- Butte, Montana
official_name = Butte, Montana
nickname = Richest Hill on Earth
map_caption = Location of Butte in Montana
subdivision_name = Silver Bow
area_magnitude = 1 E9
area_total_km2 = 1856.5
area_land_km2 = 1854.7
area_water_km2 = 1.7
population_as_of = 2000
population_total = 33892
population_density_sq_mi = 47.3
timezone = MST
utc_offset = −7
timezone_DST = MDT
utc_offset_DST = −6
website = [http://www.mtstandard.com/]
Butte (IPA: [bjut] ) is a city in and the
county seatof Silver Bow County, Montana, United States.GR|6 In 1977, the city and county governments consolidated to form the sole entity of The City and County of Butte-Silver Bow. As of the 2000 census, Butte's population was 33,892. In its heyday between the late 19th century and about 1920, it was one of the largest and most notorious copper boomtowns in the American West, home to hundreds of saloons and a famous red-light district. Butte is the only city in the United Stateswhere possession and consumption of open containers of alcoholic beverages always are allowed on the street throughout the entire city (although not in vehicles). [John Grant Emeigh, "No open containers in Butte?", "Montana Standard", February 8, 2007] [John Grant Emeigh, "Open-container law important, area communities, police say", "Montana Standard", July 1, 2007] [Justin Post, "Officials reconsider alcohol ordinance: Open container proposal may go different way", "Montana Standard", November 5, 2007] [John W. Ray, "Alcohol abuse is a local epidemic", "Montana Standard", November 3, 2007]
The city is served by
Bert Mooney Airportthe airport code for Butte is BTM.
Butte began as a mining town in the late 19th century. At first only
goldand silverwere mined in the area, but the advent of electricity caused a soaring demand for copper, which was abundant in the area. The small town soon became one of the most prosperous cities in the country, especially during World War I, and was often called "the Richest Hill on Earth". It was the largest city for many hundreds of miles in all directions. The city attracted workers from Ireland, Wales, England, Lebanon, Canada, Finland, Austria, Serbia, Italy, China, Syria, Croatia, Montenegro, Mexico, and all areas of the USA. The legacy of the immigrants lives on in the form of the Cornish pasty which was popularized by mine workers who needed something easy to eat in the mines, the poviticaa nutroll which is a holiday favorite sold in many supermarkets and bakeries in the Butte area, and the boneless pork chop sandwich.
The influx of miners gave Butte the reputation as a wide-open town where any vice was obtainable. The city's famous saloon and red-light district, called the "Line", was centered on Mercury Street, where the elegant
bordellos included the famous Dumas Brothel, regarded as the longest-running house of prostitutionin the U.S. In the brick alley behind the brothel was the equally famous Venus Alley, where women plied their trade in small cubicles called "cribs". The red-light district brought miners and other men from all over the region and was openly tolerated by city officials until the 1980s as one of the last such urban districts in the U.S. The Dumas Brothel is now operated as a museum to Butte's rougher days. Close by Wyoming Street is home to the Butte High School(home of the " Bulldogs").
At the end of the 19th century, copper was in great demand because of new technologies such as electric power that required the use of copper. Three men fought for control of Butte's mining wealth. These three "
Copper Kings" were William A. Clark, Marcus Daly, and F. Augustus Heinze.
In 1899, Daly joined with
William Rockefeller, Henry H. Rogers, and Thomas W. Lawson to organize the Amalgamated Copper Mining Company. Not long after, the company changed its name to Anaconda Copper Mining Company(ACM). Over the years, Anaconda was owned by assorted larger corporations. In the 1920s, it had a virtual monopoly over the mines in and around Butte. The prosperity continued up to the 1950s, when the declining grade of ore and competition from other mines led the Anaconda company to switch its focus from the costly and dangerous practice of underground miningto open pit mining. This marked the beginning of the end for the boom times in Butte.
Butte was also known as "the Gibraltar of Unionism", with a very active
labor unionmovement that sought to counter the power and influence of the Anaconda company, which was also simply known as "The Company." At one time, not only was there considerable activism by the predecessor organizations to the AFL-CIO, but Butte was also a hotbed of Industrial Workers of the World(IWW, or the "Wobblies") organizing. There were a number of clashes between laborers, labor organizers, and the Anaconda company, including the lynching of IWW activist Frank Little, and at one point, Pinkerton Agencyguards hired by The Company resorted to gunning down strikers in the Anaconda Road Massacre. Between approximately 1900 and 1917, Butte also had a strong streak of Socialist politics, even electing a Mayor on the Socialist ticket in 1914.
In 1917, copper production from the Butte mines peaked and has steadily declined since. By WWII, copper production from the ACM's holdings in Chuquicamata, Chile, far exceeded Butte's production. The historian Janet Finn has examined this "tale of two cities"--Butte and Chuquicamata as two ACM mining towns.
The open-pit era
company purchased Anaconda Mining, and only three years later started shutting down mines due to lower metal prices. In 1982, all mining in the Berkeley Pit was suspended.
Anaconda stopped mining at the Continental pit in 1983. Montana Resources bought the property and reopened the Continental pit in 1986. The company stopped mining in 2000, but resumed in 2003 with higher metal prices, and continues at last report, employing 346 people. From 1880 through 2005, the mines of the Butte district have produced more than 9.6 million tonnes of copper, 2.1 million tonnes of zinc, 1.6 million tonnes of manganese, 381 thousand tonnes of lead, 87 thousand tonnes of molybdenum, 715 million troy ounces of silver, and 2.9 million ounces of gold. [Steve J. Czehura (2006) "Butte: a world class ore deposit", Mining Engineering, 9/2006, p.14-19.]
When mining shut down at the Berkeley pit in 1982, water pumps in nearby mines were also shut down, which resulted in highly acidic water laced with toxic heavy metals filling up the pit. Only two years later the pit was classified as a
Superfundsite and an environmental hazard site. Meanwhile, the acidic water continued to rise. It was not until the 1990s that serious efforts to clean up the Berkeley Pit began. The situation gained even more attention after as many as 342 migrating geese picked the pit lake as a resting place, resulting in their deaths. Steps have since been taken to prevent a recurrence, including but not limited to loudspeakers broadcasting sounds to scare off waterfowl. However, in November 2003 the Horseshoe Bend treatment facility went online and began treating and diverting much of the water that would have flowed into the pit. Ironically, the Berkeley Pitis also one of the city's biggest tourist attractions. It is the largest pit lake in the United States, and is the most costly part of the country's largest Superfundsite.
Today, Butte's population is about a third of its peak in 1917 of 115,000 (estimated), when it was the largest city between Seattle and Minneapolis. Since about 1960, the city's population has been about 30,000, despite periodic rises and drops. Over a dozen of the headframes still stand over the mine shafts, and the city still contains thousands of historic commercial and residential buildings from the boom times, which, especially in the Uptown section, give it a very old-fashioned appearance like a
ghost town, with the many buildings and comparatively few people. As with many industrial cities, tourism and services, especially health care (Butte has Southwest Montana's only major trauma center), are rising as primary employers. Many areas of the city, especially the areas near the old mines, show signs of wear from time but a recent influx of investors and an aggressive campaign to remedy blight has led to a renewed interest in restoring property in Uptown Butte's historic district, which was expanded in 2006 to include parts of Anaconda and is now the largest National Historic Landmark Districtin the United States with nearly 6,000 contributing properties.
A century after the era of intensive mining and smelting, the area around the city remains an environmental issue.
Arsenicand heavy metals such as leadare found in high concentrations in some spots affected by old mining, and for a period of time in the 1990s the tap water was unsafe to drink due to poor filtration and decades-old wooden supply pipes. Efforts to improve the water supply have taken place in the past few years, with millions of dollars being invested to upgrade water lines and repair infrastructure. Environmental research and clean-up efforts have contributed to the diversification of the local economy, and signs of vitality remain, including a multi-million dollar polysilicon manufacturing plant locating nearby in the 1990s and the city's recognition and designation in the late 1990s as an All-American Cityand also as one of the National Trust for Historic Preservation's Dozen Distinctive Destinations in 2002. In 2004, Butte received another economic boost as well as international recognition as the location for the Hollywood film " Don't Come Knocking", directed by renowned director Wim Wenders and released throughout the world in 2006.
The annual celebration of Butte's Irish heritage (since 1882) is the annual St. Patrick's Day festivities. In these modern times about 30,000 revelers converge on Butte's Historic Uptown District to enjoy the parade led by the
Ancient Order of Hiberniansand celebrate in bars such as Maloney's, the Silver Dollar Saloon, the M&M Cigar Store, and The Irish Times Pub.
The larger and better known annual celebration is
Knievel Daysheld each summer. This event draws over 50,000 bikers and daredevils from across the world. [ [http://www.knieveldays.com/ Evel Knievel Days :: Butte, Montana :: July 24th, 25th, 26th 2008 ] ] The highlight of the event is when all participants share a moment of silence for the whole Knievel clan traditionally observed at 4:20 pm on the second day of the event. The moment is broken by five daredevils simultaneously jump 19 trucks while fireworks explode and fifty foot flames of fire shoot up through the trucks while God Bless America plays. Many participants openly weep at the sight. [ Butte Trivia by George Everett ]
North Butte Mining Disaster of 1917
Sparked by a tragic accident more than convert|2000|ft|m|0 below the ground on
June 8, 1917, a fire in the Granite Mountain shaft spewed flames, smoke, and poisonous gas through the labyrinthof underground tunnels. A rescue effort commenced but the carbon monoxidewas stealing the air supply. A few men built man-made bulk heads to save their lives but many others died in a panic to try to get out. Rescue workers set up a fan to prevent the fire from spreading. This worked for a short time but when the rescuers tried to use water, the water evaporated creating steamthat burned people trying to escape. Once the fire was out, those waiting to hear the news on the surface couldn't identify the victims. They were too mutilated to recognize, leading many to assume the worst. 168 bodies were removed from the mine. Due to the heroic efforts of men such as Ernest Sullau, Manus Duggan, Con O'Neil, and JD Moore, some survived to tell the tale. The Speculator Mine Memorial was built as a reminder of the greatest loss of life in US hard rock mining history, a title it still holds today.
* Montana Tech [http://www.mtech.edu/] , a university specialising in the resources and engineering fields. (The giant letter "M" visible in the top photograph on this page stands for Montana Tech and was constructed in 1910.)
Our Lady of the Rockies Statue, a convert|90|ft|m|sing=on statue of the Blessed Virgin Mary, dedicated to women and mothers everywhere, on top of the Continental Divide, overlooking Butte
Berkeley Pit, a gigantic former open pit copper mine filled with toxic water. There is an observation deck on the high wall of the Berkeley Pit lake.
* The World Museum of Mining on the site of the Orphan Girl mine.
* There are many underground mine headframes (Gallows frames [http://www.msha.gov/century/colliery/colliery.asp] ) still remaining on the hill in Butte, including the Anselmo, the Steward, the Original, the Travona, the Belmont, the Kelly, the Mountain Con, the Lexington, the Bell/Diamond, the Granite Mountain, and the Badger.
Dumas Brothel, widely considered America's longest running house of prostitution ["The Richest Hill on Earth - A History of Butte, Montana," by Butte-Silver Bow Public Archives Staff, 2003 (CD-ROM)]
* Mai Wah Museum [http://www.maiwah.org]
* Rookwood Speakeasy [http://www.buttetours.info/rookwood.htm] , an underground, prohibition era Speakeasy
Copper King Mansion[http://www.thecopperkingmansion.com] , a bed and breakfast/local museum and previously home to William Andrews Clark, one of Butte's three Copper Kings.
* The Arts Chateau, formerly the home of
William Andrews Clark's son, Charles, the home was designed in the image of a French Chateau. This ornate mansion now serves as a community arts center and gallery.
* The Butte-Silver Bow Public Archives [http://www.buttearchives.org] stores and provides public access to documents and artifacts from Butte's rich past.
* Outdoor speed-skating rink, one of three such rinks in the USA.
Eden Atwood, jazz vocalist
Rudy Autio, ceramist/sculptor/artist
John W. Bonner, Governor of Montana
Rosemarie Bowe, actress
Patricia Briggs, fantasy author
Scott Brow, Arizona Diamondbacks pitcher
John Francis Buckley, member of the Canadian House of Commons
Albert J. Campbell, United States Representative from Montana
Morgan Earp, law enforcement officer known for participation in the Gunfight at the O. K. Corral
Barbara Ehrenreich, author
Julian Eltinge, actor and female impersonator
Henry Frank, businessman and Butte mayor
George F. Grant, innovative fly tier, author, and conservationist
Kirby Grant, actor
Karla M. Gray, Chief Justice of the Montana Supreme Court, worked here.
Dashiell Hammettworked for the Pinkerton National Detective Agency
Bobby Hauck, head coach of University of Montana football team
Tim Hauck, NFL defensive back and defensive coordinator for UCLA
Sam Jankovich, football player, coach, administrator
Keith Jardine, mixed martial artist
Rob Johnson, Seattle Mariners prospect
Helmi Juvonen, artist
Evel Knievel, motorcycle daredevil
Robbie Knievel, motorcycle daredevil and son of Evel
Ella J. Knowles Haskell, the first woman to practice law in Montana
Andrea Leeds, actress
Levi Leipheimer, Olympic cyclist
Frank Little, union leader
Paul B. Lowney, writer and humorist, author of "At Another Time — Growing up in Butte"
Sonny Lubick, football coach at Colorado State University
Betty MacDonald, humor writer
Mary MacLane, renowned feminist author
Mike Mansfield, U.S. senator from Montana and longest-serving Senate Majority Leader
Lee Mantle, United States Senator from Montana
Judy Martz, Olympic speed skater and Governor of Montana
Mike McGrath, Montana Attorney General
Joseph P. Monaghan, United States Representative from Montana
Bob O'Billovich- CFLexecutive, former CFL player, coach, and administrator
Pat Ogrin, Washington Redskins defensive lineman
Arnold Olsen, United States Congressman from Montana
Milt Popovich, former professional football player
Martha Raye, actress
John E. Rickards, first Lieutenant Governor of Montana
Fritzi Ridgeway, actress
Michael Sells, professor of Islamic Studies at the University of Chicago
*Jim Sweeney, head football coach at
Washington State Universityand longtime head coach at Fresno State University
Montana Taylor, pianist
George Leo Thomas, Bishop of Helena
Jacob Thorkelson, United States Representative from Montana
Michael Twomey, violinist, composer, and educator
Burton K. Wheeler, United States Senator from Montana
Kathlyn Williams, actress
According to the
United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 716.8 square miles (1,856.5 km²), of which, 716.1 square miles (1,854.7 km²) of it is land and 0.7 square miles (1.7 km²) of it is water. The total area is 0.09% water. Butte is also home to one of the largest deposits of Bornite.
As of the
censusGR|2 of 2000, there were 33,892 people, 14,135 households, and 8,735 families residing in the city. The population densitywas 47.3 people per square mile (18.3/km²). There were 15,833 housing units at an average density of 22.1/sq mi (8.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 95.38% White, 0.16% African American, 1.99% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.59% from other races, and 1.39% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.74% of the population.
There were 14,135 households out of which 27.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.7% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 38.2% were non-families. 32.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.97.
In the city the population was spread out with 23.7% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 26.7% from 25 to 44, 23.9% from 45 to 64, and 16.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 97.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $30,516, and the median income for a family was $40,186. Males had a median income of $31,409 versus $21,626 for females. The
per capita incomefor the city was $17,068. About 10.7% of families and 15.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.2% of those under age 18 and 9.0% of those age 65 or over.
Butte and Superfund
The mining activity in Butte resulted in significant contamination of downstream and downwind areas. The contaminated land extends along a corridor of convert|120|mi|km|0, and taking in adjacent areas such as the Anaconda smelter site. Over the past century, mining and smelting operations of the Anaconda Copper Mining Corporation polluted the Clark Fork River watershed at the headwaters of the Columbia River. This area takes in the cities of Butte, Anaconda, and Missoula. Between the upstream city of Butte and the downstream city of Missoula lies the Deer Lodge Valley. By the 1970s, local citizens and agency personnel were increasingly concerned over the toxic effects of arsenic and heavy metals on environment and human health. Most of the waste was created by the Anaconda Copper Mining Corporation (ACM), which merged with the Atlantic Richfield Corporation (
Arco) in 1977. Shortly thereafter, in 1983, Arco ceased mining and smelting operations in the Butte-Anaconda area.
For more than a century, the Anaconda Copper Mining company mined ore from Butte and smelted it in nearby Anaconda. During this time, the Anaconda smelter released up to convert|40|ST|t|0|lk=on per day of arsenic, convert|1700|ST|t|0 per day of sulfur, and great quantities of lead and other heavy metals into the air (MacMillan). In Butte, mine tailings were dumped directly into Silver Bow Creek, creating a convert|150|mi|km|0 plume of pollution extending down the valley to Milltown Dam on the Clark Fork River just upstream of Missoula. Air and water borne pollution poisoned livestock and agricultural soils throughout the Deer Lodge Valley. Modern environmental clean-up efforts continue to this day.
Movies featuring Butte and Butte buildings
*1971 - "
Evel Knievel", Fanfare Films
*1974 - "
The Killer Inside Me", Cyclone Productions
*1985 - "Runaway Train", Cannon Films
*1989 - "
Lonesome Dove", RHI Productions
*1993 - "
Return to Lonesome Dove", RHI Productions.
*2003 - "
Love Comes to the Executioner", Aura Entertainment
*2004 - "
Don't Come Knocking", Wim Wenders Productions
*2005 - "Who Killed Cock Robin?", Extreme Low Frequency
Sports Teams from Butte
Butte Copper Kings" 1979-1985, 1987-2000, Pioneer Baseball Leaguenow the Casper Ghosts.
Butte Irish", hockey now the Witcha Falls Wildcats.
Butte Roughriders", hockey.
Butte Daredevils", Continental Basketball Associationnamed for Butte born Evel Knievel
Montana Tech Orediggers"
Butte shares its
Neilsenmarket with nearby Bozeman, with which it forms the 194th largest TV market in the United States. Butte has the distinction of being near the dividing line in terms of Pro-Sports markets so the city receives both Seattle and Denver teams games on local cable channels.
KXLF(Channel 4) is the local CBSaffiliate. KXLF is the oldest broadcast television station in the state of Montana.
KTVM(Channel 6) is Butte's NBCaffiliate. The station only airs news and commecials from Butte, most of the other broadcasts are from nearby Missoula, Montana.
KUSM(Channel 9) is the state of Montana's PBSaffiliate. The station broadcasts out of Montana State Universityin Bozeman.
KWYB(Channel 19) is Butte's ABC affiliate and last of the "Big Three" networks to come into the market (1992). Prior to this Butte's ABC feeds came from KUSA-TVin Denver, Colorado.
KBTZ(Channel 24) is Butte's FOXaffiliate.
Butte has one local daily, a weekly paper, as well as several papers from around the state of Montana.
The Montana Standard" is Butte's daily paper. It was founded in 1928 and is the result of "The Butte Miner" and the "Anaconda Standard" merging into one daily paper. The "Standard" is owned by Lee Enterprises.
The Butte Weekly" is a local paper.
* [http://www.washington.edu/uwpress/search/books/MALBBP.html The Battle for Butte: Mining & Politics on the Northern Frontier, 1864-1906] by
Michael P. Malone, from Montana Historical Society Press, 1995.
* [http://www.worldcatlibraries.org/search?q=Copper+camp%3A+stories+of+the+world%27s+greatest+mining+town&qt=owc_search Copper Camp: Stories of the world's greatest mining town, Butte, Montana] compiled by Workers of the Writers' Program of the Work Projects Administration in the State of Montana.
* [http://www.worldcatlibraries.org/search?q=War+of+the+Copper+Kings%3A+The+Builders+of+Butte+and+the+Wolves+of+Wall+Street+&qt=results_page The War of the Copper Kings: The Builders of Butte and the Wolves of Wall Street] (1935) by C. B. GlasscockBooks and book chapters
*Barnett, Harold C. 1994. Toxic Debts and the Superfund Dilemma. University of North Carolina Press.
*Beirle, Thomas C. and Jerry Cayford. 2002. Democracy in Practice: Public Participation in Environmental Decisions. Washington DC, USA: Resources For the Future Press.
*Callon, Michel. 1986. “Some Elements of a Sociology of Translation: Domestication of the Scallops and Fishermen of St. Brieuc Bay.” In John Law (ed.), Power, Action and Belief: A New Sociology of Knowledge. (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul).
*Calvert, Jerry. 1988. The Gibraltar: Socialism and Labor in Butte, Montana (Helena, Montana: Montana Historical Society).
*Castree, Noel and Tom MacMillan. 2001. “Dissolving Dualisms: Actor-networks and the Reimagination of Nature.” In Noel Castree and Bruce Braun (eds.), Social Nature: Theory, Practice, and Politics (Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers).
*Church, Thomas W. and Robert T. Nakamura. 2003. Taming Regulation: Superfund and the Challenge of Regulatory Reform (Washington: Brookings Institution Press).
*Church, Thomas W. and Robert T. Nakamura. 1993.Cleaning up the Mess: Implementation Strategies in Superfund (Washington: The Brookings Institution).
*Clark Fork Coalition. 2005. State of the Clark Fork: Understanding our Watershed. Missoula, Montana: The Clark Fork Coalition.
*Cranor CF. 1993. Regulating Toxic Substances (NY: Oxford U. Pr).
*Edelstein, Michael R. 2003. Contaminated Communities: Coping with Residential Toxic Exposure. Westview Press.
*Emmons, David. 1989. The Butte Irish: Class and Ethnicity in an American Mining Town, 1875-1925 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press).
*Everett, George. 2007. Butte Trivia (Helena, Montana: Riverbend Publishing Co.)
*Finn, Janet. 1998. Tracing the Veins: Of Copper, Culture, and Community from Butte to Chuquicamata (Berkeley: University of California Press).
*Freudenberg, Nicholas and Carol Steinspir. 1992. “Not in Our Backyards: The Grassroots Environmental Movement,” pp. 27-38 in Dunlap, Riley E. and Angela G. Mertig (eds.) American Environmentalism: The U.S. Environmental Movement: 1970-1990 (Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis).
*Gibbs, Lois. 1998. Love Canal: The story continues... (Stony Creek, CT: New Society Publishers).
*Glasscock, C.B. 1935. The War of the Copper Kings (NY: Grosset and Dunlap).
*Hird, John. 1994. Superfund: The Political Economy of Environmental Risk (Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press).
*Hiskes, Richard P. 1998. Democracy, Risk, and Community: Technological Hazards and the Evolution of Liberalism (NY: Oxford University Press).
*Kemmis, Daniel. 1990. Community and the Politics of Place (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press).
*Krimsky, Sheldon and Alonzo Plough.1988. Environmental Hazards: Communicating Risks as a Social Process (Dover, Mass: Auburn House Publishing Company).
*Law, John and John Hassard (eds.). 1999. Actor Network Theory and After (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers).
*cite book|author=MacGibbon, Elma|title=Leaves of knowledge|publisher=Shaw & Borden Co|year=1904 [http://www.secstate.wa.gov/history/publications%5Fdetail.aspx?p=63 Available online through the Washington State Library's Classics in Washington History collection] Elma MacGibbons reminiscences of her travels in the United States starting in 1898, which were mainly in Oregon and Washington. Includes chapter "Butte and Anaconda."
*MacMillan, Donald. 2000. Smoke Wars: Anaconda Copper, Montana Air Pollution, and the Courts, 1890-1924. Helena: Montana Historical Society Press.
*Malone, Michael. 1981. The Battle for Butte: Mining and Politics on the Northern Frontier (Seattle: University of Washington Press).
*McCarthy, Pete. 2002. From Beara to Butte: The Road To McCarthy (Great Britain: Hodden and Stroughton)
*Mercier, Laurie. 2001. Anaconda: Labor, Community, and Culture in Montana’s Smelter City (Chicago: University of Illinois Press).
*Munday, Pat. 2001. Montana’s Last Best River: The Big Hole River and its People (Guilford, Connecticut: The Lyons Press).
*Murphy, Mary. 1997. Mining Cultures: Men, Women, and Leisure in Butte, 1914-1941 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press).
*Nash, June. 1979. We Eat the Mines and the Mines Eat Us (NY: Columbia University Press).
*National Research Council. 2005. Superfund and Mining Megasites: Lessons from the Coeur d’Alene River Basin (Washington, DC: National Academy Press).
*Novotny, W. Patrick. 2000. We Live, Work, and Play: The Environmental Justice Movement and the Struggle for a New Environmentalism (Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers).
*Punke, Michael. 2006. Fire and Brimstone The North Butte Mining Disastor of 1917 (New York: Hyperion Books).
*Salzman, James and Barton H. Thompson, Jr. 2003. Environmental Law and Policy (NY: Foundation Press).
*Taylor, Peter. 2005. Unruly Complexity: Ecology, Interpretation, Engagement (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).
*Capek, Stella M.. 1992. Environmental Justice, Regulation, and the Local Community.” International Journal of Health Services 22(4):729-746.
*Chess, C. and Purcell, K. 1999. Public participation and the environment: Do we know what works? Environmental Science and Technology 33(16): 2685-2692.
*Covello VT and Mumpower J. 1985 “Risk Analysis and Risk Management: A Historical Perspective,” Risk Analysis 5(2): 103-120.
*Folk, Ellison. "Public Participation in the Superfund Cleanup Process," Ecology Law Quarterly 18 (1991), 173-221.
*Hird, J. A. 1993. “Environmental Policy and Equity: the case of Superfund.” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 12: 323-343.
*Jasanoff, Sheila. 1992. "Science, Politics, and the Renegotiation of Expertise at EPA", Osiris, Vol. 7 (1992): 195-217.
*Light, Andrew. 2000. "What is an Ecological Identity?," Environmental Politics 9 (4): 59-81.
*Malone, Michael. 1985. “The Close of the Copper Century.” Montana: The Magazine of Western History 35: 69-72.
*Moore, Johnnie N. and S.N. Luoma, S.N. 1990. "Hazardous wastes from large-scale metal extraction." Environmental Science & Technology 24 (September 1990): 278-282.
*Munday, Pat. 2002. “’A millionaire couldn’t buy a piece of water as good:’ George Grant and the Conservation of the Big Hole River Watershed.” Montana: The Magazine of Western History 52 (2): 20-37.
*Quivik, Fredric. 2004. “Of Tailings, Superfund Litigation, and Historians as Experts: U.S. v. Asarco, et al. (the Bunker Hill Case in Idaho).” The Public Historian 26 (1): 81-104.
*Probst, K. et al. 2002. “Superfund's Future: What Will It Cost?” Environmental Forum, 19 (2 ): 32-41.
*Tesh, Sylvia. 1999. “Citizen experts in environmental risk.” Policy Studies 32 (1): 39-58.
*Teske, N. 2000. "A tale of two TAGs: Dialogue and democracy in the superfund program." American Behavioral Scientist. 44 (4): 664-678.
*Wyckoff, William. 1995. “Postindustrial Butte. (Butte, Montana)” The Geographical Review 85 (4): 478-497. Other
*Arco (Atlantic Richfield Company). U.d. “Clark Fork River Operable Unit—Clark Fork River Facts.” http://www.clarkforkfacts.com Accessed 03.Nov.02.
*Center for Public Environmental Oversight. 2002. “Roundtable on Long-term Management in the Cleanup of Contaminated Sites.” Report from a roundtable held in Washington, DC,
28 June 2002. http://www.cpeo.org/, accessed 19.Dec.05.
*Curran, Mary E. 1996. “The Contested Terrain of Butte, Montana: Social Landscapes of Risk and Resiliency.” Master’s thesis, University of Montana.
*Dobb, Edwin. 1999. “Mining the Past.”
High Country News31 (11): 1-10.
*Dobb, Edwin. 1996. “Pennies from Hell: In Montana, the Bill for America’s Copper Comes Due.” Harper’s Magazine (293): 39-54.
*Langewiesche, William. 2001. “The Profits of Doom—One of the Most Polluted Cities in America Learns to Capitalize on Its Contamination” The Atlantic Monthly (April 2001): 56-62.
*Levine, Mark. 1996. “As the Snake Did Away with the Geese.” Outside Magazine 21 (September 1996): 74-84.
*LeCain, Timothy. 1998. “Moving Mountains: Technology and Environment in Western Copper Mining.” PhD Dissertation, University of Delaware.
*Missoula Independent (newspaper). 2005. “Knocking Opportunity,”
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Silver Bow, Montana
* [http://www.mtstandard.com/ The Montana Standard, the local newspaper]
* [http://www.co.silverbow.mt.us City and County of "Butte-Silver Bow" Government Website]
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