Granin (chromogranin or secretogranin) Structure of SS-cyclized catestatin fragment from chromogranin A. Identifiers Symbol Granin Pfam PF01271 InterPro IPR001990 PROSITE PDOC00365 SCOP 1cfk Available protein structures: Pfam structures PDB RCSB PDB; PDBe PDBsum structure summary
Granin (chromogranin and secretogranin) is a protein family of regulated secretory proteins ubiquitously found in the cores of amine and peptide hormone and neurotransmitter dense-core secretory vesicles.
Granins (chromogranins or secretogranins) are acidic proteins and are present in the secretory granules of a wide variety of endocrine and neuro-endocrine cells. The exact function(s) of these proteins is not yet settled but there is evidence that granins function as pro-hormones, giving rise to an array of peptide fragments for which autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine activities have been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. The intracellular biochemistry of granins includes binding of Ca2+, ATP and catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine) within the hormone storage vesicle core. There is also evidence that CgA, and perhaps other granins, regulate the biogenesis of dense-core secretory vesicles and hormone sequestration in neuroendocrine cells.
Apart from their subcellular location and the abundance of acidic residues (Asp and Glu), these proteins do not share many structural similarities. Only one short region, located in the C-terminal section, is conserved in all these proteins. Chromogranins and secretogranins together share a C-terminal motif, whereas chromogranins A and B share a region of high similarity in their N-terminal section; this region includes two cysteine residues involved in a disulfide bond.
(parathyroid secretory protein 1)
Identifiers Symbol CHGA Alt. symbols CGA Entrez 1113 HUGO 1929 OMIM 118910 RefSeq NM_001275 UniProt P10645 Other data Locus Chr. 14 q32 chromogranin B
Identifiers Symbol CHGB Alt. symbols SCG1 Entrez 1114 HUGO 1930 OMIM 118920 RefSeq NM_001819 UniProt P05060 Other data Locus Chr. 20 pter-p12
Identifiers Symbol SCG2 Alt. symbols CHGC, SgII Entrez 7857 HUGO 10575 OMIM 118930 RefSeq NM_003469 UniProt P13521 Other data Locus Chr. 2 q35-q36 secretogranin III
Identifiers Symbol SCG3 Alt. symbols SGIII Entrez 29106 HUGO 13707 OMIM 611796 RefSeq NM_013243 UniProt Q8WXD2 Other data Locus Chr. 15 q21.3 secretogranin V
Identifiers Symbol SCG5 Alt. symbols SGNE1 Entrez 6447 HUGO 10816 OMIM 173120 RefSeq NM_003020 UniProt P05408 Other data Locus Chr. 15 q13-q14
Two other proteins (secretogranin IV and VI) are also proposed to belong to the granins on the basis of their physico-chemical properties.
- ^ Preece NE, Nguyen M, Mahata M, et al. (April 2004). "Conformational preferences and activities of peptides from the catecholamine release-inhibitory (catestatin) region of chromogranin A". Regul. Pept. 118 (1-2): 75–87. doi:10.1016/j.regpep.2003.10.035. PMID 14759560.
- ^ Huttner WB, Gerdes HH, Rosa P (January 1991). "The granin (chromogranin/secretogranin) family". Trends Biochem. Sci. 16 (1): 27–30. doi:10.1016/0968-0004(91)90012-K. PMID 2053134.
Synuclein OtherAgrin · Chimerin · Granin (Chromogranin A, B) · FMR1 · Gap-43 protein · GLUT3 · Myelin · Brain natriuretic peptide · Nerve growth factor · SCG5 · Neurogranin · Neuronal calcium sensor · Neuropeptide · Olfactory marker protein · S-100 protein (Calgranulin) · Synapsin (1, 2, 3) · Synaptophysin · Tubulin · GPM6A
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