- Soul music
Infobox Music genre
Urban contemporary gospel Blues Rhythm and blues
United States(esp. New York, Chicago, Illinois)
Guitar- Bass - keyboard - Drums - Horn section- Vocals
popularity=International, 1960s through early 1980s
Contemporary R&B- Disco- Funk- Quiet Storm
subgenrelist=List of soul genres
Blue-eyed soul- Brown-eyed soul - Motown Sound - Psychedelic soul
Neo soul- Soul blues- Soul jazz- Soul rock- Spoken word soul- Nu jazz
Detroit soul- Memphis soul- Northern soul- Philly soul- Southern soul
Soul music is a
music genrethat combines rhythm and bluesand gospel music, originating in the United States.cite book|author=Valter Ojakäär|title=Popmuusikast|publisher=Eesti Raamat|year=1983] According to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, soul is "music that arose out of the black experience in America through the transmutation of gospel and rhythm & blues into a form of funky, secular testifying." [ [http://www.rockhall.com/hof/inductee.asp?id=177 Otis Redding ] ] The genre occasionally uses improvisational additions, twirls and auxiliary sounds. Catchy rhythms, stressed by handclaps and plastic body moves, are an important feature. Other characteristics are a call and response between the soloist and the chorus, and an especially tense vocal sound.
Soul music has some of its roots in
gospel musicand rhythm and blues.Many consider soul music to be a genre of music created by African Americans in northern United Statesinner cities, particularly Chicago.Fact|date=September 2007 Other areas, such as Detroitand Memphis, Tennesseequickly followed and created their own regional soul music style, due to their gospel roots. Some of the elements from Chicago and other parts of the United States, such as the south, brought some raw unpolished funky talent to heavily-populated inner cities, where soul became polished and perfected. Sam Cooke, Nina Simone, Jackie Wilson, and Etta Jameswere early popular stars of the music genre, and other soul forerunners include: Mahalia Jackson, Louis Jordan, and Big Joe Turner.Fact|date=August 2008 Some of the earliest soul artists included Ray Charles, who is widely considered to be the inventor of soul music by putting the bluesand gospel music together with his groundbreaking hit of 1954, " I Got A Woman".fact|date=July 2008 Little Richard, Fats Dominoand James Brown, although all were happy to call themselves rock and rollperformers at the time. During the 1960s Beatles boom, both Charles and Brown claimed that they had always really been R&B singers. Little Richard proclaimed himself the "king of rockin' and rollin', rhythm and blues soulin'", because his music embodied elements of all three, and because he inspired artists in all three genres. Solomon Burke's early recordings for Atlantic Recordscodified the soul style, and his early 1960s songs "Cry to Me", "Just Out of Reach" and "Down in the Valley" are considered classics of the genre. Peter Guralnickwrites, "it was only with the coming together of Burke and Atlantic Records that you could see anything resembling a movement."Fact|date=September 2007
An important center of soul music recording was
Florence, Alabama, where the Fame Studios operated. Jimmy Hughes, Percy Sledgeand Arthur Alexanderrecorded at Fame, and Aretha Franklinrecorded in the area later in the 1960s. Fame Studios, often referred to as " Muscle Shoals" (after a town neighboring Florence), enjoyed a close relationship with Stax, and many of the musicians and producers who worked in Memphis contributed to recordings done in Alabama. Another notable Memphis label was Goldwax Records, owned by Quinton Claunch. Goldwax signed O.V. Wrightand James Carr, who went on to make several records that are considered essentials of the genre. Carr's " The Dark End of the Street" (written by Chips Momanand Dan Penn) was recorded at two other important Memphis studios, Royal Recording and American Sound Studios, in 1967. American Studios owner Chips Moman produced "The Dark End of the Street", and the musicians were his house bandof Reggie Young, Bobby Woods, Tommy Cogbill and Gene Chrisman. Carr also made recordings at Fame Studios, utilizing musicians David Hood, Jimmy Johnson and Roger Hawkins.
Aretha Franklin's 1967 recordings, such as "I Never Loved a Man (The Way I Love You)", "Respect" (originally sung by Otis Redding), and "Do Right Woman-Do Right Man", are considered the
apogeeof the soul music genre, and were among its most commercially successful productions. During the late 1960s, Stax artists such as Eddie Floydand Johnnie Taylormade significant contributions to soul music. Howard Tate's recordings in the late 1960s for Verve Records, and later for Atlantic (produced by Jerry Ragovoy) are another notable body of work in the soul genre. Motown Recordsalso contributed to the soul canon, although at the time, the Detroit-based label described itself as a manufacturer of pop music. Music by Motown artists such as Stevie Wonder, Gladys Knight, and Marvin Gayedid much to popularise the style, and the overall "Motown sound" did much to define what later became known as northern soul. In Chicago, Curtis Mayfieldcreated the "sweet soul" sound that later earned him a reputation as the Godfather of northern soul. As a member of The Impressions, Mayfield infused a " call and response" style of group singing that resembled the gospel style, and influenced many other groups of the era.
By 1968, the soul music movement had begun to splinter, as
James Brownand Sly & the Family Stonebegan to evolve both soul and rhythm and blues into other forms. Guralnick argues that, "More than anything else, though, what seems to me to have brought the era of soul to a grinding, unsettling halt was the death of Martin Luther King in April of 1968."Fact|date=September 2007
Later examples of soul music include recordings by
The Staple Singers(such as "I'll Take You There"), and Al Green's 1970s recordings,done at Willie Mitchell's' Royal Recording in Memphis. Mitchell's Hi Recordscontinued the Stax tradition in that decade, releasing many hits by Green, Ann Peebles, Otis Clay, O.V. Wright and Syl Johnson. Bobby Womack, who recorded with Chips Moman in the late 1960s, continued to produce soul recordings in the 1970s and 1980s.
Detroit, producer Don Davisworked with Stax artists such as Johnnie Taylor and The Dramatics. Early 1970s recordings by The Detroit Emeralds, such as "Do Me Right", are a link between soul and the later discostyle. Motown Recordsartists such as Marvin Gayeand Smokey Robinsoncontributed to the evolution of soul music, although their recordings were considered more in a pop musicvein than those of Redding, Franklin and Carr. Although stylistically different from classic soul music, recordings by Chicago-based artists such as Jerry Butler and The Chi-Litesare often considered part of the genre.
By the early 1970s, soul music had been influenced by
psychedelic rockand other genres. The social and political ferment of the times inspired artists like Gaye and Curtis Mayfieldto release album-length statements with hard-hitting social commentary. Artists like James Brown led soul towards funkmusic, which became typified by 1970s bands like Parliament-Funkadelicand The Meters. More versatile groups like War, the Commodoresand Earth, Wind and Firebecame popular around this time. During the 1970s, some slick and commercial blue-eyed soulacts like Philadelphia's Hall & Oatesand Oakland's Tower of Powerachieved mainstream success, as did a new generation of street-corner harmony or "city-soul" groups like The Delfonicsand Howard University's Unifics. By the end of the 1970s, discoand funk were dominating the charts. Philly soul and most other soul genres were dominated by disco-inflected tracks. During this period, groups like The O'Jaysand The Spinners continued to turn out hits.
1980s and later
The emergence of
hip hop culturein the late 1970s greatly influenced the soul music that followed in the 1980s. With Afrika Bambaata& The Soulsonic Force enjoying huge hits with beat-heavy tracks like "Planet Rock" and "Looking For The Perfect Beat", soul music-makers realised they would have to make their beats bigger, and also find a way of fusing soul and hip hop music. Production teams like James 'Jimmy Jam' Lewisand Terry Harris(former members of The Time), L.A. Reidand Babyfacecreated a harder but also lusher almost epic soul sound, providing endless hits for Janet Jackson, Alexander O'Neal, The SOS Bandand Bobby Brown. Writer/producer Teddy Rileyand others created something called new jack swing(also known as swingbeat), which fused soul and hip hop. This sound provided hits for acts like Guy, Boyz II Men, Wreckx-n-Effectand Bell Biv DeVoe.
After the decline of disco and funk in the early
1980s, soul music survived for a short time before going through another metamorphosis. With the introduction of influences from electro musicand funk, soul music became less raw and more slickly produced, resulting in a newer genre that was called R&B, (often known as "contemporary R&B), which sounded very different from the original rhythm and bluesstyle.
In early 1980s Chicago, a new dance genre called house was heavily influenced by soul, funk and disco. This was mainly made using
synthesizersand other electronic equipment. House and technorose to mainstream popularity in the late 1980s and remained popular in the 1990s and 2000s. Also starting in the 1980s, soul music from the United Kingdombecome popular worldwide, with artists such as Soul II Soul, Loose Ends, Imagination, Mica Parisand Sade. British soul music became very popular in the 2000s too with artists such as Joss Stone, Terri Walker, Beverley Knight, Corrine Bailey Rae, Adele, Duffy, Amy Winehouseand the Brand New Heaviesachieving great success.
The United States saw the development of
neo-soularound 1994. Mainstream record labelmarketing support for soul genres cooled in the 2000s due to the industry's re-focus on hip hop.
Detroit (Motown) soul
:"For more details on these topics, see
Motown Recordsand Motown Sound." Dominated by Berry Gordy's Motown Recordsempire, Detroit soul is strongly rhythmic, and influenced by gospel music. The Motown Soundoften includes hand clapping, a powerful bass line, violins, bells and other untraditional instruments. Motown's house band was The Funk Brothers, and singers included: Marvin Gaye, The Temptations, Smokey Robinson & the Miracles, Junior Walker & the All Stars, The Contours, Gladys Knight & the Pips, Martha Reeves & the Vandellas, The Marvelettes, Mary Wells, The Supremes, The Jackson 5, The Four Tops, Diana Ross, and Stevie Wonder. Songwriters included: Holland-Dozier-Holland, Norman Whitfield, Barrett Strong, Smokey Robinson, Nickolas Ashford & Valerie Simpson, Ivy Jo Hunter, Roger Penzabene, and Stevie Wonder.
Deep soul and southern soul
:"For more details on this topic, see
Deep souland Southern soul"The terms "deep soul" and "southern soul" generally refer to a driving, energetic soul style combining R&B's energy with pulsating southern United States gospel musicsounds. Memphis, Tennesseelabel Stax Recordsnurtured a distinctive sound, which included putting vocals further back in the mix than most contemporary R&B records, using vibrant horn parts in place of background vocals, and a focus on the low end of the frequency spectrum. The vast majority of Stax releases were backed by house bands Booker T and the MGs(with Booker T. Jones, Steve Cropper, Duck Dunn, and Al Jackson) and the Memphis Horns (the splinter horn section of the Mar-Keys). The label counted Otis Redding, Carla Thomas, Sam & Dave, Rufus Thomas, William Bell, and Eddie Floydamong its stars.
"Memphis soul" is a shimmering, sultry style of soul music produced in the 1960s and 1970s at
Stax Recordsand Hi Recordsin Memphis, Tennessee. It featured melancholic and melodic horns, organ, bass, and drums, as heard in recordings by Hi's Al Greenand Stax's Booker T. & the M.G.'s. The latter group also sometimes played in the harder-edged Southern soulstyle. The Hi Records house band ( Hi Rhythm Section) and producer Willie Mitchell developed a surging soul style heard in the label's 1970s hit recordings. Some Stax recordings fit into this style, but had their own unique sound.
Based primarily in the
Philadelphia Internationalrecord label, Philadelphia soul (AKA Philly Soul) had a lush orchestralsound and doo-wop-inspired vocals. Thom Bell, and Kenneth Gamble & Leon Huffare considered the founders of Philadelphia soul, which was dominated by artists such as The Spinners, The Delfonics, The O'Jays, The Stylistics, The Intruders, Patti LaBelle, MFSB, The Three Degrees, Daryl Hall & John Oates, Harold Melvin & the Blue Notes, McFadden & Whiteheadand, for a time, The Temptations.
Psychedelic soul was a blend of
psychedelic rockand soul music in the late 1960s, which paved the way for the mainstream emergence of funkmusic a few years later. Principal figures included multicultural band Sly & the Family Stone, Curtis Mayfield, The Fifth Dimension, and (with producer Norman Whitfield) The Temptationsand The Undisputed Truth.
Blue-eyed soul, (also known as white soul) is a term used to describe R&B or soul music performed by white artists. The term doesn't refer to a distinct style of music, and the meaning of "blue-eyed soul" has evolved over decades. Originally the term was associated with mid-
1960s white artists who performed soul and R&B that was similar to the music released by Motown Recordsand Stax Records. The term continued to be used in the 1970s and 1980s, particularly by the British media to describe a new generation of singers who adopted elements of the Stax and Motown sounds. To a lesser extent, the term has been applied to singers in other music genres that are influenced by soul music. Notable blue-eyed soul artists include Amy Winehouse, Joss Stone, Christina Aguilera, Duffy, Dusty Springfield, George Michael, Hall & Oates, Robin Thicke, Righteous Brothers, Boy George, Big Brooklyn Red, The Action, The Rascals, Mitch Ryder & the Detroit Wheels, The Soul Survivors, Bobbie Gentry, Mina, Average White Bandand B.J. Thomas
The term "neo soul" is a marketing phrase coined by producer and
record labelexecutive Kedar Massenburgto describe a musical blend of 1970s soul-style vocals and instrumentation with contemporary R&Bsounds, hip hopbeats and poetic interludes. The style was developed in the early to mid 1990s by artists such as Omar Lye-Fook, Maxwell, D'Angeloand Soul II Soul. Erykah Badu, Lauryn Hill, Jill Scottand Angie Stonehelped popularize the sound.
Other notable performers include
Robert Randolph, Rahsaan Patterson, Cody Chesnutt, Jaguar Wright, Eric Benet, Amel Larrieux, Adriana Evans, Raphael Saadiq, Dwele, India.Arie, Lalah Hathaway, Anthony Hamilton, Marlon Saunders, Musiq, Amp Fiddler, Alicia Keys, Joss Stone, Floetry, Vivian Green, Raheem DeVaughn, Leela James, Frank McComb, Goapele, and N'dambi, as well as newcomers Conya Doss, Ledisi, Maysa, Maya Azucena, Andreus, Rachael Belland Eric Roberson. A key musical element in the Neo Soul artist/producer's arsenal is typically a heavy dose of Fender Rhodesor Wurlitzer electric pianopads over a mellow, grooving interplay between the drums (usually with a rim shot snare sound) and a muted, deep funky bass. The Fender Rhodes piano sound gives the music of this sub-genre a "vintage", warm, organic character, reminiscent of the 1970s-era recordings of Stevie Wonderand Donny Hathaway, as well as the work of Roy Ayerson his "Mystic Voyage" and "Everybody Loves the Sunshine" albums.
Northern soul and modern soul
The phrase "northern soul" was coined by journalist
Dave Godinand popularised in 1970 through his column in "Blues and Soul" magazine. [ [http://www.chrishunt.biz/features05.html"For Dancers Only"] by Chris Hunt, "Mojo". 2002] ] The term refers to rare soul music that was played by DJs at nightclubs in northern England. The playlists originally consisted of obscure 1960s and early 1970s American soul recordings with an uptempobeat, such as those on Motown Recordsand more obscure labels such as Okeh Records. Modern souldeveloped when northern soul DJs began looking in record shops in the United States and United Kingdomfor music that was more complex and contemporary. What emerged was a richer sound that was more advanced in terms of Hi-Fiand FM radiotechnology.
Nu-Jazzand Soulful Electronica=
Many artists in various genres of
electronic music(such as House, Drum n bass, UK Garage, Downtempo, and others), such as London Elektricity, Landslide, Miguel Migs, Romina Johnson, Jazzanova, Burial, 4hero, King Kooba, J Boogie's Dubtronic Science, Mark Farina, Soulstice, DJ Zinc, Gemma Fox, Squarepusher, Todd Edwards, Grooverider, Fabio, DJ Spooky, Chuck Love, , Jenna G, and Afro-Mystik, are heavily influenced by soul and have produced many soul-inspired compositions.
List of soul musicians
Spoken word soul
* [http://www.magazzini-sonori.it/esplora_contenuti/categorie/ext/vistatipologia/tip_0040.aspx Soul music: listen to soul music from Porretta Soul festival] on [http://www.magazzini-sonori.it/ Magazzini-Sonori] .
The Delfonics' "Ready or Not Here I Come (Can't Hide From Love)" from "The Sound of Sexy Soul", one of the pioneering recordings of Philly soul
*Miller, Jim (editor) (1976). "The Rolling Stone Illustrated History of Rock & Roll". New York: Rolling Stone Press/Random House. ISBN 0-394-73238-3. (Chapter on "Soul," by Guralnick, Peter. pp. 194-197.
*Escott, Colin. Liner notes for "The Essential James Carr". Razor and Tie Records, 1995.
* [http://www.soulbible.blogspot.com Soul Bible - Looking back at some of the best soul tracks of the 1980s ]
* [http://www.digitaldreamdoor.com/pages/best_rb-songs.html 100 Greatest 'Classic' R&B/Soul Songs - 50s-70s]
* [http://www.digitaldreamdoor.com/pages/best_rb-ballads.html 100 Greatest R&B/Soul Ballads]
* [http://www.midwest45s.org Midwest 45s - A non-profit website devoted to demonstrating the sound of America's Midwest in the genres of soul, gospel, and funk.]
* [http://www.newfunkradio.com NewFunkRadio] Interntet Radio with lots of Soul classics and a request function
* [http://www.projectvibe.net ProjectVIBE] 24 Hour Internet Radio station/community playing all sub-genres of soul music.
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