List of monocotyledons of Montana

List of monocotyledons of Montana
Broad Leaf Cattail

There are at least 615 species of Monocotyledons found in Montana.[1] The Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks has identified a number of monocot species as Species of Concern.[2]

Monocotyledons, also known as monocots, are one of two major groups of flowering plants (or angiosperms) that are traditionally recognized, the other being dicotyledons, or dicots. Monocot seedlings typically have one cotyledon (seed-leaf), in contrast to the two cotyledons typical of dicots. Monocots have been recognized at various taxonomic ranks, and under various names (see below). The APG II system recognises a clade called "monocots" but does not assign it to a taxonomic rank. There are between 50,000 and 60,000 species within this group; according to IUCN there are 59,300 species. The largest family in this group (and in the flowering plants as a whole) by number of species are the orchids (family Orchidaceae), with more than 20,000 species.[3] In agriculture the majority of the biomass produced comes from monocots.[4] The true grasses, family Poaceae (Gramineae), are the most economically important family in this group. These include all the true grains (rice, wheat, maize, etc.), the pasture grasses, sugar cane, and the bamboos. True grasses have evolved to become highly specialised for wind pollination. Grasses produce much smaller flowers, which are gathered in highly visible plumes (inflorescences). Other economically important monocot families are the palm family (Arecaceae), banana family (Musaceae), ginger family (Zingiberaceae) and the onion family Alliaceae, which includes such ubiquitously used vegetables as onions and garlic.


Arrow-grass family

Order: Najadales, Family: Juncaginaceae [5]

  • Common Bog Arrow-grass, Triglochin maritima
  • Flowering Quillwort, Lilaea scilloides
  • Slender Bog Arrow-grass, Triglochin palustris

Arum Family

Order: Arales, Family: Araceae [6]


Order: Typhales, Family: Sparganiaceae [7]


Order: Typhales, Family: Typhaceae [8]

Ditch-grass Family

Order: Najadales, Family: Ruppiaceae [9]

  • Ditch-grass, Ruppia maritima


Order: Arales, Family: Lemnaceae [10]

Flowering-rush Family

Order: Alismatales, Family: Butomaceae [11]


Order: Cyperales, Family: Poaceae [12]

  • Alaskan Oniongrass, Melica subulata
  • Alkali Cordgrass, Spartina gracilis
  • Alkali Muhly, Muhlenbergia asperifolia
  • Alkali Sacaton, Sporobolus airoides
  • Alpine Bluegrass, Poa alpina
  • American Mannagrass, Glyceria grandis
  • American Sloughgrass, Beckmannia syzigachne
  • Annual Bluegrass, Poa annua
  • Annual False Wheatgrass, Eremopyrum triticeum
  • Annual Hairgrass, Deschampsia danthonioides
  • Annual Muhly, Muhlenbergia minutissima
  • Arctic Bluegrass, Poa arctica
  • Awnless WildRye, Elymus submuticus
  • Baffin Fescue, Festuca baffinensis
  • Banff Loose-flowered Bluegrass, Poa laxa ssp. banffiana
  • Barnyard Grass, Echinochloa crus-galli
  • Basin Brome, Bromus polyanthus
  • Beardless Oats, Trisetum wolfii
  • Beardless WildRye, Elymus triticoides
  • Bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon
  • Big Bluestem, Andropogon gerardii
  • Blue Gramma, Bouteloua gracilis
  • Blue WildRye, Elymus glaucus
  • Blue-joint reedgrass, Calamagrostis canadensis
  • Bluebunch Wheatgrass, Elymus spicatus
  • Bog Bluegrass, Poa leptocoma
  • Boreal Mannagrass, Glyceria borealis
  • Bottlebrush Squirrel-tail, Elymus elymoides
  • Bristly Bristle Grass, Setaria verticillata
  • Bristly Dogtail Grass, Cynosurus echinatus
  • Broad-glumed Brome, Bromus latiglumis
  • Brome Fescue, Vulpia bromoides
  • Brook Grass, Catabrosa aquatica
  • Buffalo Grass, Buchloe dactyloides
  • Bulbous Bluegrass, Poa bulbosa
  • California Brome, Bromus carinatus
  • California Oatgrass, Danthonia californica
  • Canada Bluegrass, Poa compressa
  • Canada WildRye, Elymus canadensis
  • Cascade reedgrass, Calamagrostis tweedyi
  • Cheatgrass, Bromus tectorum
  • Chilean Brome, Bromus berterianus
  • Colonial Bentgrass, Agrostis capillaris
  • Columbia Needlegrass, Stipa nelsonii ssp. dorei
  • Common Barley, Hordeum vulgare
  • Common Canary Grass, Phalaris canariensis
  • Common Hardgrass, Sclerochloa dura
  • Common Reed, Phragmites australis
  • Common Velvetgrass, Holcus lanatus
  • Contracted Indian Ricegrass, Oryzopsis contracta
  • Corn Brome, Bromus squarrosus
  • Creeping Foxtail, Alopecurus arundinaceus
  • Crested Dogtail Grass, Cynosurus cristatus
  • Crested Wheatgrass, Agropyron cristatum
  • Cultivated Oat, Avena sativa
  • Cultivated Rye, Secale cereale
  • Cultivated Wheat, Triticum aestivum
  • Cusick's Bluegrass, Poa cusickii
  • Darnel Ryegrass, Lolium temulentum
  • Dense Pine reedgrass, Calamagrostis koelerioides
  • Dense Silky Bentgrass, Apera interrupta
  • Ditch reedgrass, Calamagrostis scopulorum
  • Drooping Woodreed, Cinna latifolia
  • Eastern Wild Rice, Zizania aquatica
  • False Buffalograss, Monroa squarrosa
  • Few-flowered Oatgrass, Danthonia unispicata
  • Few-flowered Panic-grass, Dichanthelium oligosanthes
  • Field Brome, Bromus arvensis
  • Fowl Bluegrass, Poa palustris
  • Fowl Mannagrass, Glyceria striata
  • Fox-tail Timothy, Crypsis alopecuroides
  • Foxtail Barley, Hordeum jubatum
  • Foxtail Fescue, Vulpia myuros
  • Foxtail Muhly, Muhlenbergia andina
  • Fringed Brome, Bromus ciliatus
  • Great Basin WildRye, Elymus cinereus
  • Green Bristle Grass, Setaria viridis
  • Green Needlegrass, Stipa viridula
  • Hairy Brome, Bromus commutatus
  • Hairy Crabgrass, Digitaria sanguinalis
  • Ice Grass, Phippsia algida
  • Idaho Bentgrass, Agrostis idahoensis
  • Idaho Fescue, Festuca idahoensis
  • Indian Goosegrass, Eleusine indica
  • Indian Ricegrass, Oryzopsis hymenoides
  • Indiangrass, Sorghastrum nutans
  • Inland Bluegrass, Poa interior
  • Intermediate Wheatgrass, Elymus hispidus
  • Italian Foxtail, Setaria italica
  • Italian Ryegrass, Lolium multiflorum
  • Japanese Brome, Bromus japonicus
  • Johnson Grass, Sorghum halepense
  • Jointed Goatgrass, Aegilops cylindrica
  • Kentucky Bluegrass, Poa pratensis
  • Leafy Bentgrass, Agrostis pallens
  • Lemmon's Alkaligrass, Puccinellia lemmonii
  • Lemmon's Needlegrass, Stipa lemmonii
  • Letterman's Bluegrass, Poa lettermanii
  • Letterman's Needlegrass, Stipa lettermanii
  • Little Barley, Hordeum pusillum
  • Little Bluestem, Schizachyrium scoparium
  • Little Lovegrass, Eragrostis minor
  • Little Ricegrass, Oryzopsis exigua
  • Littleseed Ricegrass, Oryzopsis micrantha
  • Long-spine Sandbur, Cenchrus longispinus
  • Marsh Muhly, Muhlenbergia racemosa
  • Mat Muhly, Muhlenbergia richardsonis
  • Meadow Barley, Hordeum brachyantherum
  • Meadow Fescue, Festuca pratensis
  • Meadow Foxtail, Alopecurus geniculatus
  • Meadow Foxtail, Alopecurus pratensis
  • Meadow Timothy, Phleum pratense
  • Mediterranean or Sea Barley, Hordeum marinum
  • Missoula County Oats, Trisetum x orthochaetum
  • Montana Wheatgrass, Elymus albicans
  • Mountain Bentgrass, Agrostis humilis
  • Mountain Fescue, Festuca viridula
  • Mountain Foxtail, Alopecurus alpinus
  • Mountain Hairgrass, Deschampsia atropurpurea
  • Mountain Muhly, Muhlenbergia montana
  • Mountain Timothy, Phleum alpinum
  • Mouse Barley, Hordeum murinum
  • Mt. Washington Bluegrass, Poa laxa
  • Muttongrass, Poa fendleriana
  • Narrow False Oats, Trisetum spicatum
  • Narrow-flower Bluegrass, Poa stenantha
  • Narrow-flowered Brome, Bromus vulgaris
  • Needle-and-Thread, Stipa comata
  • Nelson's Needlegrass, Stipa nelsonii
  • Nevada Needlegrass, Stipa nevadensis
  • Nodding Bluegrass, Poa reflexa
  • Nodding Fescue, Festuca subulata
  • Nodding Trisetum, Trisetum canescens
  • Northern Bentgrass, Agrostis borealis
  • Northern Fescue, Festuca viviparoidea
  • Northern Sweet Grass, Hierochloe hirta
  • Northern WildRye, Elymus innovatus
  • Nuttall's Alkali Grass, Puccinellia nuttalliana
  • Oniongrass, Melica bulbosa
  • Orchard Grass, Dactylis glomerata
  • Oregon Bentgrass, Agrostis oregonensis
  • Pale Manna Grass, Puccinellia pauciflora
  • Panic Grass, Dichanthelium acuminatum
  • Parry's Oatgrass, Danthonia parryi
  • Patterson's Bluegrass, Poa abbreviata ssp. pattersonii
  • Perennial Ryegrass, Lolium perenne
  • Persian Ryegrass, Lolium persicum
  • Pineforest Needlegrass, Stipa pinetorum
  • Pinegrass, Calamagrostis rubescens
  • Plains Muhly, Muhlenbergia cuspidata
  • Plains reedgrass, Calamagrostis montanensis
  • Plains Rough Fescue, Festuca hallii
  • Porcupine Needlegrass, Stipa spartea
  • Porter's Brome, Bromus porteri
  • Poverty Oatgrass, Danthonia spicata
  • Prairie Bluegrass, Poa arida
  • Prairie Cordgrass, Spartina pectinata
  • Prairie Dropseed, Sporobolus heterolepis
  • Prairie Junegrass, Koeleria macrantha
  • Prairie Sandreed, Calamovilfa longifolia
  • Prairie Wedgegrass, Sphenopholis obtusata
  • Proso Millet, Panicum miliaceum
  • Pullup Muhly, Muhlenbergia filiformis
  • Pumpelly's Brome, Bromus inermis ssp. pumpellianus
  • Purple Lovegrass, Eragrostis pectinacea
  • Purple Oat, Schizachne purpurascens
  • Purple reedgrass, Calamagrostis purpurascens
  • Purple Three-awn Grass, Aristida purpurea
  • Quackgrass, Elymus repens
  • Rabbit's-foot Grass, Polypogon monspeliensis
  • Rattlesnake Brome, Bromus briziformis
  • Red Fescue, Festuca rubra
  • Redtop, Agrostis stolonifera
  • Reed canary grass, Phalaris arundinacea
  • Rice Cutgrass, Leersia oryzoides
  • Richardson's Needlegrass, Stipa richardsonii
  • Rocky Mountain Fescue, Festuca saximontana
  • Rough Barnyard Grass, Echinochloa muricata
  • Rough Bentgrass, Agrostis scabra
  • Rough Bluegrass, Poa trivialis
  • Rough Fescue, Festuca scabrella
  • Roughleaf Ricegrass, Oryzopsis asperifolia
  • Russian WildRye, Elymus junceus
  • Rye Brome, Bromus secalinus
  • Saltgrass, Distichlis spicata
  • Sand Bluestem, Andropogon hallii
  • Sand Dropseed, Sporobolus cryptandrus
  • Sand WildRye, Elymus flavescens
  • Sandberg Bluegrass, Poa secunda
  • Scribner's Panic Grass, Dichanthelium oligosanthes var. scribnerianum
  • Scribner's WildRye, Elymus scribneri
  • Sheathed Dropseed, Sporobolus vaginiflorus
  • Sheep Fescue, Festuca ovina
  • Short-awn Foxtail, Alopecurus aequalis
  • Short-leaved Bluegrass, Poa arnowiae
  • Shortleaf Fescue, Festuca brachyphylla
  • Showy Oniongrass, Melica spectabilis
  • Side-oats Grama, Bouteloua curtipendula
  • Six Weeks Gramma, Bouteloua barbata
  • Six-weeks Fescue, Vulpia octoflora
  • Slender Hairgrass, Deschampsia elongata
  • Slender Oat, Avena barbata
  • Slender Wedgegrass, Sphenopholis intermedia
  • Slender Wheatgrass, Elymus trachycaulus
  • Slimstem reedgrass, Calamagrostis stricta
  • Small Dropseed, Sporobolus neglectus
  • Small Six-weeks Fescue, Vulpia microstachys
  • Smallflower Fescue, Festuca minutiflora
  • Smith's Melicgrass, Melica smithii
  • Smooth Brome, Bromus inermis
  • Smooth Brome, Bromus inermis ssp. inermis
  • Smooth Crabgrass, Digitaria ischaemum
  • Soft Brome, Bromus hordeaceus
  • Spike Bentgrass, Agrostis exarata
  • Spike Fescue, Leucopoa kingii
  • Spike Muhly, Muhlenbergia glomerata
  • Spike-Oat, Helictotrichon hookeri
  • Spiked Brome, Bromus racemosus
  • Sprangletop, Leptochloa fusca
  • Sprangletop, Scolochloa festucacea
  • Spreading Alkali Grass, Puccinellia distans
  • Stinkgrass, Eragrostis cilianensis
  • Stout Wood Reed-grass, Cinna arundinacea
  • Sweet Vernalgrass, Anthoxanthum odoratum
  • Switchgrass, Panicum virgatum
  • Tall Dropseed, Sporobolus compositus
  • Tall Fescue, Festuca arundinacea
  • Tall Mannagrass, Glyceria elata
  • Tall Oatgrass, Arrhenatherum elatius
  • Tall Trisetum, Trisetum cernuum
  • Teal Lovegrass, Eragrostis hypnoides
  • Thickspike Wheatgrass, Elymus lanceolatus
  • Thurber's Bentgrass, Agrostis thurberiana
  • Thurber's Needlegrass, Stipa thurberiana
  • Timber Oatgrass, Danthonia intermedia
  • Tufted Foxtail, Alopecurus carolinianus
  • Tufted Hairgrass, Deschampsia cespitosa
  • Tumble Grass, Schedonnardus paniculatus
  • Variable Bentgrass, Agrostis variabilis
  • Virginia WildRye, Elymus virginicus
  • Western Fescue, Festuca occidentalis
  • Western Needlegrass, Stipa occidentalis
  • Western Porcupine Grass, Stipa curtiseta
  • Western Wheatgrass, Elymus smithii
  • Wheeler's Bluegrass, Poa wheeleri
  • White Bluegrass, Poa glauca
  • Wilcox's Panic Grass, Dichanthelium wilcoxianum
  • Wild Oats, Avena fatua
  • Wirestem Muhly, Muhlenbergia mexicana
  • Witch Panicgrass, Panicum capillare
  • Yellow Bluestem, Bothriochloa ischaemum
  • Yellow Foxtail, Setaria pumila


Order: Liliales, Family: Smilacaceae [13]

Horned Pondweeds

Order: Najadales, Family: Zannichelliaceae [14]

  • Horned Pondweed, Zannichellia palustris


Order: Liliales, Family: Iridaceae [15]


Order: Liliales, Family: Liliaceae [16]

  • American False Hellebore, Veratrum viride
  • Baker Mariposa Lily, Calochortus apiculatus
  • Beargrass, Xerophyllum tenax
  • Big-pod Mariposa Lily, Calochortus eurycarpus
  • Brandegee's Onion, Allium brandegeei
  • Bruneau Mariposa Lily, Calochortus bruneaunis
  • California False-hellebore, Veratrum californicum
  • Chives, Allium schoenoprasum
  • Chocolate Lily, Fritillaria atropurpurea
  • Clasping Twisted-stalk, Streptopus amplexifolius
  • Columbia Lily, Lilium columbianum
  • Columbia Onion, Allium columbianum
  • Common Alpine-Lily, Lloydia serotina
  • Common Camas, Camassia quamash
  • Dwarf Onion, Allium simillimum
  • Elegant Mariposa Lily, Calochortus elegans
  • False Solomon's-seal, Smilacina racemosa
  • Foothill DeathCamas, Zigadenus paniculatus
  • Fringed Onion, Allium fibrillum
  • Garden Asparagus, Asparagus officinalis
  • Geyer's Bulbil Onion, Allium geyeri var. tenerum
  • Geyer's Onion, Allium geyeri
  • Glacier Lily, Erythronium grandiflorum
  • Green-band Mariposa Lily, Calochortus macrocarpus
  • Gunnison's Mariposa-Lily, Calochortus gunnisonii
  • Hooker's Fairybells, Prosartes hookeri
  • Large-flower Triteleia, Triteleia grandiflora
  • Meadow Death Camas, Zigadenus venenosus
  • Meadow Onion, Allium canadense
  • Mountain Death Camas, Zigadenus elegans
  • Mountain Star-Lily, Leucocrinum montanum
  • Nodding Onion, Allium cernuum
  • Nuttall's Mariposa Lily, Calochortus nuttallii
  • Orange Daylily, Hemerocallis fulva
  • Queencup BeadLily, Clintonia uniflora
  • Rosy Twisted-stalk, Streptopus lanceolatus
  • Rough-fruited Fairybells, Prosartes trachycarpa
  • Short-stem Onion, Allium brevistylum
  • Small Onion, Allium parvum
  • Small Tofieldia, Tofieldia pusilla
  • Starry False Solomon's-seal, Smilacina stellata
  • Tapertip Onion, Allium acuminatum
  • Three-leaf Solomon's-plume, Maianthemum trifolium
  • Western False Asphodel, Triantha occidentalis
  • Western Featherbells, Stenanthium occidentale
  • Western Trillium. Trillium ovatum
  • White Glacier Lily, Erythronium grandiflorum var. candidum
  • White Wild Onion, Allium textile
  • Wild Lily-of-the-valley, Maianthemum canadense
  • Wood Lily, Lilium philadelphicum
  • Yellowbells, Fritillaria pudica


Order: Orchidales, Family: Orchidaceae [17]

  • Alaska Rein Orchid, Piperia unalascensis
  • Broad-leaved Twayblade, Listera convallarioides
  • Clustered Lady's-slipper, Cypripedium fasciculatum
  • Early Coralroot, Corallorhiza trifida
  • Eastern Helleborine, Epipactis Helleborine
  • Fairy Slipper, Calypso bulbosa
  • Giant Helleborine, Epipactis gigantea
  • Giant Rattlesnake-plantain, Goodyera oblongifolia
  • Heartleaf Twayblade, Listera cordata
  • Hillside Rein Orchid, Piperia elegans
  • Hooded Ladies'-tresses, Spiranthes romanzoffiana
  • Huron Green Orchid, Platanthera huronensis
  • Hybrid Lady's-slipper, Cypripedium x columbianum
  • Large Roundleaf Orchid, Platanthera orbiculata
  • Loesel's Twayblade, Liparis loeselii
  • Long-bract Green Orchis, Coeloglossum viride
  • Merten's Coralroot, Corallorhiza mertensiana
  • Mountain Lady's-slipper, Cypripedium montanum
  • Northern Green Orchid, Platanthera aquilonis
  • Northern Rattlesnake-plantain, Goodyera repens
  • Northern Twayblade, Listera borealis
  • Round-leaved Orchis, Amerorchis rotundifolia
  • Slender Bog Orchid, Platanthera stricta
  • Small Northern Bog Orchid, Platanthera obtusata
  • Small Yellow Lady's-slipper, Cypripedium parviflorum
  • Sparrow's-egg Lady's-slipper, Cypripedium passerinum
  • Spotted Coralroot, Corallorhiza maculata
  • Spring Coralroot, Corallorhiza wisteriana
  • Striped Coralroot, Corallorhiza striata
  • Ute Ladies' Tresses, Spiranthes diluvialis
  • Western Twayblade, Listera caurina
  • White Bog Orchid, Platanthera dilatata


Order: Najadales, Family: Scheuchzeriaceae [18]


Order: Najadales, Family: Potamogetonaceae [19]


Order: Juncales, Family: Juncaceae [20]


Order: Cyperales, Family: Cyperaceae [21]

Spiderwort Family

Order: Commelinales, Family: Commelinaceae [22]

  • Bracted Spiderwort, Tradescantia bracteata
  • Prairie Spiderwort, Tradescantia occidentalis

Sweetflag / Calamus Family

Order: Arales, Family: Acoraceae [23]

Water-hyacinth Family

Order: Liliales, Family: Pontederiaceae [24]

Water-nymph Family

Order: Najadales, Family: Najadaceae [25]


Order: Alismatales, Family: Alismataceae [26]


Order: Hydrocharitales, Family: Hydrocharitaceae [27]

Yuccas / Agaves

Order: Liliales, Family: Agavaceae [28]

Further reading

See also


  1. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Monocots". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-12-10. 
  2. ^ Species of Concern are native taxa that are at-risk due to declining population trends, threats to their habitats, restricted distribution, and/or other factors. Designation as a Montana Species of Concern or Potential Species of Concern is based on the Montana Status Rank, and is not a statutory or regulatory classification. Rather, these designations provide information that helps resource managers make proactive decisions regarding species conservation and data collection priorities. See the latest Species of Concern Reports for more detailed explanations and assessment criteria. "Montana Field Guide-Species of Concern". Retrieved 2010-12-07. 
  3. ^ Peter H. Raven; Ray Franklin Evert; & Susan E. Eichhorn. (2005) Biology of Plants‎, 7th ed., page 459
  4. ^ Reed, Barbara (2008). Plant cryopreservation a practical guide. New York: Springer. pp. 241. ISBN 978-0-387-72276-4. 
  5. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Arrow grass". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-12-10. 
  6. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Arum". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-12-10. 
  7. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Bur-reeds". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-12-10. 
  8. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Cattails". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-12-10. 
  9. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Ditch-grass". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-12-10. 
  10. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Duckweeds". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-11-13. 
  11. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Flowering Rush". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-11-13. 
  12. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Grasses". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-11-13. 
  13. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Greenbriars". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-12-13. 
  14. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Horned Pondweed". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-12-13. 
  15. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Irises". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-11-14. 
  16. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Lilies". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-12-20. 
  17. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Orchids". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-12-17. 
  18. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Pod-grasses". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-11-14. 
  19. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Pondweeds". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-11-14. 
  20. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Rushes". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-12-17. 
  21. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Sedges". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-12-17. 
  22. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Spiderworts". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-11-14. 
  23. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Sweetflag". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-11-15. 
  24. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Water-hyacinth". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-11-15. 
  25. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Water-nymph". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-11-15. 
  26. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Water-plantains". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-11-15. 
  27. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Waterweeds". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-11-15. 
  28. ^ "Montana Field Guide-Yuccas". Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved 2010-11-15. 

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