A tetrapeptide (example: Val-Gly-Ser-Ala) with green highlighted N-terminal α-amino acid (example: L-valine) and blue marked C-terminal α-amino acid (example: L-alanine).

The C-terminus (also known as the carboxyl-terminus, carboxy-terminus, C-terminal tail, C-terminal end, or COOH-terminus) is the end of an amino acid chain (protein or polypeptide), terminated by a free carboxyl group (-COOH). When the protein is translated from messenger RNA, it is created from N-terminus to C-terminus. The convention for writing peptide sequences is to put the C-terminal end on the right and write the sequence from N- to C-terminus.



Each amino acid has a carboxyl group and an amine group, and amino acids link to one another to form a chain by a dehydration reaction by joining the amine group of one amino acid to the carboxyl group of the next. Thus polypeptide chains have an end with an unbound carboxyl group, the C-terminus, and an end with an amine group, the N-terminus. Proteins are naturally synthesized starting from the N-terminus and ending at the C-terminus.


C-terminal retention signals

While the N-terminus of a protein often contains targeting signals, the C-terminus can contain retention signals for protein sorting. The most common ER retention signal is the amino acid sequence -KDEL (or -HDEL) at the C-terminus, which keeps the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum and prevents it from entering the secretory pathway.

C-terminal modifications

The C-terminus of proteins can be modified posttranslationally, most commonly by the addition of a lipid anchor to the C-terminus that allows the protein to be inserted into a membrane without having a transmembrane domain.

  • Prenylation

One form of C-terminal modification is prenylation. During prenylation, a farnesyl- or geranylgeranyl-isoprenoid membrane anchor is added to a cysteine residue near the C-terminus. Small, membrane-bound G proteins are often modified this way.

  • GPI anchors

Another form of C-terminal modification is the addition of a phosphoglycan, glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI), as a membrane anchor. The GPI anchor is attached to the C-terminus after proteolytic cleavage of a C-terminal propeptide. The most prominent example for this type of modification is the prion protein.

C-terminal domain or Carboxyl Tail Domain

The C-terminal domain (CTD) of some proteins has specialized functions.

  • CTD of RNA polymerase

The carboxy-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II typically consists of up to 52 repeats of the sequence Tyr-Ser-Pro-Thr-Ser-Pro-Ser.[1] Other proteins often bind the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase in order to activate polymerase activity. It is the protein domain which is involved in the initiation of DNA transcription, the capping of the RNA transcript, and attachment to the spliceosome for RNA splicing.[2]

See also


  1. ^ Meinhart A, Cramer P (July 2004). "Recognition of RNA polymerase II carboxy-terminal domain by 3'-RNA-processing factors". Nature 430 (6996): 223–6. doi:10.1038/nature02679. PMID 15241417. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v430/n6996/abs/nature02679.html. 
  2. ^ Brickey WJ, Greenleaf AL (June 1995). "Functional studies of the carboxy-terminal repeat domain of Drosophila RNA polymerase II in vivo". Genetics 140 (2): 599–613. PMC 1206638. PMID 7498740. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1206638. 

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