- BBC Radio
The BBC today runs ten national domestic radio stations, four of which are only available in a digital format: via DAB Digital Radio, UK digital television (satellite, cable and Freeview) plus live streams and [http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio/aod/mainframe.shtml?http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio/aod/ listen again] on the
BBC Radio 1: youth oriented, mostly contemporary pop music(including Top 40 singles), plus news, original in-house live music sessions, original live music concerts & music documentaries.
BBC Radio 2: adult oriented entertainment, wide range of music—specially adult contemporaryand middle of the road, also talk, comedy, plus news, original in-house live music sessions, original live music concerts & music documentaries.
BBC Radio 3: arts and high culture, special-interest music (classical, jazz, world music), plus news, original in-house live music sessions, original live music concerts & music documentaries.
BBC Radio 4: news, current affairs, arts, original in-house drama, original in-house first-run comedy, science, books and religion.
BBC Radio 5 Live: news, sports, talk.
The new digital-only (Internet Streaming/
Sky/Freeview/DAB) radio stations are:
BBC Radio 1Xtra: new urban music, plus news, original in-house live music sessions, original live music concerts & music documentaries.
BBC Radio 5 Live Sports Extra: a companion to Radio 5 Live for additional sports events coverage.
BBC 6 Music: rock, funk, punk and reggae, plus news, original in-house live music sessions, original live music concerts & music documentaries.
BBC 7: classic comedy, drama, books, science fiction, fantasy and children's programmes.
BBC Asian Network: aimed at the large South Asian community in the UK(primarily a digital radio station, but available in parts of the Midlandson mediumwave).
The BBC also runs radio stations for three of the nations of the UK. These stations focus on local issues to a greater extent than their UK counterparts, organising live phone-in debates about these issues, as well as lighter talk shows with music from different decades of the 20th Century. Compared to many advertising-funded Independent Local Radio (ILR) stations, which often broadcast contemporary popular music, BBC nations' radio stations offer a more "serious" alternative.
BBC Radio Scotland: News, music, sport and talk from Scotland.
BBC Radio nan Gàidheal: Scottish Gaeliclanguage network.
BBC Radio Shetland: News, music, sport and talk from Shetland.
BBC Radio Orkney: News, music, sport and talk from Orkney.
BBC Radio Wales: News, music, sport and talk from Wales.
BBC Radio Cymru: Welsh languagenetwork.
BBC Radio Ulster: News, music, sport and talk from Northern Ireland.
BBC Radio Foyle: News, music, sport and talk from north-west of Northern Ireland.
There exist many
BBC Local Radioservices across England, often catering to individual counties.
They are also available on Digital Television sets in the UK, and archived programs are available for 7 days after broadcast on the BBC website; a number of trials are also underway of
MP3downloads and podcasting for selected shows—see bbc.co.uk#Streaming media.
Throughout its history the
BBChas produced many programmes, and a complete list of all programmes will be available here soon. In the meantime, some particularly significant, influential, popular or long lasting programmes include:
Any Questions?" (1948–present): Topical debate series.
The Archers" (1950–present): Long running rural soap opera. Currently the most listened to programme on Radio 4 and on the BBC's on-line radio service.
Children's Hour" (1922–1964): Long running slot for children's programmes.
Desert Island Discs" (1942–present): Interview programme in which the guest chooses the eight pieces of music they would take with them to a desert island. The longest running music radio programme in history.
Gardeners' Question Time" (1947–present): Gardening programme in which gardening experts give advice and answer listeners' questions.
The Goon Show" (1951–1960): Highly influential comedy series with elements of surrealism.
Hancock's Half Hour" (1954–1960): Influential comedy series which transferred to television.
*"The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy" (1978–1980 and 2004–2005): Comedy science fiction serial by
I'm Sorry I Haven't a Clue" (1972–present): Comedy series parodying the radio panel game format.
I'm Sorry, I'll Read That Again" (1964–1973): Popular comedy series, which led to the above-mentioned "I'm Sorry I Haven't a Clue". Cast and writers also moved on to "The Goodies" and "Monty Python's Flying Circus".
It's That Man Again" (1939–1949): Comedy series popular during and after World War II.
Journey Into Space" (1953–1958): Science fictionseries which was the last UK radio programme to achieve a higher audience than television.
Just a Minute" (1967–present): Long running panel gamewhere the contestants must attempt to speak for one minute without repetition, hesitation or deviation.
Letter from America" (1946–2004): Commentary on American news and events by Alistair Cooke. The longest-running speech radio programme in history.
The News Quiz" (1977–present): Topical comedy show
*"The Reith Lectures" (1948–present): Annual series of lectures given by leading figures of the day.
Round the Horne" (1965–1968): Comedy series notable for its innuendoand use of the LGBT s _ga. Top Gear" / John Peel(1967–2004): Pioneering and influential alternative music programme.
Woman's Hour" (1946–present): Long running magazine programme for women.
*"Workers' Playtime" (1941–1964): Lunchtime variety show.
For more BBC radio programmes see .
History of BBC Radio
The BBC radio services began in 1922. Which was licensed under pressure to provide a radio service for the British public. It was licensed by the British Government through its [General Post Office] which had original control of the airwaves because they had been interpreted under law as an extension of the Post Office services. Today radio broadcasting still makes up a large part of the corporation's output and this is still reflected in the title of the BBC's listings magazine called ' [Radio Times] '.
On 31 December 1926 the British Broadcasting Company became the
British Broadcasting Corporationand gained control of the airwaves under the terms of a Royal Charter. John Reith, who had been the founding Managing Director of the commercial company, became the first director. He expounded firm principles of centralised, all-encompassing radio broadcasting, stressing programming standards and moral tone. These are set out in his autobiography, "Broadcast Over Britain" (1924). Reith's ideas were highly influential on modern ideas of public service broadcasting in the United Kingdom. To this day, the BBC claims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform, educate and entertain". Critics of his approach claim that he was dictatorial and that he imposed a theocratic viewpoint on the broadcasting service. Reith's ideals were utterly at odds with the model of light entertainment based commercial radio adopted in some other countries (e.g. the USA).
Competition from overseas stations
Although no other broadcasting organisation was licensed in the UK until 1973, commercial competition soon opened up from overseas. The commercial competitors were for the most part represented by the
International Broadcasting Companythat bought blocks of airtime from radio stations such as Normandy, Toulouse, Ljubljana, Juan les Pins, Paris, Poste Parisien, Athlone, Barcelona, Madrid and Rome. In the period from 1927 to 1939, light entertainment on the British airwaves was for the most part the domain of the 10 part-time English language IBC stations. By 1938 on Sundays upwards of 80% of the British audience turned their dials away from the BBC to these IBC stations which followed an American format of commercial broadcasting. They were eventually silenced by the advent of the German militarytaking control of their transmitters in France, Luxembourgand other countries during World War II.
American Armed Forces influence
The respite from American influence on British broadcasting was short lived. When the US military flooded Europe with troops during World War II, American-style programming followed and the BBC was forced to transmit these shows, first on the
BBC Forces Programmeand later on the BBC General Forces Programme, both on the former frequencies of the BBC National Programme. After the war the BBC Forces transmitters that had carried these shows were transformed into a network called the BBC Light Programme.
The original BBC stations which had been linked together to form the
BBC Regional Programmewere transformed into the BBC Home Service. A third part-time service was created under the name of the BBC Third Programme. For the history of these stations see Timeline of the BBC.
Another operation had originally been called the
BBC Empire Serviceand later The Overseas Service [http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/history] ,but it served a different purpose from the domestic stations. It later became known as the BBC World Serviceand it was formed at the behest of the British Foreign Office.
Commercial radio influence
WWII silenced all but one of the original IBC stations and Radio Luxembourg continued its nightly transmissions to Britain as a commercial radio station featuring American-style entertainment and religion. Beginning in 1964 the first in what became a fleet of 10 offshore
pirate radiostations began to ring the British coastline. By 1967 millions were tuning into these commercial operations and the BBC was rapidly losing its radio listening audience [cite news | url =http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A2939411 | work = H2G2 | title = The Offshore Radio Revolution in Britain 1964–2004| date = 2004-08-31| accessdate = 2007-07-22] [cite news | url = http://www.telegraph.co.uk/arts/main.jhtml?xml=/arts/2007/09/27/bvradio127.xml&page=1 | work = Daily Telegraph | title = The day we woke up to pop music on Radio 1| date = 2007-09-27| author = Imogen Carter | accessdate = 2007-09-30] .
The British Government reacted by imposing the "
Marine Offences Act", a law which all but wiped out all of the stations by midnight on 14 August 1967. Only Radio Carolinecontinued beyond that date, and even continues to this day. One of the stations called Wonderful Radio London("Big L") was so successful that the BBC was told to copy it as best they could. The creator of BBC Radio One told the press that his family had been fans of that station. The BBC hired many out-of-work broadcasting staff who had come from the former offshore stations, including Tony Blackburnwho presented the very first BBC Radio One morning show. He had previously presented the same morning show on Radio Carolineand Tony Blackburn attempted to duplicate the same sound for BBC Radio One. Among the other DJs hired was the late John Peelwho had presented the overnight show on "Big L", called "The Perfumed Garden". Though it only ran for a few months prior to Big L's closure, "The Perfumed Garden" got more fan mail than the rest of the pop dj's on Radio London put together, so much that staff wondered what to do with it all. The reason it got so much mail was that it played different music, and was the beginning of the "album rock" genre. Big L's PAMS jingleswere commissioned to be resung in Dallas, Texasso that "Wonderful Radio London" became "Wonderful Radio One on BBC".
BBC analogue networks
BBC Radio 1was launched as a part-time pop musicstation 30 September 1967. The BBC Light Programmewas renamed Radio 2 and broadcast easy listening, folk, jazz and light entertainment. The BBC Third Programmeand BBC Music Programme was merged to form Radio 3 and the BBC Home Servicebecame Radio 4.
BBC Radio 5 was launched on 27 August 1990 as a home for sport and children's programming, and was replaced on 28 March 1994 with
BBC Radio Five Live, a dedicated news and sport network.
2002 Digital radio networks
With the increased rollout of Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) between 1995 and 2002, BBC Radio launched several new digital-only stations 1Xtra,
6 Musicand BBC 7in 2002 on 16 August, 11 March and 15 December respectively—the first for "new black British music", the second as a source of performance-based "alternative" music, the latter specialising in archive classic comedy shows, drama and children's programmes. BBC Asian Networkjoined the national DAB network on 28 October 2002. For some time the majority of listeners used Freeview, digital satellite and digital cable services to listen to these networks.
BBC Local Radioabout BBC local radio stations.
BBC Television—a specific article about BBC domestic television services.
BBC World Service—a specific article about BBC external radio and television broadcasting services.
British Broadcasting Company, Ltd., for a history of the BBC prior to 1927.
Timeline of the BBCfor an overview of BBC history.
List of BBC Radio programmes adapted for television
*cite book | title=The Radio Companion| last=Donovan| first=Paul| date=1991| publisher=HarperCollins| location=London| id=0-586-09012-6
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.