Music of Washington, D.C.

Music of Washington, D.C.
Music of the United States
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Washington, D.C. has been home to many prominent musicians and is particularly known for the musical genres of hardcore punk, bluegrass, and a local funk genre called "go-go". The first major musical figure from D.C. was John Phillip Sousa, a military brass band composer. Later figures include jazz legends like Duke Ellington and soul singers like Roberta Flack.

The city is home to the Washington Symphony Orchestra, the Washington National Opera, the National Symphony Orchestra (founded in 1931 by Hans Kindler), and the DC Youth Orchestra Program, (founded in 1960). The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts is a nationally important venue for a variety of musical performances, many of which are presented by Washington Performing Arts Society, an independent, non-profit organization founded by impresario Patrick Hayes. Washingtonian magazine maintains a Washington Music Hall of Fame.

The United States Marine Band, and United States Navy Band are both based in Washington, D.C. The Marine Band is the oldest musical group in the United States (formed in 1798, before the city's founding). The U.S. Marine Band's most famous conductor is undoubtedly John Philip Sousa, who composed many of the most famous American marches, as well as several musical comedies. The U.S. Navy Band's director throughout the 1960s was LCDR Anthony J. Mitchell who composed the march Our Nation's Capital, the official march of Washington D.C.,[1] as well as the John F. Kennedy March, and the National Cultural Center March.


Music history

John Philip Sousa (1900)

The earliest music of Washington, D.C. can be traced to the foundation of the U.S. Marine Band. Some fifty years later, in 1851, the city's first choral society, Washington Saengerbund, was formed. Other 19th century musicians included the minstrel singer and songwriter James Bland ("Carry Me Back to Ole Virginny"). In 1872, the Coloured American Opera Society formed.

Washington native John Philip Sousa was conductor of the U.S. Marine Band from 1880 to 1892. He wrote 132 marches including "The Washington Post" and "Stars and Stripes Forever". Sousa formed his own band after leaving the Marine Corps that performed 15,623 concerts worldwide.

Duke Ellington receiving the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1969

Later groundbreaking musicians included James Reese Europe, ragtime musician Claude Hopkins, Lithuanian immigrant and vaudeville performer Al Jolson and Lillian Evans Tibbs, who became the first African-American opera singer to perform in a foreign country. The most widely renowned musician from 20th century D.C. is undoubtedly Duke Ellington, a jazz pioneer. Later D.C. jazz musicians included Charlie Rouse (saxophonist, with Thelonious Monk), Billy Hart (drummer), Ira Sullivan (tenor saxophonist) and Leo Parker (bop baritone saxophonist). Ahmet Ertegün, a Turkish-born jazz fan, came to D.C. at age twelve and later went on to found Atlantic Records. Todd Duncan was a D.C.-born singer who made history by being the first to play the lead of the opera Porgy and Bess; he later became the first black man to play Tonio in I Pagliacci. D.C. was also a home (and recording stop) for blues legend Jelly Roll Morton, country legend Jimmie Rodgers and rock & roll legend Bo Diddley. Local stars of the early part of the century include the singer Pearl Bailey.

In 1957, Elizabeth Cotten recorded for the family that employed her, which included a number of composers and musicologists. One song, "Freight Train", became a folk music legend. Charlie Byrd, a D.C.-based jazz musician, recorded an innovative album in 1962 called Jazz Samba with Stan Getz, helping to launch the bossa nova craze. By the middle of the 1960s, D.C. had begun to produce some major stars, like soul singer Marvin Gaye. Other musicians included John Fahey, one of the first "folk" musicians to gain national appeal, Peter Tork (of The Monkees), underground legend Tim Buckley, guitarist Link Wray, pop singer and songwriter Billy Stewart, country singer Patsy Cline, guitarist Danny Gatton, doo wop bands The Orioles (based out of D.C., though from Baltimore) and The Clovers, Scott McKenzie (known for "If You're Going to San Francisco"), R&B singer Ruth Brown, and country star Roy Clark.

During this period, Washington began to develop its own music scene, with a number of styles evolving by the end of the century. Some popular singers from later decades include Roberta Flack ("Killing Me Softly with His Song"), Root Boy Slim & the Sex Change Band ("You Broke My Mood Ring"), singer-songwriter Tori Amos, Herb Fame (of Peaches & Herb), Van McCoy (disco producer, "The Hustle"), Toni Braxton, Ginuwine, Mya, Dave Grohl (of Nirvana and the Foo Fighters), Starland Vocal Band ("Afternoon Delight"), Joan Jett (rock singer) and Nils Lofgren (guitarist for Bruce Springsteen, Ringo Starr and Neil Young).

Washington is also home to the Duke Ellington School of the Arts, founded in 1974 and part of the DC public school system. Some other notable music education organizations which are located in Washington include the DC Youth Orchestra Program, founded in 1960; the Blues Alley Jazz Society, founded in 1985; and the Levine School of Music, founded in 1976.

Musical genres


The first established opera company in D.C. was the semi-professional Washington National Opera active from 1919 through 1936; it performed in venues ranging from local school auditoriums to DAR Constitution Hall.[2] The present, entirely unrelated company of the same name, resident at the Kennedy Center, was known simply as the Washington Opera until 2000; a thoroughly professional organization under the direction of Placido Domingo, it has, among other achievements, been a rare advocate for zarzuela in the United States.[3] Among other, smaller-scale companies in the D.C. metropolitan area are the Washington Concert Opera, which specializes in unstaged presentations, Opera Lafayette, which specializes in French Baroque Opera, and Aurora Opera Theatre Aurora Opera Theatre, formerly known as Opera Theatre of Northern Virginia OTNV.


Early in the 20th century, D.C. was home to many bluesmen, such as Jelly Roll Morton and later rock & roll and rhythm & blues legends Bo Diddley and Roy Buchanan. In the 1960s, a number of white youths formed local blues bands, like the Northside Blues Band and the Nighthawks. Starting in the early 1960s, Takoma Park native John Fahey became a nationally noted blues and folk guitarist who established the Takoma Records label, which attracted a number of other blues, folk, acoustic and fingerstyle guitarists to the Washington, D.C. area.


In the 1950s, Buzz Busby and the Bayou Boys became a noted bluegrass band that helped D.C. become known as the "Bluegrass Capital of America" in the 1950s and early 1960s. Later bluegrass bands from the city included the Country Gentlemen. Seldom Scene eventually became the city's most prominent and longest-lasting bluegrass band. The Washington bluegrass community extends into outlying areas such as Western Maryland and the panhandle of West Virginia which are home to bluegrass musicians who commute to perform in the area. There has been substantial overlap between Washington, D.C.'s folk and bluegrass scene in the past several decades, in part due to the patronage of disc jockeys at public radio station WAMU, including Mary Cliff, longtime host of the music show Traditions.


In 1961, the first major folk venue in D.C., The Shadows, opened in Georgetown. A band called "the Mugwumps" formed, eventually splitting up. Two of the members, John Sebastian and Zal Yanovsky, became The Lovin' Spoonful, and the other two, Denny Doherty and Cass Elliott, formed The Mamas & the Papas. Later, in Georgetown, then-folk singer John Denver, Taffy Nivert and Bill Danoff wrote a song called "Take Me Home, Country Roads", which launched Denver's career as one of the most popular singers in the country. Other popular folk singers include Mary Chapin Carpenter; the duo Fink & Marxer have been nominated for several Grammy Awards, for both folk and children's music.


Washington has been home to many jazz pioneers, perhaps none better known than Duke Ellington, but also singer and pianist Shirley Horn, pianist Billy Taylor, and saxophonist Frank Wess. Ellington, Taylor and Wess each attended Dunbar High School with its prominent music program. Ellington's first group, The Washingtonians, featured drummer Sonny Greer. They left for Harlem in 1923.[4] Jazz great Jelly Roll Morton came from New Orleans, but took up residency in Washington as a regular performer at a club called the Jungle Inn in 1935.[4]

During the first half of the 20th century, Washington's U Street NW corridor (in what is now known as the Shaw neighborhood) first became known as a jazz haven. Historic jazz club Bohemian Caverns launched many music careers, including that of R&B singer Ruth Brown. Pianist Ramsey Lewis recorded his The In Crowd album there in 1965. During the second half of the 20th century until the mid-1990s, a period that saw decline on U Street, jazz became associated with long time venues in the Georgetown area such as Blues Alley and One Step Down. Subsequently, jazz saw a resurgence on U Street, with venues such as Bohemian Caverns and Republic Gardens re-opening.

Local singer Eva Cassidy, a native of Bowie, Maryland, died of cancer at the age of 33 but received posthumous international fame when several of her songs received BBC Radio airplay, though she was already well known in the Washington area, after a farewell concert at One Step Down.[5] A singer in multiple genres, Cassidy also notably performed a crossover album with D.C. go-go artist Chuck Brown (see below).

Tenor saxophonist Ron Holloway is a Washington, D.C. native. He spent his journeyman years sitting in with local groups from every genre of contemporary music. In the mid 1970's, Holloway expanded his practice of sitting in and more and more he was heard sharing the stage with the likes of Freddie Hubbard, Sonny Rollins and Dizzy Gillespie. In February 1982 Holloway joined Gil Scott-Heron's group. In June 1989, he left Scott-Heron to join Dizzy Gillespie's Quintet. Known for his versatility he has toured and recorded with a wide array of musical artists including Gillespie, Scott-Heron, Root Boy Slim, Little Feat, the Allman Brothers Band, Gov't Mule, Derek Trucks and Susan Tedeschi. He has released five CD's under his own name.

Soul and funk

Washington D.C.'s Soul/Funk movement took shape during the mid 60s; about the same time the Doo-Wop craze came to a close, and "James Brown" became a household name. Artists such as Marvin Gaye, Roberta Flack, the “Maskman” Harmon Bethea, the DC Playboys, Scacy & The Sound Service, Sir Joe Quarterman, the Soul Searchers & the Young Senators (both known for their later go-go influences), impacted more than just the regional scene. Lesser known groups such as Brute, Aggression, 95th Congress, and Scacy and The Sound Service, topped the ever growing club circuit. Local venues such as the Howard Theatre, The Mark IV and The Room, were known for hosting Soul and Funk bands on the regular. Monumental D.C. Soul Labels included Shrine and Cap City. Parliament's 1975 song "Chocolate City," with vocals spoken by George Clinton, references and celebrates Washington, D.C. as a majority black city.


The soul and funk scene set the stage for D.C.'s considerable influence in modern R&B. Besides Toni Braxton, D.C. is the hometown of mid-1990s crooners Ginuwine, Mýa, and Tank (raised in Clinton, MD), as well as the more current J. Holiday and Raheem DeVaughn (who is from the neighboring Prince George's County, Maryland). Central Heat, an East Coast touring R&B band based out of Northern Virginia originated in the late 1970s and features founding members Doug and Dennis Flynn, Mike Cavaliere and Bob Costlow. Central Heat remains active in the DC club scene today.


The go-go sound developed during the mid-70s and began to take its current shape by the late 1970s, and has become known as D.C.'s answer to hip-hop. Its characteristic formula combined simple funk grooves with instrumental percussion and often rapping. It is a blend of funk, R&B, and early hip-hop, with a focus on lo-fi percussion instruments and melodic jamming in place of dance tracks, although some sampling is used. As such, it is primarily a dance music with an emphasis on live audience call and response. Go-go rhythms are also incorporated into street percussion. Many Washington, D.C. soul & funk artists contributed to the characteristic go-go sound, but the main pioneers were The Young Senators, also known as "The Emperors of Go-go", known for their hit tune "Jungle", and Chuck Brown & the Soul Searchers, known for "Bustin' Loose", which became a surprise national hit. Later go-go bands include Rare Essence, Trouble Funk, Experience Unlimited, and New Entertainment and the Southeast go-go band Aggressive Funk. Bands such as Backyard, TCB, and UCB have gained recognition by being featured in music by rapper, Wale.


Washington is primarily known in the rock community for its seminal influence on the evolution of hardcore punk, known locally as harDCore, particularly through bands such as Bad Brains and Minor Threat, and labels like Dischord Records, but it had a vibrant musical community prior to hardcore's arrival with bands like the Razz, Slickee Boys and The Penetrators, putting out records on local independent labels like Limp, O'Rourke, and Dacoit. Ian MacKaye, the frontman for Minor Threat, became an inspiration in part for the international Straight Edge movement, after the song "Straight Edge" was released. MacKaye went on to co-found Fugazi, which attained international recognition under the Dischord record label, alongside Rites of Spring guitarist Guy Picciotto. Henry Rollins, a native of the D.C. hardcore scene, moved to Los Angeles in 1981 to join Black Flag.


In the mid-1980s, veterans of the D.C. hardcore scene created a new punk subgenre called "emo", meaning "emotive hardcore." This term has since evolved to become associated with a much broader group of musical styles. The most renowned D.C. area bands associated with the "first wave" of emo were Rites of Spring and Embrace.


In the 1980s, Washington, D.C., was rich with punk and new wave music. Bands like The Slickee Boys, Urban Verbs, Tiny Desk Unit, Mother May I, Insect Surfers, Tru Fax & the Insaniacs, and Black Market Baby were popular at places like the 9:30 Club, The Psychedeli, dc space, Madam's Organ, The Bayou (in Georgetown). See also: Bad Brains, Minor Threat, Henry Rollins. In the 1970s and 1980s, Georgetown had a diverse live music scene, and became known as a center for the early punk community. In the 1990s, U Street NW in the Shaw neighborhood became known as a new haven for post-hardcore punk, alternative rock, acid jazz and electronica, following the establishment of a variety of bars and clubs in the area, most notably The Black Cat (which was co-founded by Dave Grohl, another native of the DC punk scene). The 9:30 club subsequently moved to the area as well.


In the 1990s, bands taking heavy influence from the Washington, D.C. hardcore scene and the local go-go phenomenon contributed to the post-hardcore scene. Important players in this scene were The Dismemberment Plan, Fugazi, Nation of Ulysses, and Q and Not U. Currently, important post-punk/indie/dance-rock bands like Supersystem (formerly El Guapo), Medications, Metrorail, Maritime, Edie Sedgwick, Mass Movement of the Moth, and Beauty Pill hail from DC. Ian MacKaye continues his involvement in the DC music scene with his two-piece rock group The Evens. Record labels like Dischord, DeSoto Records, and Exotic Fever have been and remain to be a crucial means of distribution for DC bands.

Hip hop

The DC hip hop scene has always taken a backseat to the other more prevalent genres in the area. Even so, very influential groups have planted seeds in the city for future generations to follow. Groups like The Amphibians & Freestyle Union laid the foundation for artists like Asheru, Wale and Low Budget to help put DC's hip hop scene on the map. Wale was the first DMV artist to really break out on the national scene. He was a member of XXL's 2009 Freshman Class and released his debut album, Attention Deficit on Interscope Records. Representing the street oriented side of Hip Hop, D.C.-bred rapper Garvey “The Chosen One” released his debut album Hard Hat Area Volume#1, on independent record label Triple Team Entertainment and distributed by DTLR. When it came time to the video's shoot location for his single “Lock It Down,” released 2010, he chose local high school Calvin Coolidge High School, alma mater of the video’s director, Robert "Bob Smoke" Headen, did more than just provide the setting—members of the school’s band, cheerleading team, step team and dance squad are all featured in the released video as noted by the Washington Post. Recently[when?], DMV emcee Marky has been gaining national recognition for his song "Rasta Monsta," sampling Aloe Blacc's "I Need A Dollar."[1]. Underground group Diamond District represent the vanguard as well as an underground rapper from (Fairmont Heights/P.G.County)born name Micah Paschal rap name MIKE.P also represent DC hip hop today. Washington, D.C.'s hip-hop scene was notably featured in the 1998 film Slam, about a would-be slam poet's ordeal in the D.C. Jail.


Washington D.C. has a booming House music scene, with various parties happening at clubs and warehouses across the city.

D.C. is also the home to the group Thievery Corporation, who are well known in the electronic music community for their fusion of downtempo and trip hop with lounge music and Brazilian music such as bossa nova. They founded the label Eighteenth Street Lounge Music, which is also based in Washington, D.C.

In the past 5 years local recording artist Fort Knox Five has been highly successful with a string of solid releases on their own label, Fort Knox Recordings, many notable remixes and most recently[when?] their full length album Radio Free DC.

Yoko K. is an electronic musician who is also based in Washington DC. Her self-produced debut album "012906" (Asahra Music, 2006) was nominated for "Best Album in Electronica" by the 6th Annual Independent Music Awards. The first single cut, “searching,” was acclaimed by Adam Harrington (Whispering & Hollerin, UK) to be “truly the work of a visionary” and received Grand Prize in the Electronic Jazz category by the Artists Forum Electronic Music Competition (2006). See also "Aphrodizia."

As far as promoters are concerned 88 ( hosts a wide array of electronic music events, throughout the DC area.

Electro-industrial band Chemlab formed in Washington D.C. in 1989. Up until this point, frontman Jared Louche had been a part of the D.C. hardcore scene (see below).

Artists from Washington DC area's premiere dark electronic label Octofoil Records (, such as Maduro, Retrogramme, and Notecrusher, have appeared on numerous compilations around the world and have been featured on BBC.


The Ambitions, led by former Checkered Cabs singer Caz Gardiner, are at the forefront of the mod/soul type bands drawing their inspiration from late 60s soul bands to 1970s British mod revivalists.

Garage revival

As of late, DC has been home to a growing scene of musicians who take inspiration from the primal stomp of the 1960s garage rock movement. Eschewing the more esoteric stylings of their art-school peers, bands like Soul Lip, the Hall Monitors, the breakUps, the Have Mercys, and the Points, mine a more primitive vein of rock 'n' roll, finding inspiration in fuzzed-out chords and grooves.

The Wammies

The Washington Area Music Awards, also known as the Wammies, was founded in 1985 by Michael Jaworek and Mike Schreibman, and is committed to raising the profile of the Washington area's diverse music community. Its membership embraces music styles including classical, bluegrass, go-go, R&B, reggae, jazz, rock, folk and electronic.

Choirs and choral groups

The Washington, D.C. metropolitan area is considered by many to be the choral capital of the nation.[6] Active groups — which perform in and around the District of Columbia, Maryland and Virginia areas, and beyond — include:

  • 18th Street Singers[7] - forty-five-voice young professionals' choir
  • Cantate Children's and Youth Choir of Central Virginia - brings classical choral music to the children and youth of Central Virginia
  • Capital Accord Chorus[8] - women's chorus in Silver Spring, MD, singing four-part a cappella harmony
  • Capital Hearings [9] - vocal ensemble that performs classical choral works, jazz standards, and contemporary pop arrangements
  • Capitol Hill Chorale - seventy-voice chorus presenting wide-ranging repertoire
  • Capitol Steps[10] - former Congressional staffers satirize the people and places that once employed them.
  • Children's Chorus of Washington - 150 singer children’s choral ensemble
  • Choral Arts Society of Washington - symphonic choir
  • Choralis - auditioned, 100-person mixed-voice chorus with a paid professional core
  • City Choir of Washington[11] - 140-voice volunteer mixed choir dedicated to performing the masterworks of the choral repertoire
  • D.C. Boys Choir[12] - Offers membership, by audition, to boys ages 9-13 who are enrolled in the D.C. public schools
  • Fairfax Choral Society - nine ensembles and sixteen musicianship classes, FCS is one of the largest choral groups in Northern Virginia
  • Gay Men's Chorus of Washington, D.C. - one of the oldest LGBT choral organizations in the United States
  • Heritage Signature Chorale[13] - committed to preserving the performance tradition of African-American music, especially the Negro Spiritual
  • Master Singers of Virginia[14] - mixed choral ensemble in Northern Virginia
  • Mormon Choir of Washington, D.C. - 80 singers and musicians selected by audition from about 50 congregations in the Maryland and Virginia regions of The Church of LDS
  • National Master Choral[6] - semiprofessional ensemble (half volunteers, half pros)
  • National Philharmonic Chorale[15] - 200-member classical music chorus
  • St. Martin's Catholic Church Gospel Choir - multi-racial, intergenerational choir
  • Singing Capital Chorus - Washington chapter of the Barbershop Harmony Society
  • Thomas Circle Singers[16] - chamber choral ensemble
  • Washington Bach Consort[17] - professional chorus and orchestra noted for its performance of 18th-century music on period instruments
  • Washington Chorus - 180-voice chorus based at the Kennedy Center
  • Washington Men's Camerata[18] - large men's chorus
  • Washington Women's Chorus - 35-member chorus performs works ranging from 11th-century chants, to compositions by Vivaldi and Brahms, and new works by American and international composers
  • Washington Youth Choir - free after school music education and college preparatory program for students ages 13 to 19
  • World Children's Choir - economically-disadvantaged children in the area
  • Zemer Chai[19] - Jewish Community Choir of Washington, D.C.

Performance venues

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts
Verizon Center

The Washington area has many venues large and small for music performances. The Verizon Center hosts many major concerts. The Kennedy Center is home to the Washington National Opera and the National Symphony Orchestra. Wolf Trap National Park for the Performing Arts in Vienna, Virginia hosts many performances and the Wolf Trap Opera Company. The Merriweather Post Pavilion in Columbia, Maryland and Nissan Pavilion in Bristow, Virginia also host many national touring musical acts.

Notable licensed venues in Washington, D.C. include and have included:

  • Asylum (From 1991) - Adams Morgan / U Street - alternative rock, electronic
  • The Atlas Performing Arts Center - H Street - musical theater, light opera
  • The Bayou (1965–1998) - Georgetown - classic rock, metal
  • Black Cat (From 1993) - U Street - alternative rock, international, various genres, post-hardcore
  • Blues Alley (From 1965) - Georgetown - jazz, blues
  • Bohemian Caverns (1926–1968) (From 1990s) - U Street - jazz, blues
  • The Cellar Door (1960s-1980s) - Georgetown - folk, classic rock, blues rock
  • DAR Constitution Hall (From 1929) - Foggy Bottom - large concert hall
  • Cafe Lautrec / Cafe Toulouse (1980s-c.2004) - Adams Morgan - jazz, bossa nova
  • Corpse Fortress (From 1986) - various genres
  • DC9 (From 2004) - U Street - various genres, mid-size venue
  • Electric Maid (From 2001) - Takoma Park - folk, post-hardcore, various genres
  • Food for Thought (1973–2000) (merged with Black Cat) - Dupont Circle - folk, various genres
  • Fort Reno Park (From 1967) - Upper Northwest - various genres, go-go, post-hardcore (outdoor)
  • Lincoln Theatre (1922–1968, reopened 1994) - U Street - concert hall
  • Madam's Organ (From 1992) - Adams Morgan - various genres, blues, swing
  • 9:30 Club (1980–1996) / Nightclub 9:30 (From 1996) - Downtown / U Street - alternative rock, major venue
  • One Step Down (1960s-2000) - Foggy Bottom - jazz, blues
  • The Red & the Black (From 2006) - H Street - rock, hardcore
  • Republic Gardens (1920s-1960s, reopened 1996) (1996–2007) - U Street - jazz, blues, dance hall
  • Rock N Roll Hotel (From 2006) - H Street - rock, various genres
  • Show Bar and the Palace of Wonders (From 2006) - H Street - various genres, burlesque
  • State of the Union (1991-c.2001) - U Street - alternative rock, electronic dance
  • "New" Vegas Lounge (From 1950s) - Logan Circle - motown, blues, R&B
  • Velvet Lounge - U Street - punk rock, electronic, various genres
  • Warehouse Next Door (1998–2009, merged with theater) - Downtown - various genres
  • Warner Theatre (multiuse 1924-1989, concert venue from 1989) - Downtown - large concert hall


  1. ^ Former Navy Band Leaders and Officers
  2. ^ McPherson, Jim, "Mr. Meek Goes to Washington: The Story of the Small-Potatoes Canadian Baritone Who Founded America’s 'National' Opera," The Opera Quarterly, volume 20, no. 2, Spring 2004.
  3. ^ Holland, Bernard, "NATIONAL OPERA REVIEW; Domingo Applies His Personal Touch to an Operetta's Familiar Tale," The Washington Post, November 9, 2004.
  4. ^ a b Murphy, Molly. "Jazz Profiles from NPR: Jazzed in D.C.". National Public Radio. Retrieved 2008-08-29. 
  5. ^ Johnson, Mary (August 28, 2008). "A voice silenced in 1996 is brought back to life". Baltimore Sun.,0,7544971.story. 
  6. ^ a b Midgette, Anne, "New groups like National Master Chorale signal key change in D.C. choral scene", Staff Writer, Washington Post, December 19, 2009. Retrieved: September 2, 2011.
  7. ^ Reinthaler, Joan, "18th Street Singers deliver with energy and enthusiasm", Washington Post, June 6, 2011. Retrieved: September 2, 2011.
  8. ^ Thornton, Laura L, 5 "Things to Know Today: Sept. 1", Chevy Chase Patch (Maryland), September 1, 2011. Retrieved: September 2, 2011.
  9. ^ Rogers, Katie, "A flash mob marriage proposal at Good Stuff Eatery", Washington Post, June 1, 2011.
  10. ^ "Broadway, Vegas, Hollywood in Stocker artists series, releasing tickets Monday", Arcade Morning Journal (Ohio), Sunday, August 21, 2011. Retrieved: September 2, 2011.
  11. ^ Porter, Cecelia, "Dramatic Bach from City Choir of Washington", Washington Post, May 16, 2011. Retrieved: September 2, 2011.
  12. ^ "Russian celebration in Washington DC", Spero News, Nov 13, 2007.
  13. ^ Tucker, Neely, "Slavery's Unchained Melodies", Washington Post, Sunday, February 20, 2005.
  14. ^ "Best Bets: Master Singers in Concert", Local Living section, Thursday, February 19, 2009.
  15. ^ Porter, Cecelia, National Philharmonic Chorale Performs Orff's 'Carmina Burana' at Strathmore, Washington Post, Art & Living section: Music, Monday, November 24, 2008.
  16. ^ Music: The Thomas Circle Singers 35th Anniversary Concert, Washingtonian, Events Calendar, May 14, 2011. Retrieved: September 2, 2011.
  17. ^ "Organists to give recitals at Atonement", Green Bay Press Gazette, Aug 17, 2011. Retrieved: September 2, 2011.
  18. ^ "'Tis the season to be singing a merry song; Smorgasbord of events this holiday season," Washington Times, December 4, 2003.
  19. ^ Porter, Cecelia, "Zemer Chai and Coral Contigas," Washington Post, June 9, 2007.

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