Infobox Music genre
Punk rock, Glam rock, Dub, Funk, Reggae, Krautrock, nowrap|Avant-garde art movements, Experimental music, World music
United Kingdom, United States
Guitar- Bass guitar- Synthesizer- Keyboard - Drum machine- Modified electronics|popularity= Underground in late 1970s, high in early 1980s, moderate to high in mid 1980s, low from late 1980s onward
Alternative rock- Deathrock- Gothic rock- Indie rock- Post-punk revival- Post-hardcore
regional_scenes=Dutch Ultra - German
Neue Deutsche Welle- French Coldwave -
Post-hardcore- Industrial music- New Wave - No Wave
Post-punk was a popular musical movement in the mid to late 1970s, following on the heels of the initial
punk rockexplosion of the early 1970s. The genre retains its roots in the punk movement but is more introverted, complex and experimental.Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. " [http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=19:T728 Post-Punk] " " Allmusic". Retrieved November 2 2006.] . Post-punk laid the groundwork for alternative rockby broadening the range of punk and underground music, incorporating elements of Krautrock(particularly the use of synthesizersand extensive repetition), Jamaican dub music(specifically in bass guitar), American funk, studio experimentation, and even punk's traditional polar opposite, disco, into the genre.
It found a firm place in the 1980s indie scene, and led to the development of genres such as
gothic rock, industrial musicand alternative rock. Post-punk's biggest influence remains in the vast variety of sounds and styles it pioneered, many of which proved very influential in the later alternative rock scene.
During the first wave of punk, roughly spanning 1974–1978, acts such as the
Sex Pistols, The Clash, The Ramones, Patti Smithand The Damnedbegan to challenge the current styles and conventions of rock music by stripping the musical structure down to a few basic chords and progressions with an emphasis on speed. Yet as punk itself soon came to have a signature sound, a few acts began to experiment with more challenging musical structures, lyrical themes, and a self-consciously art-based image, while retaining punk's initial iconoclastic stance.
Classic examples of post-punk outfits include
The Psychedelic Furs, Devo, The Birthday Party, The Fall, Gang of Four, Siouxsie and the Banshees, Joy Division, New Order, Killing Joke, Echo & the Bunnymen, The Cure, Bauhaus, Wire and Tubeway Army. Bands such as Crassand Throbbing Gristlealso came within the scope of post-punk, as with several outfits formed in the wake of traditionally punk rock groups: Magazine from Buzzcocks, for instance, or Public Image Ltd. from the Sex Pistols. A list of predecessors to the post-punk genre of music might include Television, whose album " Marquee Moon", although released in 1977 at the height of the punk movement, is considered definitively post-punk in style. (However, many Specify|date=March 2008 would argue that bands such as Television, Talking Heads, Siouxsie and the Banshees, and the Voidoidswere all core punk, as it was the raw originality and diversity of sound and style that was punk.) Other groups, such as The Clash, remained predominantly punk in nature, yet were inspired by the experimentalism of the post-punk movement, most notably in their album " Sandinista!".
Championed by late night
BBC disc jockey John Peeland record label/shop Rough Trade (amongst others, including Postcard Records, Factory Records, Axis/4AD, Falling A Records, Industrial Records, Fast Product, and Mute Records), "post-punk" could arguably be said to encompass many diverse groups and musicians. The original post-punk movement took place largely in the United Kingdom, with significant scenes throughout the world, though North American and other non-British bands weren't often recognized worldwide. Some notable exceptions include North Americans Pere Ubu, Suicide, Mission of Burmaand early Hüsker Dü, Brazil's Legião Urbana, Australia's The Birthday Party and The Church, and Ireland's U2and The Virgin Prunes.
compilation is considered the quintessential testament to the history of No Wave.
The original post-punk movement ended as the bands associated with the movement moved away from its aesthetics, just as post-punk bands had originally left punk rock behind in favor of new sounds. Many post-punk bands, most notably
The Cureand Siouxsie & the Banshees, evolved into gothic rock(formerly a style of the larger post-punk movement) and became identified with the goth subculture. Some shifted to a more commercial New Wave sound, while others were fixtures on American college radio and became early examples of alternative rock.
The turn of the 21st century saw a
post-punk revivalin British and American indie rock, which soon started appearing in many different countries as well. The earliest signs of a post-punk revivaltook place with the emergence of various underground bands in the mid-90's. However, the first commercially successful bands The Rapture, Liars, Interpol, The Libertines[ [http://www.foxytunes.com/tag/postpunkrevival Post-punk revival - FoxyTunes ] ] , Franz Ferdinand and Editorssurfaced in the late 90's to early 00's. These bands made music with recognizable post-punk influences, even accompanied with arty, almost modish fashions copied from original post-punk bands. Modern post-punk is far more commercially successful than in the 1970s and 1980s. The post-punk revivalis unique in modern rock trends, in that it has retained a strong following even after similar 80's revival genres such as electroclashhave fallen out of style.
Origin of the term
The term "post-punk" was used as early as 1980. Critic
Greil Marcusreferred to "Britain's postpunk pop avant-garde" in a July 24, 1980 "Rolling Stone" article. He applied the phrase to such bands as Gang of Four, The Raincoatsand Essential Logic, which he wrote were "sparked by a tension, humour, and sense of paradox plainly unique in present-day pop music." [Greil Marcus, "Ranters and Crowd Pleasers", p. 109.]
A few illustrative short clips of post-punk music:
"Note: files size vary from 185 kB to 305 kB, and all are 20 seconds long." Listen|filename=Public Image Limited-Theme.ogg|title="Theme" by Public Image Ltd (UK, 1978)|format=
OggListen|filename=The Raincoats-Adventures close to home.ogg|title="Adventures close to home" by The Raincoats (UK, 1979)|format= OggListen|filename=Joy Division-24 hours.ogg |title="Twenty Four Hours" by Joy Division (UK, 1980) |format= Ogg
List of post-punk bands
New Wave music
* [http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=77:2636 "Post-Punk"] , Allmusic
* [http://tsoya.blogspot.com/2006/04/podcast-rip-it-up-and-start-again.html Hour-long public radio interview] with Simon Reynolds, author of "Rip It Up and Start Again: Post-Punk 1978-1984" on "
The Sound of Young America"
* [http://www.fastnbulbous.com/reynolds_rip.htm Simon Reynolds' "Rip It Up and Start Again: Post-Punk 1978-1984"] , "Fast 'n' Bulbous" review
* [http://www.post-punk.com "www.post-punk.com"] , post-punk.com, an online database and community related to the history of the genre.
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