- Indie rock
Indie rock Stylistic origins Alternative rock, punk rock, post-punk, hardcore punk, New Wave Cultural origins Early 1980s, United Kingdom, United States and Canada Typical instruments Guitar, bass, drums, keyboard, vocals Mainstream popularity Moderate to High in North America, Japan and the United Kingdom since the late 2000s Subgenres Garage punk, riot grrrl, indie pop, emo, garage rock/post-punk revival, noise pop, dance-punk, New Weird America, Baroque pop, lo-fi, sadcore, C86, math rock Fusion genres Grindie - indie pop - indie folk - indie dance - indie electronic - new rave Regional scenes Largely global, England – Ireland – Scotland – Wales – USA – Canada – Sweden – Japan – Australia – Indonesia – France – Turkey Other topics Timeline of alternative rock, DIY ethic
Indie rock is a genre of alternative rock that originated in the United Kingdom and the United States in the 1980s. Indie rock is extremely diverse, with sub-genres that include lo-fi, post-rock, math rock, indie pop, dream pop, noise rock, space rock, sadcore, riot grrrl and emo, among others. Originally used to describe record labels, the term became associated with the music they produced and was initially used interchangeably with alternative rock. As grunge and punk revival bands in the US, and then Britpop bands in the UK, broke into the mainstream in the 1990s, it came to be used to identify those acts that retained an outsider and underground and less testosterone driven perspective. In the 2000s, as a result of changes in the music industry and the growing importance of the Internet, a number of indie rock acts began to enjoy commercial success, leading to questions about its meaningfulness as a term.
- 1 Characteristics
- 2 History
- 3 See also
- 4 Notes
- 5 External links
Indie rock, derived from "independent", describes the small and relatively low budget labels on which it is released and the do-it-yourself attitude of the bands and artists involved. Although distribution deals are often struck with major corporate companies these labels and the bands they host have attempted to retain their autonomy, leaving them free to explore sounds, emotions and subjects of limited appeal to large, mainstream audiences. The influences and styles of the artists has been extremely diverse, including punk, psychedelia, rock and country. The terms alternative rock and indie rock were used interchangeably in the 1980s, but after many alternative bands followed Nirvana into the mainstream in the early 1990s it began to be used to distinguish those bands, working in a variety of styles, that did not pursue or achieve commercial success.
Allmusic identifies indie rock as including a number of styles that are: "too sensitive and melancholy; too soft and delicate; too dreamy and hypnotic; too personal and intimately revealing in its lyrics; too low-fidelity and low-budget in its production; too angular in its melodies and riffs; too raw, skronky and abrasive, wrapped in too many sheets of Sonic Youth/Dinosaur Jr./Pixies/Jesus & Mary Chain-style guitar noise; too oblique and fractured in its song structures; too influenced by experimental or otherwise unpopular musical styles." Linked by an ethos more than a musical approach, the indie rock movement encompassed a wide range of styles, from hard-edged, grunge-influenced bands like The Cranberries and Superchunk, through do-it-yourself experimental bands like Pavement, to punk-folk singers such as Ani DiFranco. Many countries have developed an extensive local indie scene, flourishing with bands with enough popularity to survive inside the respective country, but virtually unknown outside them.
Indie rock has been identified as a reaction against the "macho" culture that developed in alternative rock in the aftermath of Nirvana's success. It has been noted that indie rock has a relatively high proportion of female artists compared with preceding rock genres, a tendency exemplified by the development of the feminist-informed Riot Grrrl music of acts like Bikini Kill, Bratmobile, 7 Year Bitch, Team Dresch and Huggy Bear.
College rock and noise rock
In the mid-1980s, the term "indie" began to be used to describe the music produced on post-punk labels rather than the labels themselves. The indie rock scene in the US was prefigured by the college rock that dominated college radio playlists which included key bands like R.E.M. from the US and The Smiths from the UK. These bands rejected the dominant synthpop of the early 1980s and helped inspire guitar-based jangle pop; Other important bands in the genre included the dB's and Let's Active from the US and The Housemartins and The La's from the UK. In the United States, the term was particularly associated with the abrasive, distortion-heavy sounds of Hüsker Dü, Sonic Youth, Minutemen, Meat Puppets, Dinosaur Jr., Pixies and The Replacements. The most abrasive and discordant outgrowth of punk was noise rock, which emphasised loud distorted electric guitars bands and powerful drums and was pioneered by bands including Sonic Youth, Swans, Big Black and Butthole Surfers. A number of prominent indie rock record labels were founded during the 1980s. These include Washington, DC's Dischord Records in 1980, Seattle's Sub Pop Records in 1986 and New York City's Matador Records and Durham, North Carolina's Merge Records in 1989. Chicago's Touch and Go Records was founded as a fanzine in 1979 and began to release records during the 1980s.
In the United Kingdom the C86 cassette, a 1986 NME premium featuring such bands as The Wedding Present, Primal Scream, The Pastels, and the Soup Dragons, was a document of the UK indie scene at the start of 1986, and gave its name to the indie pop scene that followed, which was a major influence on the development of the British indie scene as a whole. Major precursors of indie pop included Aztec Camera, Josef K and Orange Juice and major labels included Sarah, Bus Stop and Summershine. The Jesus and Mary Chain's sound combined the Velvet Underground's "melancholy noise" with Beach Boys pop melodies and Phil Spector's "Wall of Sound" production, while New Order emerged from the demise of post-punk band Joy Division and experimented with techno and house music. The Mary Chain, along with Dinosaur Jr, indie pop and the dream pop of Cocteau Twins, were the formative influences for the shoegazing movement of the late 1980s. Named for the band members' tendency to stare at their feet and guitar effects pedals onstage rather than interact with the audience, acts like My Bloody Valentine, and later Slowdive, Ride, and Lush created a loud "wash of sound" that obscured vocals and melodies with long, droning riffs, distortion, and feedback. The other major movement at the end of the 1980s was the drug-fuelled Madchester scene. Based around The Haçienda, a nightclub in Manchester owned by New Order and Factory Records, Madchester bands such as Happy Mondays and The Stone Roses mixed acid house dance rhythms, Northern soul and funk with melodic guitar pop.
Alternative enters the mainstream
The 1990s brought major changes to the alternative rock scene. Grunge bands such as Soundgarden, Nirvana, Alice in Chains and Pearl Jam broke into the mainstream, achieving commercial chart success and widespread exposure. Punk revival bands like Green Day and The Offspring also became popular and were grouped under the "alternative" umbrella. Similarly, in the United Kingdom Britpop saw bands like Blur and Oasis emerged into the mainstream, abandoning the regional, small-scale and political elements of the 1980s indie scene. As a result of these changes the term "alternative" lost its original counter-cultural meaning and began to refer to the new, commercially lighter, form of music that was now achieving mainstream success. The term "indie rock" became associated with the bands and genres that remained dedicated to their independent status. Ryan Moore has argued that in the wake of the appropriation of alternative rock by the corporate music industry that what became known as indie rock increasingly turned to the past to produce forms of "retro" rock that drew on rockabilly, blues, country, swing and garage rock.
By the end of the 1990s indie rock developed a number of sub-genres and related styles, in addition to indie pop and dream pop these included lo-fi, post-rock, math rock, noise pop, space rock, sadcore, and emo. Lo-fi eschewed polished recording techniques for a D.I.Y. ethos and was spearheaded by Beck, Sebadoh and Pavement, who were joined by eclectic folk and rock acts of the Elephant 6 collective, including Neutral Milk Hotel, Elf Power and Of Montreal. The work of Talk Talk and Slint helped inspire both post rock, an experimental style influenced by jazz and electronic music, pioneered by Bark Psychosis and taken up by acts such as Tortoise, Stereolab, and Laika, as well as leading to more dense and complex, guitar-based math rock, developed by acts like Polvo and Chavez. Space rock looked back to progressive roots, with drone heavy and minimalist acts like Spaceman 3 in the 1980s, the two bands created out of its split, Spectrum and Spiritualized, and later groups including Flying Saucer Attack, Godspeed You Black Emperor! and Quickspace. In contrast, Sadcore emphasised pain and suffering through melodic use of acoustic and electronic instrumentation in the music of bands like American Music Club and Red House Painters, while the revival of Baroque pop reacted against lo-fi and experimental music by placing an emphasis on melody and classical instrumentation, with artists like Arcade Fire, Belle and Sebastian and Rufus Wainright. The emo movement, which had grown out of the hardcore punk scene in the 1980s with bands like Fugazi and Rites of Spring, gained popularity as the 1990s progressed. Elliott, Sunny Day Real Estate, The Promise Ring, The Get Up Kids and others brought a more melodic sound to the genre. Weezer's Pinkerton (1996) introduced the genre to a wider and more mainstream audience.
Mainstream success: 2000s–present
In the 2000s, the changing music industry, the decline in record sales, the growth of new digital technology and increased use of the internet as a tool for music promotion, allowed a new wave of indie rock bands to achieve mainstream success. This new commercial breakthrough and the widespread use of the term indie to other forms of popular culture, led a number of commentators to suggest that indie rock has ceased to be a meaningful term.
Garage rock/post-punk revival
In the early 2000s, a new group of bands that played a stripped down and back-to-basics version of guitar rock, emerged into the mainstream. They were variously characterised as part of a garage rock, New Wave or post-punk revival. Because the bands came from across the globe, cited diverse influences (from traditional blues, through New Wave to grunge), and adopted differing styles of dress, their unity as a genre has been disputed. There had been attempts to revive garage rock and elements of punk in the 1980s and 1990s and by 2000 scenes had grown up in several countries. The Detroit rock scene included The Von Bondies, Electric Six, The Dirtbombs and The Detroit Cobras and that of New York Radio 4, Yeah Yeah Yeahs and The Rapture. Elsewhere, the Oblivians from Memphis Billy Childish and The Buff Medways from Britain, The (International) Noise Conspiracy from Sweden, and The 188.8.131.52's from Japan, enjoyed underground, regional or national success.
The commercial breakthrough from these scenes was led by four bands: The Strokes, who emerged from the New York club scene with their début album Is This It (2001); The White Stripes, from Detroit, with their third album White Blood Cells (2001); The Hives from Sweden after their compilation album Your New Favourite Band (2001); and The Vines from Australia with Highly Evolved (2002). They were christened by the media as the "The" bands, and dubbed "The saviours of rock 'n' roll", leading to accusations of hype. A second wave of bands that managed to gain international recognition as a result of the movement included The Black Keys, Black Rebel Motorcycle Club, Modest Mouse, The Killers, Interpol and Kings of Leon from the US. From the UK were Franz Ferdinand, Bloc Party, Editors and The Libertines, The Fratellis, Placebo, Razorlight, Kaiser Chiefs and The Kooks. Arctic Monkeys were the most prominent act to owe their initial commercial success to the use of Internet social networking. Also successful were Jet from Australia and The Datsuns and The D4 from New Zealand.
Emo also broke into mainstream culture in the early 2000s with the platinum-selling success of Jimmy Eat World's Bleed American (2001) and Dashboard Confessional's The Places You Have Come to Fear the Most (2003). The new emo had a much more mainstream sound then in the 1990s and a far greater appeal amongst adolescents than its earlier incarnations. At the same time, use of the term emo expanded beyond the musical genre, becoming associated with fashion, a hairstyle and any music that expressed emotion. The term emo has been applied by critics and journalists to a variety of artists, including multi-platinum acts such as Fall Out Boy and My Chemical Romance and disparate groups such as Paramore and Panic at the Disco, even when they protest the label.
Existing indie bands that were now able to enter the mainstream included more musically and emotionally complex bands including Modest Mouse, whose 2004 album Good News for People Who Love Bad News reached the US top 40 and was nominated for a Grammy Award, Bright Eyes who in 2004 had two singles at the top of the Billboard magazine Hot 100 Single Sales and Death Cab for Cutie whose 2005 album Plans debuted at number four in the US, remaining on the Billboard charts for nearly one year and achieving platinum status and a Grammy nomination. By the end of the decade the proliferation of indie bands was being referred to as "indie landfill", a description coined by Andrew Harrison of The Word magazine, and the dominance of pop and other forms of music over guitar-based indie was leading to predictions of the end of indie rock. However, there continued to be commercial successes like Kasabian's West Ryder Pauper Lunatic Asylum (2009), which reached number one in the UK. In 2010, Canadian band Arcade Fire's album The Suburbs reached number one on the Billboard charts in the United States and the official chart in the United Kingdom, winning a Grammy for Album of The Year.
Indie electronic, which had begun in the early 1990s with bands like Stereolab and Disco Inferno, took off in the new millennium as the new digital technology developed, with acts including Broadcast from the UK, Justice from France, Lali Puna from Germany and The Postal Service, and Ratatat and BOBBY from the US, mixing a variety of indie sounds with electronic music, largely produced on small independent labels. In Britain the combination of indie with dance-punk was dubbed new rave in publicity for Klaxons and the term was picked up and applied by the NME to bands including Trash Fashion, New Young Pony Club, Hadouken!, Late of the Pier, Test Icicles and Shitdisco, forming a scene with a similar visual aesthetic to earlier rave music.
- Independent music
- Indie music scene
- Indie cred
- List of indie rock musicians
- Underground music
- ^ a b c d e f "Indie rock", Allmusic, archived from the original on 13 February 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5wTaUVdId .
- ^ a b S. Brown and U. Volgsten, Music and Manipulation: on the Social Uses and Social Control of Music, (Berghahn Books, 2006), ISBN 1845450981, p. 194.
- ^ a b c S. T. Erlewine, "American Alternative Rock / Post Punk", in V. Bogdanov, C. Woodstra and S. T. Erlewine, All Music Guide to Rock: the Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul (Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books, 3rd edn., 2002), ISBN 0-87930-653-X, pp. 1344–6.
- ^ J. Connell and C. Gibson, Sound Tracks: Popular Music, Identity, and Place (Abingdon: Routledge, 2003), ISBN 0-415-17028-1, pp. 101–3.
- ^ M. Leonard, Gender in the Music Industry: Rock, Discourse and Girl Power (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007), ISBN 0-7546-3862-6, p. 2.
- ^ A. Earles, Husker Du: The Story of the Noise-Pop Pioneers Who Launched Modern Rock (Voyageur Press, 2010), ISBN 0760335044, p. 140.
- ^ a b "College rock", Allmusic, archived from the original on 27 April 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5yHMmSJur .
- ^ S. T. Erlewine, "The Smiths", Allmusic, archived from the original on 27 July2011, http://www.webcitation.org/60V6MFojY .
- ^ S. T. Erlewine, "R.E.M.", Allmusic, archived from the original on 27 July 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/60V6bSxZD .
- ^ "Noise Rock", Allmusic, archived from the original on 30 April 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5yLE0mhdZ .
- ^ R. Weinstein (23 April 2001), "An Interview with Bruce Pavitt", Allmusic, archived from the original on 27 April 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5yJZhWOu8 .
- ^ A. Earles, Husker Du: The Story of the Noise-Pop Pioneers Who Launched Modern Rock (Voyageur Press, 2010), ISBN 0760335044, p. 72.
- ^ M. Hann (23 April 2001), "Fey City Rollers", guardian.co.uk, archived from the original on 27 April 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5yJabd8vP .
- ^ N. Hasted (27 October 2006), "How an NME cassette launched indie music", Independent.co.uk, archived from the original on 27 April 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5yJbaKB5C .
- ^ N. Abebe (24 October 2005), "Twee as Fuck: The Story of Indie Pop", Pitchfork Media, archived from the original on 24 February 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5wjlLnVho .
- ^ "The Jesus and Mary Chain Biography", Rolling Stone, archived from the original on 27 April 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5yJct1800 .
- ^ "the Jesus and Mary Chain", Encyclopedia Britannica, archived from the original on 27 April 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5yJe9uLG4 .
- ^ S. T. Erlewine, "British Alternative Rock", in V. Bogdanov, C. Woodstra and S. T. Erlewine, All Music Guide to Rock: the Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul (Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books, 3rd edn., 2002), ISBN 0-87930-653-X, pp. 1346-7.
- ^ "Shoegaze", Allmusic, archived from the original on 24 February 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5wjkalKMT .
- ^ "Madchester", Allmusic, archived from the original on 27 April 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5yJmvXX5F .
- ^ A. Bennett and J. Stratton, Britpop and the English Music Tradition (Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 2010), ISBN 0754668053, p. 93.
- ^ R. Moore, Sells Like Teen Spirit: Music, Youth Culture, and Social Crisis (New York, NY:New York University Press, 2009), ISBN 0814757480, p. 11.
- ^ D. Walk, "The Apples in Stereo: Smiley Smile", CMJ New Music, Sep 1995 (25), p. 10.
- ^ S. Taylor, A to X of Alternative Music (London: Continuum, 2006), ISBN 0-8264-8217-1, pp. 154–5.
- ^ "Post rock", Allmusic, archived from the original on 14 February 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5wUOZlt8K .
- ^ "Math rock", Allmusic, archived from the original on 14 February 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5wUOlnegC .
- ^ "Space rock", Allmusic, archived from the original on 14 February 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5wUOtn84J .
- ^ "Sadcore", Allmusic, archived from the original on 14 February 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5wUP1oqYG .
- ^ "Chamber pop", Allmusic, archived from the original on 14 February 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5wUP95eY9 .
- ^ "Emo", Allmusic, archived from the original on 15 February 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5wWXsBzzX .
- ^ Greenwald, Andy (2003). Nothing Feels Good: Punk Rock, Teenagers, and Emo. St. Martin's Griffin. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-312-30863-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=3tJqJ9yDzCAC&pg=PA40#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2010-09-17.
- ^ S. T. Erlewine, "Weezer: Pinkerton", Allmusic, archived from the original on 28 April 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5yKNIPVWr .
- ^ N. Abebe (25 February 2010), "The decade in indie", Pitchfork, http://pitchfork.com/features/articles/7704-the-decade-in-indie/, retrieved 30 April 2011 .
- ^ K. Korducki (17 July 2007), "Is indie rock dead?", The Varsity, archived from the original on 4 May 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5yQQwYjnS .
- ^ R. Maddux (26 January 2010), "Is Indie Dead?", Paste Magazine.com, archived from the original on 4 May 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5yQQT9kCW .
- ^ H. Phares, "Franz Ferdinand: Franz Ferdinand (Australia Bonus CD)", Allmusic, archived from the original on 15 February 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5wXTt4hOr .
- ^ J. DeRogatis, Turn on your Mind: Four Decades of Great Psychedelic Rock (Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corporation, 2003), ISBN 0-634-05548-8, p. 373.
- ^ "New Wave/Post-Punk Revival", Allmusic, archived from the original on 16 February 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5wXTJhkeb .
- ^ M. Roach, This Is It-: the First Biography of the Strokes (London: Omnibus Press, 2003), ISBN 0-7119-9601-6, p. 86.
- ^ E. J. Abbey, Garage Rock and its Roots: Musical Rebels and the Drive for Individuality (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2006), ISBN 0-7864-2564-4, pp. 108–12.
- ^ P. Simpson, The Rough Guide to Cult Pop (London: Rough Guides, 2003), ISBN 1843532298, p. 42.
- ^ E. Berelian, "The Von Bondies", in P. Buckley, ed., The Rough Guide to Rock (London: Rough Guides, 3rd edn., 2003), ISBN 1-84353-105-4, p. 1144.
- ^ B. Greenfield, and R. Reid, New York City (London: Lonely Planet, 4th edn., 2004), ISBN 1-74104-889-3, p. 33.
- ^ E. True, The White Stripes and the Sound of Mutant Blues (London: Omnibus Press, 2004), ISBN 0-7119-9836-1, p. 59.
- ^ R. Holloway, "Billy Childish", in P. Buckley, ed., The Rough Guide to Rock (London: Rough Guides, 3rd edn., 2003), ISBN 1-84353-105-4, pp. 189–90.
- ^ "Review: The (International) Noise Conspiracy, A New Morning; Changing Weather", New Music Monthly November–December 2001, p. 69.
- ^ C. Rowthorn, Japan (Lonely Planet, 8th edn., 2003), ISBN 1-74059-924-1, p. 37.
- ^ P. Buckley, The Rough Guide to Rock (London: Rough Guides, 3rd edn., 2003), ISBN 1-84353-105-4, pp. 498–9, 1040–1, 1024–6 and 1162-4.
- ^ C. Smith, 101 Albums That Changed Popular Music (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), ISBN 0-19-537371-5, p. 240.
- ^ S. J. Blackman, Chilling Out: the Cultural Politics of Substance Consumption, Youth and Drug Policy (Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill International, 2004), ISBN 0-335-20072-9, p. 90.
- ^ D. Else, Great Britain (London: Lonely Planet, 2007), ISBN 1-74104-565-7, p. 75.
- ^ "The British are coming", Billboard, 9 April 2005, vol. 117 (13).
- ^ A. Goetchius, Career Building Through Social Networking (The Rosen Publishing Group, 2007), ISBN 1-404-21943-9, pp. 21-2.
- ^ P. Smitz, C. Bain, S. Bao, S. Farfor, Australia (Footscray Victoria: Lonely Planet, 14th edn., 2005), ISBN 1-74059-740-0, p. 58.
- ^ C. Rawlings-Way, Lonely Planet New Zealand (Footscray Victoria: Lonely Planet, 14th edn., 2008), ISBN 1-74104-816-8, p. 52.
- ^ a b J. DeRogatis (3 October 2003), "True Confessional?", Chicago Sun Times, archived from the original on 15 February 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5wWYWZCCf .
- ^ H. A. S. Popkin (26 March 2006), "What exactly is 'emo,' anyway?", MSNBC.com, archived from the original on 15 February 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5wWYk5jSh .
- ^ a b F. McAlpine (14 June 2007), "Paramore: Misery Business", MSNBC.com, archived from the original on 15 February 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5wWYwhbF5 .
- ^ J. Hoard, "My Chemical Romance", Rolling Stone, archived from the original on 15 February 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5wWZL1bZ0 .
- ^ F. McAlpine (18 December 2006), "Paramore "Misery Business"", NME, archived from the original on 15 February 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5wWZYAwIz .
- ^ M. Spitz, "The 'New Rock Revolution' fizzles", May 2010, Spin, vol. 26, no. 4, ISSN 0886-3032, p. 95.
- ^ J. Arndt (23 November 2004), "Bright Eyes Sees Double", Soul Shine Magazine, archived from the original on 30 April 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5yKX3PNjm .
- ^ A. Leahey, "Death Cab for Cutie: Biography", Allmusic, archived from the original on 4 May 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5yQRSwaNs .
- ^ T. Walker (21 January 2010), "Does the world need another indie band?", Independent, archived from the original on 6 April 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5yVEm0WX1 .
- ^ S. Reynolds (4 January 2010), "Clearing up the indie landfill", Guardian.co.uk, archived from the original on 6 April 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5yVFYegDz .
- ^ G. Cochrane (21 January 2010), "2009: 'The year British indie guitar music died'", BBC Radio 1 Newsbeat, archived from the original on 6 April 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5yVDYfoTN .
- ^ "53 Annual Grammy Awards: Awards and Nominees 2010 (Official Webpage)", Grammy.com, 23 November 2004, archived from the original on 30 April 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5yO2KRZV1 .
- ^ Larry Fitzmaurice (February 25, 2011). "BOBBY: "Sore Spores"". Pitchfork. http://pitchfork.com/forkcast/15471-sore-spores/. Retrieved 2011-05-24. "The self-titled debut LP from un-Googleable indie rock outfit BOBBY..."
- ^ "Indie Electronic", Allmusic, archived from the original on 16 February 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5wYA5an95 .
- ^ S. Leckart, "Have laptop will travel", MSNBC, archived from the original on 16 February 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5wYANqav0 .
- ^ a b c K. Empire (5 October 2006), "Rousing rave from the grave", The Observer, archived from the original on 16 February 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5wYIGhoVJ .
- ^ P. Flynn (12 November 2006), "Here We Glo Again", Times Online, archived from the original on 16 February 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5wYISZGjb .
- ^ J. Harris (13 October 2006), "The new wave of old rubbish", The Guardian, archived from the original on 16 February 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5wYIeLoWQ .
- ^ O. Adams (5 January 2007), "Music: Rave On, Just Don't Call It 'New Rave'", The Guardian, archived from the original on 16 February 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5wYIprrFq .
- ^ P. Robinson (3 February 2007), "The future's bright...", The Guardian, archived from the original on 16 February 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5wYJ0rLhW .
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.