Shaft mining

Shaft mining
Abandoned mine shafts in Marl, Germany.
A plan-view schematic of a mine shaft showing cage and skip compartments. Services may be housed in either of the four open compartments.

Shaft mining or shaft sinking refers to the method of excavating a vertical or near-vertical tunnel from the top down, where there is initially no access to the bottom.[1] When the top of the excavation is the ground surface, it is referred to as a shaft or portal; when the top of the excavation is underground, it is called a winze.

Contents

Off-shaft access

The mine shaft is used to gain access to an underground mining facility. Horizontal workings off the shaft are called drifts, galleries or levels. These extend from the central shaft toward the ore body. The point of contact between these levels and the shaft itself is known as the inset, shaft station or plat.

Surface facilities

On the surface above the shaft stands a building known as the headframe (or winding tower, poppet head or pit head). Depending on the type of hoist used the top of the headframe will either house a hoist motor or a sheave wheel (with the hoist motor mounted on the ground). The headframe will also contain bins for storing ore being transferred to the processing facility. If the shaft is used for mine ventilaton a plenum or casing, is incorporated into the headframe to ensure the proper flow of air into and out of the mine.

Shaft lining

In North and South America, smaller shafts are designed to be rectangular with timber supports. Larger shafts are round and are concrete lined.[2]

Shaft compartments

Typical mine cage, located in Harzbergbau, Germany

A mine shaft is frequently split into multiple compartments. The largest compartment is typically used for the mine cage, a conveyance used for moving workers and supplies below the surface. It functions in a similar manner to an elevator, with the largest often double-deck.

The second compartment is used for one or more skips, used to hoist ore to the surface. Smaller mining operations use a skip mounted underneath the cage, rather than a separate device, while some large mines have separate shafts for the cage and skips. The third compartment is used for an emergency exit; it may house an auxiliary cage or a system of ladders. An additional compartment houses mine services such as high voltage cables and pipes for transfer of water, compressed air or diesel fuel.

A second reason to divide the shaft is for ventilation. One or more of the compartments discussed above may be used for air intake, while others may be used for exhaust.

See also

References

  1. ^ Puhakka, Tuula (editor) (1997). Underground Drilling and Loading Handbook. Tampere, Finland: Tamrock Corp.. p. 173. 
  2. ^ De la Vergne, Jack (August 2003). Hard Rock Miner's Handbook, Edition 3. Tempe/North Bay: McIntosh Engineering. p. 92. ISBN 0-9687006-1-6. 

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно сделать НИР?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Shaft — can refer to: Edwin Shaft WhiteLong narrow passages: * Edwin White * Elevator shaft * Ventilation shaft * Pitch (vertical space), a significant underground vertical space in caving terminology * Shaft mining * Shafting, illicit travelling through …   Wikipedia

  • Mining methods of the Klondike Gold Rush — See also: Klondike Gold Rush, Mining Contents 1 During the Klondike Gold Rush (1896 1910) 1.1 Methods of bringing out the gold 1.1.1 Underground mining …   Wikipedia

  • Mining — This article is about the extraction of geological materials from the Earth. For the municipality in Austria, see Mining, Austria. For the siege tactic, see Mining (military). For name of the Chinese emperor, see Daoguang Emperor. Simplified… …   Wikipedia

  • mining — n. open cast (BE), open pit (AE), strip (AE); shaft mining * * * [ maɪnɪŋ] strip (AE) : shaft mining open pit (AE) open cast (BE) …   Combinatory dictionary

  • Mining in Zambia — Centres of mining operations include Konkola and Kitwe. Contents 1 Mining in Kitwe 1.1 Mopani Copper Mines 1.2 Konkola Copper Mine 1.3 Rokana Mine …   Wikipedia

  • Mining in South Africa — has been the main driving force behind the history and development of Africa s most advanced and richest economy. Large scale and profitable mining started with the discovery of a diamond on the banks of the Orange River in 1867 by Erasmus Jacobs …   Wikipedia

  • Shaft construction — concerns the building of vertical openings such as Raises and Shafts. Shafts are vertical openings used for supplying equipment, personnel, and support systems to the horizontal tunnel where the pipeline is installed. They can be temporary or… …   Wikipedia

  • Shaft — Shaft, n. [OE. shaft, schaft, AS. sceaft; akin to D. schacht, OHG. scaft, G. schaft, Dan. & Sw. skaft handle, haft, Icel. skapt, and probably to L. scapus, Gr. ????, ????, a staff. Probably originally, a shaven or smoothed rod. Cf. {Scape},… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Shaft alley — Shaft Shaft, n. [OE. shaft, schaft, AS. sceaft; akin to D. schacht, OHG. scaft, G. schaft, Dan. & Sw. skaft handle, haft, Icel. skapt, and probably to L. scapus, Gr. ????, ????, a staff. Probably originally, a shaven or smoothed rod. Cf. {Scape} …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Shaft furnace — Shaft Shaft, n. [OE. shaft, schaft, AS. sceaft; akin to D. schacht, OHG. scaft, G. schaft, Dan. & Sw. skaft handle, haft, Icel. skapt, and probably to L. scapus, Gr. ????, ????, a staff. Probably originally, a shaven or smoothed rod. Cf. {Scape} …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”