 2007-03-31.
- ^ "Right-Wing Watch", May 11, 2006, People for the American Way.
- ^ "Pat Robertson's Gold", Colbert I. King, September 22, 2001, The Washington Post.
- ^ "Robertson suggests God smote Sharon: Evangelist links Israeli leader's stroke to 'dividing God's land'", January 6, 2006, CNN.
- ^ Falwell speaks about WTC disaster, Christian Broadcasting Network
- ^ David John Marley, Pat Robertson: an American life (2007) p 273
- ^ "Falwell apologizes to gays, feminists, lesbians". CNN. 2009-10-14. http://archives.cnn.com/2001/US/09/14/Falwell.apology/. Retrieved 2010-09-07.
- ^ "Religious conservatives claim Katrina was God's omen, punishment for the United States". Media Matters. September 13, 2005. http://mediamatters.org/research/200509130004. Retrieved 2010-01-19.
- ^ Hamby, Peter (2009-11-18). "McDonnell won’t disavow Robertson’s Islam remarks". CNN. http://politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com/2009/11/18/mcdonnell-won%E2%80%99t-disavow-robertson%E2%80%99s-islam-remarks/. Retrieved 2010-09-07.
- ^ a b Urban Legend Expert Debunks Haitian ‘Pact with the Devil‘ http://www.assistnews.net/Stories/2010/s10010104.htm
- ^ Salon.com – 'Robertson: Haiti had "pact with devil"'
- ^ Televangelist Pat Robertson Says Earthquake Result Of "Cursed" Haiti's Satanic Pact
- ^ "US evangelist says quake-hit Haiti made 'devil' pact". France 24. 2010-01-13. http://www.france24.com/en/20100113-us-evangelist-says-quake-hit-haiti-made-devil-pact.
- ^ "Statement Regarding Pat Robertson's Comments on Haiti". Cbn.com. http://www.cbn.com/about/pressrelease_patrobertson_haiti.aspx. Retrieved 2010-01-15.
- ^ Thylefors, Markel (March 2009). "'Our Government is in Bwa Kayiman:' a Vodou Ceremony in 1791 and its Contemporary Signifcations" STOCKHOLM REVIEW OF LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES, Issue No. 4
- ^ "Pat Robertson on Disasters: Consistently Wrong" Thursday, January 14, 2010, 1:01 PM by John Mark Reynolds
- ^ "In Good Faith: Guest post: A message for Pat Robertson – A blog for news and discussion on matters of faith – baltimoresun.com". Weblogs.baltimoresun.com. http://weblogs.baltimoresun.com/news/faith/2010/01/guest_post_a_message_for_pat_r.html. Retrieved 2010-01-15.
- ^ 11:53 p.m. ET (2007-01-02). "Pat Robertson warns of terrorist attack in ’07 –– Life – MSNBC.com". MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/16442877/. Retrieved 2009-07-26.
- ^ "Doomsday: 1971–1997". Abhota.info. http://www.abhota.info/end3.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-26.
- ^ "Winners of the 2011 Ig Nobel Awards". Boston Globe. September 29, 2011. http://www.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/articles/2011/09/29/winners_of_the_2011_ig_nobel_awards/?rss_id=Boston.com+--+Massachusetts+news.
- ^ "Wasabi alarm, beetle sex win Ig Nobel spoof prizes". Baltimore Sun. September 29, 2011. http://www.baltimoresun.com/features/sns-rt-us-nobel-spooftre78s6vp-20110929,0,3616048.story.
- ^ "God is warning of big storms, Robertson says", May 19, 2006, The Associated Press.
- ^ "Pat Robertson warns of terrorist attack in 2007", January 2, 2007, MSNBC.com.
- ^ a b "Pat Robertson Predicts Worldwide Violence, U.S. Recession in 2008". Foxnews.com. 2008-01-02. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,319728,00.html. Retrieved 2009-07-26.
- ^ UNdata: Crude death rate (per 1,000 population)
- ^ "The End of the Affair". Economist. October 30, 2008. http://www.economist.com/world/unitedstates/displaystory.cfm?story_id=12637090. Retrieved February 27, 2009.
- ^ Labaton, Stephen (October 3, 2008). "Agency's ’04 Rule Let Banks Pile Up New Debt, and Risk". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/03/business/03sec.html. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
- ^ "Robertson predicts Mideast disaster and nuclear strikes on America during or shortly after American Election". Patrobertson.com. http://www.patrobertson.com/pressreleases/PatRobertsonRegardingGeorgia.asp. Retrieved 2009-07-26.
- ^ "Pat Robertson: God says U.S. will accept socialism". Wnd.com. http://www.wnd.com/index.php?fa=PAGE.view&pageId=85243. Retrieved 2010-08-06.
- Rob Boston. The Most Dangerous Man in America? Pat Robertson and the Rise of the Christian Coalition
- Harrell Jr., David Edwin Pat Robertson: A Life and Legacy (2010) 442 pages. Scholarly biography draws on documents and interviews in seven countries
- David John Marley. Pat Robertson: An American Life -
- Official Pat Robertson Website
- Brian Ross. Some Question Robertson's Katrina Charity, ABC News, September 9, 2005.
- "Preacher: God told him about storms, tsunami"
- "Pat Robertson Denounces Hinduism as 'Demonic'"
- 2000 lbs. leg press
- Robertson talks about his prostate cancer surgery with Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy
- NPR Audio Report: Televangelist Robertson Urges U.S. Hit on Chavez
- Archive of American Television interview with Pat Robertson
United States presidential election, 1988 Republican Party
Convention • Primaries •
Convention • Primaries •
Third party and independent candidates Libertarian Party New Alliance PartyNominee: Lenora Fulani Populist PartyNominee: David Duke Prohibition PartyNominee: Earl Dodge Socialist Equality PartyNominee: Edward Winn Socialist Party USA Socialist Workers PartyNominee: James Warren
VP Nominee: Kathleen Mickells
Workers World PartyNominee: Larry Holmes
VP Nominee: Gloria La Riva
Independents and other candidates
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