- Washington and Lee University
name = Washington and Lee University
motto = "
Non Incautus Futuri"
Latin: "Not Unmindful of the Future"
type = Private university
endowment = US $693.0 million
president= Kenneth Patrick Ruscio
city = Lexington
country = USA
students = 2,200
undergrad = 1,780
postgrad = 400
faculty = 255
campus = National Historic Landmark, Rural, 325 acres
athletics = NCAA
Division III, ODAC
nickname = "The Generals"
Royal Blueand White
color box|#002366 color box|#FFFFFF
website= [http://www.wlu.edu/ www.wlu.edu]
Washington and Lee University is a private liberal arts college in
Lexington, Virginia, USA.
The classical school from which Washington and Lee is descended was established in 1749 as Augusta Academy, about 20 miles north of its present location. In
1776it was renamed Liberty Hall in a burst of revolutionary fervor. The academy moved to Lexington in 1780, when it was chartered as Liberty Hall Academy, and built its first facility near town in 1782.
George Washingtonendowed it with the largest gift ever given to a college (at the time): $20,000 in stock, rescuing it from near-certain insolvency. In gratitude, the trustees changed the school's name to Washington Academy; it was subsequently chartered as Washington College. Dividends from Washington's gift continue to pay about $1.87 a year toward the cost of each student's education. Robert E. Leewas its president after the Civil War until his death in 1870, after which the school was renamed Washington and Lee University.
Washington and Lee's motto is "Non incautus futuri", meaning "Not unmindful of the future." It is an adaptation of the Lee family motto.
One quarter of W&L's undergraduates participate in varsity athletics, three quarters in club or intramural programs. There are more than 120 student organizations and publications, and approximately 80 percent of undergraduates belong to fraternities or sororities. [ [http://www.wlu.edu/x10535.xml Greek Life :: Washington and Lee University ] ]
W&L is a member of the
Associated Colleges of the South.
The row of brick buildings that form the Front Campus, which trace to 1824, is a U.S.
National Historic Landmarknamed Washington and Lee University Historic District. Separately, the Lee Chapelis also a National Historic Landmark.
The noted British writer
John Cowper Powysonce called W&L the "most beautiful college campus in America." The poet and dramatist John Drinkwater remarked, "If this scene were set down in the middle of Europe, the whole continent would flock to see it!"
Since the '70s, the university has invested massively in upgrading and expanding its academic, residential, athletic, research, arts and extracurricular facilities. The new facilities include an undergraduate library, gymnasium, art/music/theater complex, dorms, student center, student activities pavilion and tennis pavilion, as well as renovation of the journalism and commerce buildings and renovation of every fraternity house and construction of several sorority houses. Lewis Hall, the 30-year-old home of the law school, as well as athletic fields and the
antebellumHistoric Front Campus buildings, are all currently undergoing major renovation.
In 1977 The New Yorker published a cartoon showing a family in a car in front of the Washington and Lee campus. The caption was: "The College of Your Choice."
Today the university has about 1,780 undergraduate students and 400 in the School of Law. Both the undergraduate and law schools are in the top 25 rankings of "U.S. News and World Report" (2007) for national liberal arts universities and law schools, respectively. The undergraduate school as of 2008 is ranked #15. [http://colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/usnews/edu/college/rankings/brief/t1libartco_brief.php USNews.com: America's Best Colleges 2008: Liberal Arts Colleges: Top Schools ] ]
The admissions rate for the class of 2012 was 15.1%, a record low for the university. [ [http://www.wlu.edu/x10.xml W&L Admissions Home :: Washington and Lee University ] ]
Washington and Lee is divided into three schools: (1) The College, where all undergraduates begin their studies, encompassing the liberal arts, humanities and hard sciences, with notable interest among students in pre-health and pre-law studies; (2) the Williams School of Commerce, Economics, and Politics, which offers majors in accounting, business administration, economics, politics, and public accounting; and (3) the School of Law, which offers Juris Doctor and Master of Laws degrees.
More than 1,100 undergraduate courses are offered. There are no graduate or teaching assistants; every course is taught by a faculty member. [ [http://www.wlu.edu/x1584.xml Departments and Programs :: Washington and Lee University ] ] The undergraduate library has more than 700,000 volumes (and a vast electronic network). The law library has more than 400,000 volumes as well as extensive electronic resources.
Washington and Lee offers 42 undergraduate majors (including interdisciplinary majors in
neuroscience, Medieval and Renaissance studies, and Russian area studies) and additional interdisciplinary programs in African-American studies, East Asian studies, environmental studies, Latin American and Caribbean studies, povertyand human capability studies ( [http://shepherd.wlu.edu/ Shepherd Program] ,and women's studies. No minors are offered.
Despite the university's refusal to provide data to
Princeton Reviewsince 2003,Fact|date=January 2008 PR's 2006 edition of The Best 357 Colleges ranked W&L highly in its for "Best Overall Academic Experience," "Professors Get High Marks," and "Professor Accessibility." In the 2007 edition, Washington and Lee was ranked 4th in "Professors Get High Marks" and 6th in "Professor Accessibility." Combining academics with an active social culture, Washington and Lee ranked 14th in "Best Overall Academic Experience for Undergraduates." [ [http://www.princetonreview.com/college/research/profiles/generalinfo.asp?listing=1022835<ID=1 Washington and Lee University ] ]
The undergraduate calendar is an unusual three-term system with 12-week fall and winter terms followed by a six-week spring term. (The faculty recently approved a change to a four-week spring term beginning in 2010.) The spring-term courses include topical often-unique seminars, faculty-supervised study abroad, and some domestic and international internships. The law calendar consists of the more traditional early-semester system.
Liberty Hall Academy became a college when it granted its first bachelor of arts degree in 1785, making it the ninth oldest institution of higher education in the country.
George Washingtongave the school its first significant endowment in 1796, $20,000, at the time the largest gift ever given to an educational institution in the United States, and Washington's gift continues to provide nearly $1.87 a year toward every student's tuition. Trustees changed the name of the school to Washington Academy, and later Washington College, to honor him. Among many alumni who have followed in Washington's footsteps by donating generously, Rupert Johnson, a 1962 graduate who is vice chairman of the $600-billion Franklin Templeton investment management firm, gave $100 million to Washington and Lee in June 2007, establishing a merit-based financial aid and curriculum enrichment program.
Liberty Hall is said to have admitted its first
African-Americanstudent when John Chavis, a free black, enrolled in 1795. Chavis accomplished much in his life including fighting in the American Revolution, studying at both Liberty Hall and the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University), becoming an ordained Presbyterian minister, and opening a school that instructed white and poor black students in North Carolina. He is believed to be the first black student to have earned a degree in the United States. Washington and Lee enrolled its next African-American student in 1966in the law school. The next African-American students admitted were in 1968, two men who grew up in Lexington. Fact|date=February 2007
The campus took its current architectural form in the 1820s when a local merchant, "Jockey" John Robinson, an uneducated Irish immigrant, donated funds to build a central building. For the dedication celebration in 1824, Robinson supplied a huge barrel of whiskey, which he intended for the dignitaries in attendance. But according to a contemporary history, the rabble broke through the barriers and created pandemonium, which ended only when college officials demolished the whiskey barrel with an ax. A justice of the Virginia State Supreme Court, Christian Compton ('50 undergraduate, '53 law), re-created the episode in 1976 for the dedication of the new law school by having several barrels of Scotch imported (without the unfortunate dénouement).
The Lee Years
American Civil War, General Robert E. Leeturned down several financially tantalizing offers of employment that would merely have traded on his name, and instead accepted the post of college president for three reasons. First, he had been superintendent of West Point, so higher education was in his background. Second, and more important, he believed that it was a position in which he could actually make a contribution to the reconciliation of the nation. Third, the Washington family were his in-laws: his wife was the great-granddaughter of Martha Washington. Lee had long looked on George Washington as a hero and role model, so it is hardly surprising that he welcomed the challenge of leading a college endowed by and named after the first president.
Arguably Lee's finest achievement was transforming a small, not particularly distinguished Latin academy into a forward-looking institution of higher education ("not unmindful of the future"). He established the first school of professional journalism education in the country and he added both a business school and a law school to the college curriculum, under the conviction that those occupations should be intimately and inextricably linked with the liberal arts. That was a radical idea: Journalism and law had always been considered technical crafts, not intellectual endeavors, and business was even worse. Yet Lee's concept has become universally accepted, and today it would seem subversive if anyone suggested that education in journalism, business, and law should be kept separate from the liberal arts and sciences.
Lee was also the father of an Honor System and a speaking tradition at Washington College that continue to the present time. And, ardent about restoring national unity, he successfully recruited students from the north as well as the south.
Lee died on October 12, 1870, after just five years as Washington College president. The school's name was almost immediately changed to link his with Washington's. His son,
George Washington Custis Lee, followed as the school's next president. General Lee and much of his family - including his wife, his seven children, and his father, the Revolutionary War hero "Light Horse Harry" Lee - are buried in the Lee Chapelon campus, which faces the main row of antebellum college buildings. Robert E. Lee's beloved horse, Traveller, is buried outside, near the wall of the Chapel.
Washington and Lee maintains a rigorous Honor System that traces directly to Robert E. Lee, who said, "We have but one rule here, and it is that every student must be a gentleman." Students, upon entering the university, vow to act honorably in academic and nonacademic endeavors. While "honor" is often interpreted as meaning that they will never lie, cheat or steal, the Honor System actually proscribes whatever behavior the current generation of students decides is dishonorable.
The Honor System has been run by the student body since 1905. Any student found guilty of an honor violation by his or her peers is subject to a single penalty: expulsion. The Honor System is defined and administered solely by students, and there is no higher review. A formal review, occasionally including referenda, is held every three years to refine the tenets of the Honor System. Students continue to support the Honor System and its single penalty overwhelmingly, and alumni regularly point to the Honor System as one of the distinctive marks they carry with them from their W&L experience.
Washington and Lee's Honor System is distinct from others such as those found at the neighboring
Virginia Military Instituteand the University of Virginiabecause it is not codified. That is to say, unlike those others, Washington and Lee's does not have a list of rules that define punishable behavior.
The Honor System encompasses fundamental honesty and integrity. Other disciplinary frameworks exist to address lapses of social and behavioral standards that do not fall into the category of a student's basic honor. (If you cheat on an exam or take a book from the library without checking it out, it's an honor violation. If you go 55 in a 50-mph-zone, it isn't.)
As a result, a sense of trust and safety pervades the community. The faculty and staff always take students at their word (and indeed, local merchants accept their checks without question; many also extend credit). Exams at W&L are ordinarily unproctored and self-scheduled. It is not unusual for professors to assign take-home, closed-book finals with an explicit trust in their students not to cheat.
The Honor System is strongly enforced. In most years, only a very few students withdraw in the face of an honor charge or after investigations and closed hearings conducted by the Executive Committee, the University's elected student government (with the accused counseled by Honor Advocates, usually law students). In recent years, an average of 4-5 students leave each year, with the same number typically leaving from each entering class. Students found guilty in a closed hearing may appeal the verdict to an open hearing before the entire student body, although this option is rarely exercised. If found guilty at an open trial, the student is dismissed from the university permanently.
Alumni of note
Robert H. Adams, 1806, United States Senatorfrom Mississippi.cite book | title = Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607-1896 | publisher = Marquis Who's Who | location = Chicago | date = 1963]
J. Bowyer Bell1953 — historian, artist and art critic.
William E. Brock1953 — former Senator from Tennessee (1971-77), chairman of the National Republican Party (1977-81), U.S. Trade Representative (1981-85), and Secretary of Labor (1985-87)
Fielder Cook1946 — three-time Emmy Award-winning director and producer, perhaps best known for directing "The Homecoming" (TV, 1971), which begat the long-running series " The Waltons"
* James H. Cooper 1967 — Rector of Trinity Church in New York City, the historic Episcopal church that looks down Wall Street from lower Broadway, a wealthy parish with a substantial social outreach program thanks to its substantial real-estate holdings in lower Manhattan.
* Rupert H. Johnson 1962 — vice chairman of
H. F. Lenfest1953 — philanthropist and CEO of Lenfest Group; gave the second largest donation in W&L's history, at $33 million, on March 21, 2007Fact|date=June 2008
Meriwether Lewis1790's — soldier, private secretary to Thomas Jefferson, and explorer who was sent by Jefferson to explore the lands the United States had recently acquired through the Louisiana Purchase. This expedition is now remembered as the Lewis and ClarkExpedition.
* Paul Maslansky 1954 — producer of the "Police Academy" movie series, among other filmsFact|date=June 2008
Terry Brooks1969 (law) — Author of fantasy fiction; 12 million copies in print
* Alex S. Jones '68 — Pulitzer Prize-winning ex-reporter for the New York Times
David Gardiner Tyler 1869- U.S. Congressman; son of President John Tyler
Sydney Lewis'40 — founder of Best Products, which invented the big-box retail concept; recipient with his wife, Frances, in 1987, of the National Medal of the Arts
J. Michael Luttig'76 — Attorney, former United States Circuit Court of Appealsjudge. Twice considered by President George W. Bushfor nomination to the U.S. Supreme Court.
* Bill Miller '72 — president and chief investment officer of
Jackson Morton1814 — U.S. Senator from Florida
Robert Mosbacher'47 Undergraduate '49 Law School — Secretary of Commercebetween 1989and 1992
Roger Mudd'50 — Congressional Correspondent for CBSand PBS; Host on the History ChannelHe was a member of the Delta Tau Deltafraternity.
Lewis Franklin Powell, Jr.'29 Undergraduate '31 Law School — Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, 1972-87
Tom Robbins— Author of " Even Cowgirls Get the Blues" (Did not graduate, but attended for two years before moving to New York to become a poet)
Pat Robertson1950 — Christian televangelist; founder of several organizations, including Christian Broadcasting Network, the Christian Coalition, the American Center for Law and Justice, and Regent University; host of " The 700 Club"; candidate for the Republican nomination for President in 1988.
Paul S. Trible, Jr.'71L — Former U.S. Senator from Virginia and current president of Christopher Newport University
Cy Twombly'53 — noted abstract artist
T. Kenneth Cribb Jr.'70 — former Reagan aide, now president of the Intercollegiate Studies Institute
* Donald D. Hook 1950 — Professor emeritus at Trinity College, Hartford; author of "Madmen of History" and "Clerical Failure."Fact|date=June 2008
Mike Pressler'82 — Head lacrosse coach at Bryant Universityand former coach at Duke Universitywho resigned in the midst of the Duke lacrosse case.
Mark Richard'86 — Author and Winner of the PEN/Ernest Hemingway Foundation Award
Edward Cooper (congressman)1892, member of the United States House of Representatives.
* Mike Henry American writer, comedian and producer, notably of the animated comedy
* Lyrae Van Clief-Stefanon 1996 — Poet [ [http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Lyrae+Van+Clief-Stefanon+poet Award] ]
*John W. Warner Jr. 1949 — former secretary of the Navy, now U.S. Senator from Virginia.
John Minor Wisdom1925 — judge, United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit.
Tom Wolfe1951 — writer (created New Journalism) and author of numerous books including " The Electric Kool Aid Acid Test" and " The Bonfire of the Vanities", with his most recent novel, " I Am Charlotte Simmons", chronicling college life. A former trustee, he is a frequent visitor to campus and, in 2005, became the only outside speaker in recent times to deliver the undergraduate commencement address.
*Hatton C.V. Smith 1973 — President & CEO, Royal Cup Coffee, Inc. [ [http://www.hoovers.com/royal-cup-coffee/--ID__121908--/free-co-factsheet.xhtml Royal Cup Coffee] retrieved June 24, 2008] [ [http://www.birminghamphoenixclub.com/events.php Phoenix Club] retrieved June 24, 2008]
The school's teams are known as "The Generals" and compete in NCAA
Division IIIin the Old Dominion Athletic Conference. The student body is relatively balanced in its political outlook compared to most elite colleges and universities.Fact|date=August 2008 Every four years, the school sponsors the Washington and Lee Mock Conventionfor whichever political party (Democratic or Republican) does not hold the Presidency. The Convention has received gavel-to-gavel coverage on C-SPAN and attention from many other national media outlets. The convention has correctly picked the out-of-power nominee for 18 of the past 23 national elections. It has been wrong twice since 1948 ["US News and World Report", "Campus Pundits' Winning Record," January 28, 2008] , including its incorrect choice of Hillary Clinton in 2008. In 1984, the failure of the scoreboard significantly slowed the vote tally process and almost lead to a wrong selection. [ "W&L Mock Convention 2008 Official Site"] The Washington Post declared Washington and Lee's Mock Convention "one of the nation’s oldest and most prestigious mock conventions." [ Washinton Post, 1996 ]
Washington and Lee was all male until 1972, when women were admitted to the law school; the first female undergraduates enrolled in 1985. This anomaly survived as long as it did largely because, within an hour's drive of Washington and Lee, a large number of all-women's colleges existed (and still do):
Randolph Collegein Lynchburg (formerly Randolph-Macon Woman's College), Sweet Briar College, just north of Lynchburg, Hollins Universitynear Roanoke, and Mary Baldwin Collegein Staunton.
As of 2005, the University is 49% female, 51% male. [http://ir.wlu.edu/studata/demographics_fall_05.doc] In 2006, the number of women receiving undergraduate degrees exceeded the number of men for the first time in the school's history.
The University has also attempted to increase the number of minority faculty and students. The student body, once totally white, has somewhat diversified. The proportion of minority students now comprise approximately 10% of the student body. [http://ir.wlu.edu/studata/demographics_fall_05.doc]
The university's students have generally been known for conservative politics. In recent years, however, the campus has become far more diverse in its political thought. Groups like Campus Democrats and GSA (W&L's Gay-Straight Alliance) are active, the Office of Multicultural Affairs is recruiting a more racially and religiously diverse student body, and speakers like Spike Lee fill the seats of Lee Chapel. The faculty and curriculum reflect a strong global and progressive consciousness, as evidenced by the strength of unique curricular options such as the Shepherd Program for the Interdisciplinary Study of Poverty and Human Capability.
Fraternities and sororities
Greek letter organizations play a major role in Washington and Lee's social scene. The following is a list of active, recognized fraternities and sororities.
Fraternities and Chapter Titles
Alpha Phi Alpha
Beta Theta Pi- Alpha Rho
Chi Psi- Alpha Omicron Delta
Kappa Alpha Order- Alpha
Lambda Chi Alpha- Gamma Phi Zeta
Phi Beta Sigma- Beta Beta Nu
Phi Delta Theta- Virginia Zeta
Phi Gamma Delta- Zeta Deuteron
Phi Kappa Psi- Virginia Beta
Phi Kappa Sigma- Alpha Alpha
Pi Kappa Alpha- Pi
Pi Kappa Phi- Rho
Sigma Alpha Epsilon- Virginia Sigma [ [http://www.wlu.edu/x10150.xml Washington & Lee University website] ]
Sigma Chi- Zeta
Sigma Nu- Lambda (Honorary Alpha Chapter)
Sigma Phi Epsilon- Virginia Epsilon
The Kappa Alpha Order, one of the
Lexington Triad, was founded at W&L. [ [http://www.ka-zetazeta.com/page.php?page_id=4348 Welcome to Kappa Alpha Order, Zeta Zeta Chapter ] ]
Dormant fraternity chapters at Washington and Lee also include
Alpha Tau Omega, Chi Phi, Delta Sigma Phi, Delta Tau Delta, Delta Upsilon, Theta Delta Chi. Kappa Sigma, Psi Upsilon, Phi Epsilon Pi and Zeta Beta Tau.
Alpha Delta Pi
Alpha Kappa Alpha
Chi Omega- Xi Lambda Chapter
Delta Sigma Theta- Tau Omega Chapter
Kappa Alpha Theta- Zeta Iota Chapter
Kappa Delta- Zeta Tau Chapter
Kappa Kappa Gamma- Zeta Tau Chapter
Pi Beta Phi- Virginia Theta Chapter
Media and culture
A Washington and Lee art history professor, Pamela Hemenway Simpson, in 1999 wrote the only scholarly book on linoleum, giving it the title [http://www.amazon.com/dp/1572330376 Cheap, Quick and Easy.] The book also examines other home-design materials once used by the lower classes to emulate their betters.
The widely acclaimed photographer
Sally Manngot her start at Washington and Lee, photographing the construction of the law school. The photos became the basis of a one-woman exhibition at the Corcoran Gallery in Washington, D.C..
Washington and Lee is home to perhaps the finest collection of 18th- and 19th-century Chinese and European porcelain in America, the gift of Euchlin Dalcho Reeves, an eccentric 1927 graduate of the law school, and his well-matched wife, Louise Herreshoff. In 1967, Mr. Reeves contacted Washington and Lee about making "a small gift," which turned out to be a collection of porcelain so vast that it filled two entire houses which he and his wife owned in Providence, R.I. A number of dirt-covered picture frames, found in the two houses, were put on the van along with the porcelain. Soon it was discovered that the frames actually contained Impressionist-like paintings created by Louise as a young woman in the early days of the century. Mrs. Reeves had, it turned out, been a painter of stupendous talent, certified when in 1976 the Corcoran Gallery in Washington mounted a posthumous one-woman exhibition of her works. [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0977722007 Their story] is helped by the fact that he ("Boy") was almost 30 years younger than she ("Dol").
The world's first recorded streaker — his name was
George William Crump— was a student at Washington College, in 1804. He later became (perhaps inevitably) a Congressman as well as America's ambassador to Chile.
Before it morphed into a swing,
Dixielandand bluegrass standard, "The Washington and Lee Swing" was one of the most well known — and widely borrowed — football marches ever written, according to Robert Lissauer's "Encyclopedia of Popular Music in America." Schools and colleges from Tulane to Slippery Rock copied it (sometimes with attribution). It was written in 1910 by Mark W. Sheafe, '06, Clarence A. (Tod) Robbins, '11, and Thornton W. Allen, '13. It has been recorded by virtually [http://wlubookstore.collegestoreonline.com/ePOS/form=robots/item.html&item_number=M102&store=425&design=425# every important jazz and swing musician] , including Glenn Miller (with Tex Beneke on vocals), Louis Armstrong, Kay Kyser, Hal Kemp and the Dukes of Dixieland. "The Swing" was a trademark of the New Orleans showman Pete Fountain. The trumpeter Red Nichols played it (and Danny Kaye pretended to play it) in the 1959 movie [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0052809/ "The Five Pennies.] " ( [http://www.bizpubs.com/swing.mp3 Here] is an audio excerpt from a 1944 recording by Jan Garber, a prominent dance-band leader of the era. [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9er1yvq5kxo Here] is an exuberant instrumental version by a group called the Dixie Boys, which YouTube dates to 2006.)
The "Swing" was parodied in " [http://www.bizpubs.com/dummy.mp3 The Dummy Song] " by Ray Brown and Lew Henderson. [who also wrote "Birth of the Blues," "Bye Bye Blackbird," "Life Is Just a Bowl of Cherries." "You're the Cream in My Coffee" and "Keep Your Skirts Down, Mary Ann")] "Dummy" was recorded by NRBQ, [http://www.napster.com/search/results.html?type=Track&query=dummy+song Louis Armstrong, Louis Prima] and Glenn Miller's vocal jazz group, the Modernaires, among many others, and was used in the movie "You've Got Mail."
Washington and Lee in fiction
Lawrence Edward Watkin's 1940 novel " Geese in the Forum" is an allegory about campus politics (the geese were the faculty).Fact|date|date=May 2008
* In 1949, "The Hero", by
Millard Lampell, who did not attend Washington and Lee, was published; it told the story of a New Jerseyboy who went south to attend Jackson University in Geneva, Virginia, and found epic difficulty in balancing academics, athletics and a social life. The book is dedicated to Richard Pinck, '41, who played football in the days when Washington and Lee competed in Division I and went to bowl games (or at least to one, the Gator Bowl on New Year's Day in 1951, before a cheating scandal in the early 1950s caused the university to abandon subsidized athletics). Lampell adapted his own book for the movies in 1950; it became " Saturday’s Hero", starring John Derekand Donna Reed.
A Sound of Voices Dying", by Glenn Scott, was published in 1954, the year its author graduated from Washington and Lee. It’s set at Philips-Whitehead Universityin Concord, Virginia. A year later it was issued in paperback – but in search of a broader audience, it was retitled "Farewell My Young Lover".
* In 1986, the French novelist and film director
Philippe Labro, of the class of 1958, wrote "L'Étudiant étranger ( The Foreign Student)", for which he won Europe’s Prix Interallié. It was both a coming-of-age novel and a love letter to American popular culture of the 1950s – Buicks and Jack Kerouacand, far from least, girls of all classes and races. In 1994 the novel was made into an English-language movie with Marco Hofschneiderplaying Labro.
*Tom Wolfe's protagonist in "I am Charlotte Simmons" is rumored to be based on the experiences of E.L Stinnett, a student he met at Washington and Lee University. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/I_Am_Charlotte_Simmons]
* The protagonist in the 2004 coming-of-age novel "
American Blue Blood", by William C. Codington, attended W&L and recounts scenes from his days there in the 1970s. The protagonist introduces himself as follows: "I, Thomas Williamson Lightfoot, was in college in Lexington, Virginia, and my roommate...."
Harry Turtledove's Timeline-191series, the Confederate States of Americawins the American Civil War, and during the Second Great War the Confederacy bases its atomic bomb program at "Washington University" in Lexington, Virginia.
* [http://www.wlu.edu University home page]
* [http://ir.wlu.edu/about/chrono.htm University Timeline]
* [http://www2.wlu.edu/virtualtour/ Virtual Tour] Virtual Tour of the University (Flash plugin required)
* [http://music.wlu.edu Music Department Website]
* [http://lenfest.wlu.edu Lenfest Center for the Arts Website]
* [http://wlu.jumboaccess.com/ W&L Professor and Course Reviews - written by students, ad-supported]
* [http://ec.wlu.edu/ The homepage of the governing Executive Committee of the Student Body. The White Book governing the school's Honor System can be found here in PDF form]
* [http://studentaffairs.wlu.edu/public_safety/Clery%20Report%2007.pdf Washington and Lee Public Safety Crime Statistics]
* [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/08/01/AR2006080100825.html Profile of the Shepherd Program for the Interdisciplinary Study of Poverty and Human Capability]
* [http://mockconvention.net/blog/ Washington and Lee Mock Convention Blog]
* [http://seal.wlu.edu W&L Student Environmental Action League]
* [http://wlur.wlu.edu/ 91-5 WLUR] - Radio Station located at and owned by Washington & Lee
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