- Hardcore punk
Infobox Music genre
name= Hardcore punk
bgcolor = crimson
color = white
instruments=Vocals - Guitar - Bass - Drums
popularity= Low to Mid depending on subgenre
Alternative rock- Grunge - Post-hardcore
subgenrelist=List of hardcore punk genres
Christian hardcore- D-beat- Emo- Grindcore- Melodic hardcore- Nardcore- Powerviolence- Skate punk- Thrashcore- Youth crew
Crossover thrash- Crust punk- Funkcore- Jazzcore - Horror punk- Metalcore- Rapcore- Skacore - Sludge metal- Thrash metal
regional_scenes=Australia - Brazil - Japan -
Europe: Italy - Scandinavia: Umeå
USA: Boston - California - Chicago - Detroit - Minneapolis - New Jersey - New York -
Indiana- Philadelphia - Phoenix - DC - Tragic City Hardcore
Hardcore dancing- Straight edge- Street punk- DIY punk ethic- List of hardcore bands - List of hardcore genres
Hardcore punk (now usually referred to as simply hardcore) is a subgenre of
punk rockthat originated in North Americain the late 1970s. The new sound was generally thicker, heavier and faster than earlier punk rock. [cite book
title =American Hardcore: A Tribal History
publisher =Feral House
November 9, 2001
isbn =0922915717] The songs are usually short, fast, and loud, covering topics such as
politics, personal freedom, violence, social alienation, straight edge, war, and the hardcore subculture itself. [ [http://www.rhapsody.com/alternativepunk/punk/hardcorepunk/more.html Rhapsopdy.com] ] [ [http://fusionanomaly.net/hardcorepunk.html FusionAnomaly] ] [ [http://english.berkeley.edu/Postwar/punk.html Berkeley] ]
Hardcore spawned several fusion genres and subgenres, some of which had mainstream success, such as
melodic hardcore, metalcore, sludge metaland thrash metal.
North America, the music genrethat became known as hardcore punk originated in different areas in the early 1980s, with notable centers of activity in California, Washington, DC, Chicago, New York City, Michigan, Vancouver, Toronto and Boston.
The origin of the term "hardcore punk" is uncertain. The Vancouver-based band D.O.A. may have helped to popularize the term with the title of their 1981 album, "
Hardcore '81". [cite web | author= | year= 2003| title="Hardcore Punk music history" | work=Silver Dragon Records | url=http://www.silver-dragon-records.com/hardcore_punk.htm | accessdate = 2006-12-22] [cite web | author= | year= | title="D.O.A. To Rock Toronto International Film Festival" | work=PunkOiUK | url=http://www.punkoiuk.co.uk/news/details.asp?newID=1267 | accessdate = 2006-12-22] [cite web | author= | year= | title="D.O.A." | work=punknews.org | url=http://www.punknews.org/bands/doa | accessdate = 2006-12-22] However, until about 1983, the term "hardcore" was used fairly sparingly, and mainly as a descriptive term. (i.e., a band would be called a "hardcore band" and a concert would be a "hardcore show"). American teenagers who were fans of hardcore punk simply considered themselves fans of "punk" – although they were not necessarily interested in the original punk rocksound of late 1970s (e.g., Ramones, Sex Pistols, The Clash, or The Damned). In many circles, "hardcore" was an in-group term, meaning "music by people like us," and it included a wide range of sounds, from hyper-speed hardcore to sludgy "dirge-rock," and sometimes including arty experimental bands, such as The Stickmen and Flipper.
Since most bands had little access to any means of production, hardcore lauded a do-it-yourself (DIY) approach. In most cities the hardcore scene relied on inexpensively-made DIY
recordingscreated on four-track recorders and sold at concerts or by mail. Concerts were promoted by photocopied zines, community radio shows, and affixing posters to walls and telephone poles. Hardcore punk fans adopted a "dressed-down" style of T-shirts, jeans, and crewcut-style haircuts. While 1977-era punk had used DIY clothing as well, such as torn pants held together with safety pins, the dressed-down style of the 1980s hardcore scene contrasted with the more campy, elaborate and provocative fashion styles of late 1970s punk rockers, which included make-up, elaborate hairdos and avant-garde clothing experiments.
During the same period, there was a parallel development in the
United Kingdomof a British form of hardcore punk, which later became known as UK 82. [ [http://www.uk82.com/ UK82.com] ] British hardcore bands such as Discharge and Charged GBHtook the existing late 1970s punk sound and added the incessant, heavy drumbeats and distorted guitar sound of New Wave of British Heavy Metal(NWOBHM) bands such as Motörhead. This led to the development of the thrash metalsound of the 1980s.
"Godfathers" of the genre
Michael Azerrad's book " Our Band Could Be Your Life" and Steven Blush' documentary film "American Hardcore" describes three bands -- Black Flag, Bad Brains, and Minor Threat-- as the most important and influential in the genre. Azerrad calls Black Flag the genre’s "godfathers"; credits Bad Brains, formed in Washington, D.C.in 1977, with introducing "light speed" tempos" to hardcore; and describes Minor Threatas the "definitive" hardcore punk band.
Black Flag, formed by
guitaristand songwriter Greg Ginnin Los Angelesin 1976, had a major impact on the Los Angeles scene – and later the wider North American scene – with their raw, confrontational sound and DIY approach. Tours in 1980 and 1981 brought Black Flag in contact with developing hardcore scenes in many parts of North America, and blazed trails followed by other touring bands. [ [http://www.punknews.org/bands/blackflag Black Flag] ] [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9105869/Black-Flag Britannica.com] ] [ [http://www.vh1.com/artists/az/black_flag/bio.jhtml VH1 - Black Flag] ] Bad Brains, formed in Washington, DCin 1977, incorporated elements of heavy metal and reggae, and their early work often emphasized some of the fastest tempos ever heard in rock music. [ [http://homepages.nyu.edu/~cch223/usa/badbrains_main.html Bad Brains] ] . Minor Threat, formed in Washington D.C. in 1980, played an aggressive, fast, hardcore punk style directly influenced by Bad Brains. The band was responsible for inspiring the straight edgemovement, especially with their song, "Straight Edge".
Other early notable bands
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description= Sample of "Pay to Cum" by the
Bad Brainsfrom " Pay to Cum" single (1980)|format= OggAccording to Brendan Mullen, founder of the Los Angelespunk club The Masque, the first U.S. tour of The Damnedin 1977 found them favoring very fast tempos, causing a "sensation" among fans and musicians, and helping inspire the first wave of U.S. west coast hardcore punk. [see Mullen's comments in the Don Lettsdirected documentary "Punk: Attitude".]
Several 1970s bands from southern California released records featuring music that sounds very similar to what later became known as hardcore. One of those records is the Middle Class’ 1978 "Out of Vogue" EP. [ [http://www.btinternet.com/~thisispunkrock/ps/us/4/middle.htm MIDDLE CLASS: Out Of Vogue EP 1978 ] ] . A more influential record was
The Germs’ 1979 LP " (GI)"; essentially a hardcore record, not only for its quick tempos but also for its fast chord changes. Also from Orange County, T.S.O.L(formed in 1978) made a name for themselves in the hardcore punk scene with a melodic yet aggressive punk sound. In Long Beach, Rhino 39's split single with Xerox/No Compromiseis one of the first hardcore punk records. The Bagsfrom L.A. sped up the punk sound and can be considered a proto-hardcore punk band. San Francisco's Dead Kennedysformed in 1978 and released their first single " California Über Alles" in 1979. By the time they released the " In God We Trust, Inc." EP in 1981, Dead Kennedys were playing very fast tempos. Circle Jerks’ first album (recorded in late 1979, released 1980) features several songs with very fast chord changes and tempos. The Misfits(of New Jersey) were a 1977-style punk band involved in New York’s Max's Kansas Cityscene. Their horror filmaesthetic was popular among early hardcore fans. In 1981, the Misfits integrated high-speed thrash songs into their set. Hüsker Düwas formed in Saint Paul, Minnesotain 1979 as a post-punk/New Wave band, but soon became a loud and fast hard punk band. Hüsker Dü released the 1982 live album "Land Speed Record", which has been called a "breakneck force like no other... Not for the faint of heart." [ [http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:fbfexqw5ldae allmusic (((Everything Falls Apart and More > Overview))) ] ] By 1985, the band morphed into one of the seminal alternative rockbands. [http://www.deadkennedys.com] [http://www.deadkennedys.com/history.htm] In 1980, Bad Religionreleased " How Could Hell Be Any Worse?", which is considered a benchmark hardcore album, and which secured them as one of the most enduring outfits of the early 1980s hardcore scene. By 1981, many more hardcore punk bands began to perform and release recordings, including 7 Secondsof Reno, Nevadawho formed in 1979; The Neosof Victoria, British Columbia; Negative Approach[cite news | first=Tony | last=Rettman | title=Michigan hardcore pioneers Violent Apathy reunite for shows | date=2008 | publisher = Swindle (issue 12) | url= http://swindlemagazine.com/issue12/detroit-hardcore/| accessdate = ] and Degenerates[Nelson, Jason. [http://www.stereokiller.com/bands/Degenerates "Degenerates (Online Band Profile / Biography)"] . "stereokiller.com" (website).] of Detroit; The Meatmenof Lansing, Michigan; The Necrosof Maumee, Ohio; The Effigiesof Chicago; SS Decontrol, DYS, Negative FX, Jerry's Kids, and Gang Greenof Boston; Zeroptionof Toronto; the Big Boys, MDC and The Dicksof Austin, Texas; Sadistic Exploitsof Philadelphiaand Adrenalin O.D.from New Jersey. The Beastie Boys, more widely known for their later hip hop music, were one of the first published hardcore bands in New York City. Negative FX, perhaps the most popular hardcore band in Boston around early 1982, did not appear on record while they were together. They were largely unknown outside their own area until a posthumous album was released in 1984.
Notable early hardcore punk records include The
Angry Samoans’ first LP, the Big Boys/ The Dicks" Live at Raul's Club" split LP, the Boston-area compilation " This Is Boston, Not L.A.", Minor Threat's 7" EPs, JFA's "Blatant Localism" EP, the New York-area compilations " New York Thrash" and " The Big Apple Rotten To The Core", Negative Approach's eponymous EP and the DC-area compilation record " Flex Your Head". [cite news | first=Tony | last=Rettman | title=Michigan hardcore pioneers Violent Apathy reunite for shows | date=2008 | publisher = Swindle (issue 12) | url= http://swindlemagazine.com/issue12/detroit-hardcore/| accessdate = ]
Early media support and criticism
An influential radio show in the
Los Angelesarea was "Rodney on the ROQ", which started airing on the commercial station KROQin 1976. DJ Rodney Bingenheimerplayed many styles of music and helped popularize what was called "Beach Punk", a rowdy suburban style played by mostly teenage bands in the Huntington Beacharea and in heavily conservative Orange County. Early radio support in New Jerseycame from Pat Duncan, who hosted live punk and hardcore bands weekly on WFMUsince 1979. [cite web | author= | year= | title="Playlists and Archives for Pat Duncan" | work=WFMU | url=http://www.wfmu.org/playlists/PD | accessdate = 2006-12-22] In New York City, Tim Sommer hosted "Noise The Show" on WNYU. [cite web | author= | year= | title="Tim Sommer" | work=Beastiemania.com | url=http://www.beastiemania.com/whois/sommer_tim/ | accessdate = 2006-12-22] In 1982 and 1983, MTVput the hardcore punk band Kraut on mild rotation. [cite web | author= | year= | title="A short history of Kraut" | work=Liner Notes from Complete Studio Recordings 1982-1986
url=http://homepages.nyu.edu/~cch223/usa/info/kraut_liner.html | accessdate = 2006-12-22]
College radio was the main media outlet for hardcore punk in most of
North America. The Berkeley, Californiapublic radio station KPFAfeatured the " Maximum RocknRoll" radio show with DJs Tim Yohannanand Jeff Bale, who played the younger Northern Californiabands. Several zines, such as "Flipside" and "Maximum RocknRoll", also helped spread the new punk style. A few college stations faced FCC action due to the broadcasting of indecent lyrics associated with hardcore songs.
Concerts in the early hardcore scene increasingly became sites of violent battles between police and concertgoers, especially in Los Angeles. Reputed violence at hardcore concerts was featured in episodes of the popular television shows "
CHiPs" and " Quincy, M.E.", in which Los Angeles hardcore punks were depicted as being involved in murder and mayhem. [ [http://www.chips-tv.com/wiki/index.php?title=Battle_of_the_Bands Battle of the Bands - CHiPs Wiki ] ]
Early history in Europe
Netherlands, Finland, Sweden, and Germanyhave had notably active hardcore scenes. However, in the United Kingdom, " UK82" (also known as UK hardcore) bands such as The Exploited, Charged GBH, Discharge and Anti-Nowhere Leagueoccupied the cultural space that American-style hardcore did elsewhere. These UK bands at times showed a musical similarity to American hardcore, often including quick tempos and chord changes, and they generally had similar political and social sensibilities. However, they represented a case of parallel evolution, having been musically inspired by proto- Oi!bands such as Sham 69, and the proto- speed metalband Motörhead.
Discharge played a huge role in influencing early Swedish hardcore bands, such as
Anti Cimex. Many hardcore bands from that region still have a strong Discharge and Motörhead influence. The band Entombed is also cited as a strong influence on Swedish hardcore bands from the early 1990s onward. Discharge were a big influence on Metallica as well. Anarcho-punkbands such as Crass, Icons of Filth, Flux Of Pink Indiansand Rudimentary Penihad little in common with American hardcore other than an uncompromising political philosophy and an abrasive aesthetic. Perhaps closer were bands like The Membranes, whose 1984 releases were far noisier than anything the Americans were offering.
Many American hardcore punks listened to British punk bands, but others upheld a strict regionalism, deriding the UK bands as rock stars, and their fans as poseurs — a derogatory term that implies that a person is not authentic. American hardcore bands that visited the UK (such as Black Flag and
U.S. Chaosin 1981-1982) encountered ambivalent attitudes. European hardcore bands suffered no such prejudice in the U.S.; Italian bands Raw Power and Negazione, and the Dutch BGK, enjoyed widespread popularity.
In the more underground part of the UK punk scene, a new hardcore sound and scene developed, inspired by continental European,
Scandinavian, Japanese and American bands. It was started by bands like Asylum and Plasmid, and their sound – only heard at concerts and on demo tapes and compilations in the mid 1980s – evolved into bands such as Heresy, Napalm Deathand Extreme Noise Terror.
Some of the most important influences among late-1980s UK bands included the Japanese band
GISM, Boston band Siege, Idaho band Septic Death, Los Angeles band Cryptic Slaughterand Swedish band Anti Cimex; as well as more metallic bands such as Celtic Frostand Metallica. However, by the late 1980s, UK bands were becoming far more influenced by American bands such as the Dead Kennedys(who were always very popular in the UK), Black Flag and many of the early Washington, D.C., New York City, Boston and West Coast hardcore bands such as Minor Threat, DYS, Slapshot and 7 Seconds. Straight edgebegan to make its presence felt in the UK, with the emergence of small straight edge communities in most major cities in the UK, and with straight edge bands forming in Durhamand London.
There were many 1980s bands that could be described as sounding like something in between the styles of the dominating UK and US bands. While the bands that had the most significant influence were bands such as Discharge and Charged GBH, others, such as
The Stupids(a UK band influenced by US hardcore) gained brief but widespread college-radio airplay in the US.
Other notable bands from that era in Europe were Crise Total (
Portugal), Wretched, H.H.H., MG-15, Subterranean Kids, L'Odi Social, Ultimo Gobierno ( Spain), Vorkriegsjugend, Spermbirds( Germany), U.B.R. (Former Yugoslavia), Heimat-Los( France), Lärm, Funeral Oration ( Netherlands), Dezerter( Poland), Kaaos, Lama, Riistetyt, Terveet Kädet, ( Finland), Headcleaners, Homy Hogsand Mob 47( Sweden).
Examples of European bands that continued to play the original style of hardcore in the 1990s include: Voorhees,
Totalitär, Disfearand Sin Dios. After the fall of the Iron Curtainin eastern Europe, many hardcore bands were created or became more publicly known (after hiding in garages and being known only by small circles of underground fans). Examples of such bands include Sarcastic Frontfrom Czech Republic, or AMD and Leukemia from Hungary.Hardcore also become popular in Asia in the late 1980s and early 1990s, with bands such as Disaster Funhouse, Chronic Mass, Noisemonger and Cramp Mind from Malaysia; 4-Sides and Stomping Ground from Singapore; Tame The Tikbalang, N.S.A., Agony of Destruction, Death from Above, Mutual Assured Destruction and Biofeedback from the Philippines also with the help of Take Four Collectives a number of bands are striving to showcase their stuffs with Sauna, Bystorm, Play just to name a few.; and Disclose and Death Side from Japan.
In the late 1980s, bands such as
NoMeansNoand Victim's Familycreated a new style of music by blending aggressive elements from hardcore with influences from genres such as psychedelic rock, progressive rock, noise, jazz, or math rock(a development sometimes termed punk jazzor jazzcore). This path was followed in the early 1990s by Mr Bungle, Candiria, Deep Turtleand Ruins. The noisecore played by Melt-Bananamay have been a separate evolution. Other notable hardcore-influenced bands in this genre include the avant-garde Naked City (formed by saxophonist John Zorn) and Neurosis, which started as a hardcore band before exploring slower tempos and dark ambiance. Many bands started to incorporate emotional and personal aspects into their music; influenced by the sounds coming out of Washington, D.C. and Dischord Records, which by the late 1990s had evolved into emo. Nation of Ulysseswas one of the most influential bands to come out of D.C.; combining dissonant guitars similar to those of Black Flag, elements of jazz, and a seemingly absurdist (or Situationist) political ideology. Their sound and fashion sense influenced the San Diego (or 'Chula Vista') hardcore scene.
By the end of the 1980s, hardcore became more diverse, branching off into two sounds: one traditionally punk-based and the other evolving into something heavier, slower, and more intense; being influenced by heavy metal. The punk-focused sound retained much of the style and feel of the original hardcore punk bands, while the more metallic sound, sometimes labeled
metalcore, tended to be heavier and often more technical. Sick of It All's second studio album, "Just Look Around" (1991) is illustrative of this intense, heavy and slower style. Judge, Integrity, and Hogan's Heroes were some of the earliest bands to feature an amalgamation of deep, hoarse vocals (though rarely as deep or guttural as death metal); downtuned guitars and thrashy drum rhythms inspired by earlier hardcore bands; and slow, staccatolow-end musical breaks, known as "breakdowns". Thrash metaland melodic death metalelements are also common in metalcore. Some metalcore bands, such as Biohazard and Candiria, were influenced by hip hop music, and their music is sometimes described as rapcore. Other important bands of the era, such as Inside Out from California and Burnfrom New York, retained elements of classic hardcore along with more progressive rhythms, chord progressions and lyrics. In 1998, thrash metal band Sepulturareleased their first hardcore punk album, "Against".
Ebullition Records, founded in 1990 by
Kent McClardin Santa Barbara, California, often released albums by bands that criticized the American political and economic system; giving far less attention to personal issues. Anarchist ethics seeped their way into the work of many hardcore punk bands, most notably Aus-Rotten, who were also popular in the crust punk genre. On the east coast of the United States, bands such as Rorschach and Born Againstalso played a similar left-wing, almost Marxist form of metallic hardcore. Refusedgained international recognition after touring for several years with their first three Albums. They released their final album " The Shape of Punk to Come" and later broke up during a US tour. During this period, Vision of Disorder, starting with their first 7" "Still", introduced melodic singing to their hardcore songs.
Hardcore and politics
The aforementioned "godfathers" of the hardcore genre took strong political stances, most notably against US President
Ronald Reagan, who served in office from 1981 to 1989. Reagan's policies, which included cutting taxes and slowing the increase of federal social spending, while increasing military spending, gave these bands plenty to write about. [ [http://nestorindetroit.com/Music%20Rants/reagan.htm Reagan ] ] [www.house.gov/jec/growth/taxpol/taxpol.htm] Dead Kennedysand MDC promoted anarchist views. However, some hardcore bands were relatively conservative, such as The FU's, The Undeadand Antiseen.
Influence on other genres
San Francisco-based thrash metalbands Metallicaand Slayerincorporated the compositional structure and technical proficiency of heavy metal with the speed and aggression of hardcore. The new fusion genrebecame known as speed metal, and later thrash metal. Other early bands in this genre include Megadethand Anthrax. Slayerare also known for their hardcore punk roots, and have released an album of hardcore cover versions called " Undisputed Attitude".
In 1985, New York's
Stormtroopers of Death, an Anthrax side project, released the album " Speak English or Die". Although it bore similarities to thrash metal – with a bass-heavy guitar, fast tempos and quick chord changes – the album was distinguished from thrash metal by its lack of guitar solos and heavy use of crunchy chord breakdowns (a New York hardcoretechnique) known as mosh parts. Other bands, such as Suicidal Tendenciesand Dirty Rotten Imbeciles(DRI] ), switched from hardcore to a similar metallic style, which came to be known as crossover thrash.
Some hardcore bands began experimenting with other styles as their careers progressed in the 1980s, becoming known as
alternative rock. [Reynolds, Simon (2005). "Rip It Up and Start Again: Post Punk 1978–1984" (London and New York: Faber and Faber). ISBN 0-571-21569-6, pp. 460-467] Bands such as Minutemen, Meat Puppets, Hüsker Dü, and The Replacementsdrew from hardcore but broke away from its loud and fast formula. Critic Joe S. Harrington suggested that the latter two "paraded as Hardcore until it was deemed permissible to do otherwise". [Harrington, Joe S. (2002). "Sonic Cool: The Life & Death of Rock 'n' Roll" (Milwaukee, Wisc.: Hal Leonard). ISBN 0-634-02861-8, p. 388]
In the mid-1980s,
WashingtonState bands such as Melvinsand Green River developed a sludgy, "aggressive sound that melded the slower tempos of heavy metal with the intensity of hardcore", creating what became known as grunge music. [Azerrad, Michael (2001). " Our Band Could Be Your Life" (New York: Little, Brown). ISBN 0-316-78753-1, p. 419] The early grunge sound was largely influenced by Black Sabbathand Black Flag (especially their " My War" album). The popularity of grunge resulted in renewed interest in American hardcore in the 1990s.
Melvins, aside from their influence on grunge, helped create what would be known as
sludge metal, which is also a combination between Black Sabbath-style music and hardcore punk.cite web|url=http://www.allmusicguide.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:fzfixqu5ldse~T1| title=Eyehategod
author=Huey, Steve | work=
Allmusic| accessdate=2008-07-22] This genre developed during the early 1990s, in the Southern United States(particularly in the New Orleans metal scene).cite web|url=http://wm04.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=77:11956| title=Doom metal | work= Allmusic| accessdate=2008-07-22] cite web|url=http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:kzfoxqy5ldse~T1| title=Buzzov*en
author=York, William | work=
Allmusic| accessdate=2008-06-21] cite web|url=http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:0ifyxqw5ldte~T1| title=Corrosion of Conformity
author=Huey, Steve | work=
Allmusic| accessdate=2008-06-21] Some of the pioneering bands of sludge metal were: Eyehategod, Crowbar,cite web|url=http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:j9fexqq5ldse~T1| title=Crowbar
author=Huey, Steve | work=
Allmusic| accessdate=2008-06-22] Down,cite web|url=http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:avfpxqugldje~T1| title=Down
author=Prato, Greg | work=
Buzzov*en, Acid Bathcite web|url=http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:gxfyxqe5ldfe~T1| title=Acid Bath
author=York, William | work=
Allmusic| accessdate=2008-06-21] and Corrosion of Conformity. Later, bands such as Isis and Neurosis,cite web|first = Aaron|last = Burgess|url = http://altpress.com/reviews/173.htm| title = The loveliest album to crush our skull in months| publisher = " Alternative Press"|accessdate=2008-06-22|date = 2006-05-23] with similar influences, created a style that relies mostly on ambience and atmospherecite web|url=http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:gbfuxqqkldhe~T1| title=Isis
author=Downey, Ryan J. | work=
Allmusic| accessdate=2008-06-21] that would eventually be named atmospheric sludge metal or post-metal.cite web|url=http://altpress.com/reviews/430.htm| title=Post-metal titans sniff, jump into the ether.
author=Karan, Tim | date=2007-02-02
work=Alternative Press| accessdate=2008-06-21]
The later 1980s and early 1990s saw the development of
post-hardcore, which took the hardcore style in a more artistic and complex direction, much as the bands of the post-punkera did for classic punk rock. Washington DC, in particular the community surrounding Dischord Records, became a hotbed for post-hardcore, producing bands such as Hoover, Nation of Ulysses, Jawboxand Fugazi, who helped define the post-hardcore scene and included Dischord founder and former Minor Threat frontman Ian MacKaye. Other notable post-hardcore bands from the United States include Chicago's Big Black, New York's Quicksand and Orange 9mm, Seattle's Pretty Girls Make Graves, Atlanta's Light Pupil Dilateand El Paso, Texas' At The Drive-In.
Post-hardcore included and influenced other styles, such as
emoand math rock. Early emo bands were influenced by hardcore bands like Rites of Spring, Minor Threat, and Black Flag. Emo bands are heavily influenced by hardcore punk's powerful lyrics, song structure and emotion. Sunny Day Real Estateare sometimes called the "first true emo band." [Greenwald, Andy. "Nothing Feels Good: Punk Rock, Teenagers, and Emo." pages 9-33 and 37-39.]
The hardcore punk scene had an influence that spread beyond music. The
straight edgephilosophy of no smoking, drinking or doing drugs was rooted in a faction of hardcore particularly popular on the east coast of the United States. Hare Krishna bands like 108 and Shelter typified this movement, taking it even a step further. Hardcore also put a great emphasis on the DIY punk ethic, which inspired other types of bands to make their own records, flyers and other items, and to book their own tours through an informal network of like-minded people.
In the 2000s, some
pop punkbands, often containing former members of metalcore or hardcore punk bands (such as New Found Glory's Chad Gilbert, a one-time member of Shai Hulud, and Fall Out Boy's Andrew Hurley, formerly of Racetraitorand Vegan Reich) have created a new style by mixing hardcore and pop punk. Another common, heavier sound is represented by bands such as From Ashes Rise and Tragedy who play a brand of melodic sound influenced by crustcore. Bands like Bleeding Through and Poison the Well have fused the aggression of traditional hardcore with the intensity of metal. Typical of this metalcorestyle are heavy breakdown parts and harshly delivered vocals, sometimes verging on death metal growl.
The early-1980s hardcore punk scene developed slam dancing and
stage diving. In the second half of the 1980s, the thrash metalscene adopted this form of dancing, with bands such as Anthrax popularizing the term "mosh" with the metal scene.Fact|date=March 2007 The term "hardcore dancing" now describes a type of dancing that has become staple of hardcore concerts. Hardcore dancers often start off dancing their own unique two-step. Then, dancers move on to other moves such as the floor punch, the windmill (dancer swings arms around like a windmill), the axehandle (dancer swings arms as if chopping with an axe) and cartwheels. Hardcore dancing is also filled with moves descended from breakdancing and various martial artsstyles. ["Violent Dancing: Pit Moves." Unitiy HXC, Hardcore Radioshow Hardcore Database. Unity HXC.(http://www.unityhxc.com/violent_dancing/pitmoves.htm) ]
Hardcore punk record labels
Amphetamine Reptile Records
Bad Taste Records
Bridge 9 Records
Burning Heart Records
Equal Vision Records
Hydra Head Records
Level Plane Records
New Red Archives
Posh Boy Records
Spook City Records
Striving For Togetherness Records
Touch and Go Records
*"Going Underground: American Punk 1979-1992" (George Hurchalla, Zuo Press, 2005)
*"Smash the State: A Discography of Canadian Punk, 1977-92" (Frank Manley, No Exit, 1993), ISBN 0-9696631-0-2
* [http://homepages.nyu.edu/~cch223/mainpage.html KFTH] Online hardcore discography
* [http://www.punkvinyl.com/ The Punk Vault] History of punk and hardcore
* [http://www.scannerzine.com/georgehurchalla.htm Scanner zine] 2006 interview with "Going Underground" author George Hurchalla
* [http://www.hardcorelyrics.org Hardcore Lyrics] Hardcore Lyrics Database
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