Infobox Music genre
name = Techno
bgcolor = silver
color = black
stylistic_origins = Electro - Industrial -
Funk- Synthpop- Chicago house
cultural_origins = mid-1980s, Detroit, US
Synthesizer- Drum machine- Sequencer - Sampler
popularity = Moderate, largely in late 1980s and 1990s in
Europe, more popular in Eastern Europeand Brazilcurrently
derivatives = IDM - Trance -
subgenrelist = List of electronic dance music genres
Acid techno- Industrial techno- Minimal techno- Wonky techno
Ambient techno- Ghettotech- Microhouse- Tech house- Tech trance- Techstep
Detroit techno- Jtek- Nortec- Schranz- Yorkshire bleeps and bass
Electronic musical instrument– computer music– record labels – raves – free party– teknival
Techno is a form of
electronic dance music(EDM) [According to Butler (2006:33) use of the term EDM "has become increasingly common among fans in recent years. During the 1980's, the most common catchall term for EDM was "house music", while "techno" became more prevalent during the first half of the 1990s. As EDM has become more diverse, however, these terms have come to refer to specific genres. Another word, "electronica", has been widely used in mainstream journalism since 1997, but most fans view this term with suspicion as a marketing label devised by the music industry".] that emerged in Detroit, Michigan, USA during the mid to late 1980s. The first recorded use of the word "techno", in reference to a genreof music, was in 1988. [Brewster B. & Broughton F., "Last Night a DJ Saved My Life: The History of the Disc Jockey", Avalon Travel Publishing,2nd ed., 2006, (p. 354)] [ "Detroit's music had hitherto reached British ears as a subset of Chicago house; [Neil] Rushton and the Belleville Threedecided to fasten on the word techno - a term that had been bandied about but never stressed - in order to define Detroit as a distinct genre." Reynolds, S.(1998), "Energy Flash: a Journey Through Rave Music and Dance Culture", Pan Macmillan, (p. 71 )] Many styles of techno now exist, but Detroit technois seen as the foundation upon which a number of subgenres have been built. [Keyboard Magazine Vol. 21, No.7 (issue #231, July 1995).]
The initial take on techno arose from the melding of
Eurocentric synthesizer-based music with various African Americanstyles such as Chicago house, funk, electro, and electric jazz. Added to this was the influence of futuristic and fictional themes [Rietveld, H.C., "This is Our House: House Music, Cultural Spaces and Technologies", Ashgate Publishing, Aldershot, 1998, p. 125] that were relevant to life in American late capitalist society: most particularly the book "The Third Wave" by Alvin Toffler. [Sicko, D.(1999), "Techno Rebels: The Renegades of Electronic Funk", Billboard Books,(p.28).] Pioneering producer Juan Atkinscites Toffler's phrase "techno rebels" as inspiring him to use the word "techno" to describe the musical style he helped to create. This unique blend of influences aligns techno with the aestheticreferred to as afrofuturism. To producers such as Derrick May, the transference of spirit from the body to the machine is often a central preoccupation; essentially an expression of technological spirituality. [Kodwo, E., "More Brilliant Than the Sun: Adventures in Sonic Fiction", Quartet Books, 1998.] ["...techno artists often talk about what they do in the seemingly inappropriate language of traditional humanist art - 'expression', 'soul', 'authenticity', 'depth'." Reynolds, S.(1998), p. 51.] In this manner: "techno dance music defeats what Adornosaw as the alienating effect of mechanisation on the modern consciousness". [Mc Leod, K.,"Space oddities: aliens, futurism and meaning in popular music", Popular Music (2003) Volume 22/3. Copyright 2003 Cambridge University Press, pp. 337–355.]
Music journalists and fans of techno are generally selective in their use of the term; so a clear distinction can be made between sometimes related but often qualitatively different styles, such as
tech houseand trance. "Techno" is also commonly confused with generalized descriptors, such as electronic musicand dance music. [cite news | first=Michael | last=Critzon | title=Eat Static is bad stuff |date=2001-09-17 | publisher= | url =http://www.cm-life.com/home/index.cfm?event=displayArticlePrinterFriendly&uStory_id=18da0484-aa27-4c21-9e8e-a2abdbb39b94 | work =Central Michigan Life | pages = | accessdate = 2007-08-12] [cite journal|title=Electronic Energy|journal=The Miami Herald|date=2001-03-23|first=Michael|last=Hamersly|volume=|issue=|pages=page 6G ] [citation|periodical=Newsweek|date=1997-02-10|title=Electronic Eden|last=Schoemer|first=Karen|page=60 "Every Monday night, Natania goes to Koncrete Jungle, a dance party on new York's lower East Side that plays a hip, relatively new offshoot of dance music known as drum & bass—or, in a more general way, "techno", a blanket term that describes music made on computers and electornic gadgets instead of conventional instruments, and performed by deejays instead of old-fashioned bands."]
The initial blueprint for techno was developed during the mid 1980s in Detroit,
Michigan, by Juan Atkins, Kevin Saunderson, Derrick May (the so-called Belleville Three), and Eddie Fowlkes, all of whom attended school together at Belleville High, near Detroit. By the close of the 1980s, the four had operated under various guises: Atkins as Model 500, Flinstones, and Magic Juan; Fowlkes simply as Eddie "Flashin" Fowlkes; Saunderson as Reese, Keynotes, and Kaos; with May using the aliases Mayday, R-Tyme, and Rhythim Is Rhythim. There were also a number of joint ventures, the most commercially successful of which was the Atkins and Saunderson (with James Penningtonand Arthur Forest) [ [http://www.discogs.com/release/39861 Production credits] for Inner City's Big Fun hosted at Dicogs.com] collaboration on the first Inner Citysingle, Big Fun. [Sicko, D., "Techno Rebels: The Renegades of Electronic Funk", Billboard Books, 1999.] [Reynolds, S., "Energy Flash: a Journey Through Rave Music and Dance Culture", Pan Macmillan, 1998, (pp.12-40).] [Brewster B. & Broughton F., "Last Night a DJ Saved My Life: The History of the Disc Jockey", Avalon Travel Publishing, 2006, (pp. 340-359).]
In merging a European
synth-popaesthetic with the sensibilities of soul, funk, disco, and electro, the early producers pushed electronic dance music into unchartered terrain. [Rietveld, H.C., "This is Our House: House Music, Cultural Spaces and Technologies", Ashgate Publishing, Aldershot, 1998, pp. 124-127.] citation|url=http://www.ele-mental.org/ele_ment/said&did/techno_liner_notes.html|title=Techno! The New Dance Sound of Detroit (liner notes)|last=Cosgrove|first=Stuart|year=1988 Juan's first group Cybotron released several records at the height of the electro-funk boom in the early 80's, the most successful being a truly progressive homage to the city of Detroit, simply entitled 'Techno City'. At the time, he believed the record was a unique and adventurous piece of synthesiser funk, more in tune with Germany than the rest of black America, but on a dispiriting visit to New York, Juan heard Afrika Bambaataa's 'Planet Rock' and realised that his vision of a spartan electronic dance sound had been upstaged. He returned to Detroit to renew his friendship with 2 younger students from Belleville High, Kevin Saunderson and Derrick May, and quietly over the next few years the three of them became the creative backbone of Detroit Techno.] The initial pioneers of the emerging genre melded the beat-centric styles of their Motownpredecessors with the music technology of the time to create characteristically soulful grooves. [Rietveld, H.C., "This is Our House: House Music, Cultural Spaces and Technologies", Ashgate Publishing, Aldershot, 1998, p. 127] The resulting Detroit sound exerted an influence on widely differing styles of electronic music but also maintained an identity as a genre in its own right, one now commonly referred to as " Detroit techno." Derrick May famously described the sound of techno as something that is "...like Detroit... a complete mistake, it's like George Clinton and Kraftwerkare stuck in an elevator with only a sequencer to keep them company." [Quote taken from the inner sleeve details of "Techno: The New Dance Sound of Detroit" hosted in full at [http://www.ele-mental.org/ele_ment/said&did/techno_liner_notes.html elemental.org] ]
Prior to achieving notoriety, Atkins, Saunderson, May, and Fowlkes shared common interests as budding musicians, "mix" tape traders, and aspiring DJs. [cite news| title=Techno music pulses in Detroit |date=2003-02-13 | publisher=CNN | url =http://www.cnn.com/2003/TRAVEL/02/10/techno.exhibit.ap/|accessdate = 2007-08-11] They also found musical inspiration via the "
Midnight Funk Association," an eclectic five-hour late-night radio program hosted on various Detroit radio stations, including WCHB, WGPR, and WJLB-FM from 1977 through the mid-1980s by DJ Charles " The Electrifying Mojo" Johnson. [http://www.gridface.com/features/a_brief_history_of_techno.html A Brief History of Techno] – Gridface overview from 1999] Mojo's show featured electronic musicby artists such as Giorgio Moroder, Kraftwerk, and Tangerine Dream, alongside the funk sounds of Parliament, and danceable selections of new wave musicfrom bands such as Devoand the B-52s. [cite book | last = Shapiro | first = Peter | title = Modulations: A History of Electronic Music, Throbbing Words on Sound | publisher = Caipirinha Productions, Inc. |date=2000 | pages = 108-121 | isbn = 1-1891024-06-X ] Atkins has noted that:Cquote|"He [Mojo] played all the Parliament and Funkadelicthat anybody ever wanted to hear. Those two groups were really big in Detroit at the time. In fact, they were one of the main reasons why discodidn't really grab hold in Detroit in '79. Mojo usd to play a lot of funk just to be different from all the other stations that had gone over to disco. When 'Knee Deep' [Funkadelic's, 1979 release, [http://www.discogs.com/release/653957 "(Not Just) Knee Deep"] ] came out, that just put the last nail in the coffin of disco music."Despite the short-lived disco boom in Detroit, it had the effect of inspiring many individuals to take up mixing, Juan Atkins among them. Subsequently, Atkins taught May how to mix records, and in 1981, "Magic Juan", Derrick "Mayday", in conjunction with three other DJ's, one of whom was Eddie "Flashin" Fowlkes, launched themselves as a party crew called Deep Space Soundworks [Brewster B. & Broughton F., "Last Night a DJ Saved My Life: The History of the Disc Jockey", Avalon Travel Publishing,2nd ed., 2006, (p. 350)] ["Generation Ecstasy" (Reynolds 1998 pp. 16–17)] (also referred to as Deep Space). [Sicko, D.(1999), "Techno Rebels: The Renegades of Electronic Funk", Billboard Books,(pp. 56-58).] In 1980 or 1981 they met with Mojo and proposed that they provide mixes for his show, which they did end up doing the following year.citation|url=http://www.mobeus.org/archives/juanatkins/|title=Future Shock (Juan Atkins Interview)|publication=Music Technology Magazine|last=Trask|first=Simon|date=December 1988]
During the late 1970s/early 1980s high school clubs such as Brats, Charivari, Ciabattino, Comrades, Gables, Hardwear, Rafael, Rumours, Snobs, and Weekends [Snobs, Brats, Ciabattino, Rafael, and Charivari are mentioned in "Generation Ecstasy" (Reynolds 1998 p. 15); Gables and Charivari are mentioned in "Techno Rebels" (Sicko 1999 pp. 35, 51–52). Citations still needed for Comrades, Hardwear, Rumours, and Weekends.] created the incubator in which techno was grown. These young promoters developed and nurtured the local dance music scene by both catering to the tastes of the local audience of young people and by marketing parties with new DJs and their music. As these local clubs grew in popularity, groups of DJs began to band together to market their mixing skills and sound systems to the clubs in order to cater to the growing audiences of listeners. Locations like local church activity centers, vacant warehouses, offices, and
YMCAauditoriums were the early locations where underage crowds gathered and the musical form was nurtured and defined. [citation|title=Techno Rebels|last=Sicko|first=Dan|publication-year=1999|publisher=Billboard Books|isbn=0-8230-8428-0|pages=33–42,54–59]
Of the four individuals responsible for establishing techno as a genre in its own right, it is Juan Atkins who is recognized as "The Originator". [Dr. Rebekah Farrugia paraphrasing Derrick May in a review of "High Tech Soul: The Creation of Techno Music" (Directed by Gary Bredow. Plexifilm DVD PLX-029, 2006). Published in "Journal of the Society for American Music" (2008) Volume 2, Number 2, pp. 291–293.] Atkins' role was likewise acknowledged in 1995 by the American music technology publication "
Keyboard Magazine", which honored Atkins as one of "12 Who Count" in the history of keyboard music. ["Keyboard Magazine" Vol. 21, No.7 (issue #231, July 1995).]
In the early 1980s, Atkins began recording with musical partner Richard "3070" Davis (and later with a third member, Jon-5) as
Cybotron. This trio released a number of electro-inspired tunes, the best known of which is "Clear." According to a recent bio on MySpace, Atkins "...coined the term techno to describe their music, taking as one inspiration the works of Futuristand author Alvin Toffler, from whom he borrowed the terms 'cybotron' and 'metroplex.' Atkins has used the term to describe earlier bands that made heavy use of synthesizers, such as Kraftwerk, although many people would consider Kraftwerk's music and Juan's early music in Cybotron as electro." [cite web|url=http://www.myspace.com/68657561|title=Juan Atkins official Myspace page|accessdate=2008-04-02|author=Unknown author] Atkins viewed Cybotron's successful single, "Techno City" (1984), as a unique, Germanic, synthesized funk composition but having belatedly heard Afrika Bambaataa's "Planet Rock" (1982), a work Atkins considered inspirational, yet strikingly similar to the music he envisioned, he resolved to continue experimenting, and encouraged Saunderson and May to do likewise.
Eventually, Atkins started producing his own music under the pseudonym
Model 500, and in 1985 he established the record label Metroplex. [Sicko, D. (1999), "Techno Rebels: The Renegades of Electronic Funk", Billboard Books,(p.76).] In the same year, he released a seminal work entitled "No UFOs," one of the first Detroit techno productions to receive wider attention and an important turning point for the music. ["In 1985 Juan Atkins released the first record on his fledgling label Metroplex, ‘No UFO's’, now widely regarded as Year Zero of the techno movement." Cox, T. (2008), [http://www.residentadvisor.net/feature-read.aspx?id=907 Model 500:Remake/remodel] , interview with Atkins and Mike Banks hosted on www.residentadvisor.net] [Interview with Detroit producer Alan Oldham hosted at [http://www.spannered.org/music/722/ Spannered.org] ] Of this time, Atkins has said: Cquote|"When I started Metroplex around February or March of '85 and released "No UFOs," I thought I was just going to make my money back on it, but I wound up selling between 10,000 and 15,000 copies. I had no idea that my record would happen in Chicago. Derrick's parents had moved there, and he was making regular trips between Detroit and Chicago. So when I came out with 'No UFOs,' he took copies out to Chicago and gave them to some DJs, and it just happened."
The music's producers, especially May and Saunderson, admit to having been fascinated by the Chicago club scene and influenced by house in particular. [citation|title=Techno Rebels|publisher=Billboard Books|last=Sicko|first=Dan|isbn=ISBN 0-8230-8428-0|pages=77–78] [citation|publication=Detroit Free Press|title=Detroit Electronic Music Festival salutes Chicago connection|date=2002-05-22|first=Brian|last=McCollum|url=http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-8849128_ITM|accessdate=2008-04-04] For example, May's 1987–88 hit "Strings of Life" (under the alias "Rhythm Is Rhythm") is considered a classic in both the house and techno genres. [Citation | last =Harrison | first =Andrew | publication-date =July 1992 | title =Derrick May | periodical =Select | publication-place =London | pages =80–83 “RIR singles like ‘Strings of Life’…are among the few classics in the debased world of techno”] ["Strings of Life" appears on compilations titled " [http://www.discogs.com/release/788003 The Real Classics of Chicago House 2] " (2003), " [http://www.discogs.com/release/6413 Techno Muzik Classics] " (1999), " [http://www.discogs.com/release/483465 House Classics Vol. One] " (1997), " [http://www.discogs.com/release/48064 100% House Classics Vol. 1] " (1995), " [http://www.discogs.com/release/64669 Classic House 2] " (1994), " [http://www.discogs.com/release/13123 Best of House Music Vol. 3] " (1990), " [http://www.discogs.com/release/30645 Best of Techno Vol. 4] " (1994), " [http://www.discogs.com/release/146494 House Nation - Classic House Anthems Vol. 1] " (1994), and [http://www.discogs.com/artist/Rythim+is+Rythim numerous other compilations] with the words "techno" or "house" in their titles.] [citation|publication=Detroit Free Press|title=Detroit Electronic Music Festival salutes Chicago connection|date=2002-05-22|first=Brian|last=McCollum|url=http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-8849128_ITM|accessdate=2008-04-04] Atkins also believes that the first
acid houseproducers, seeking to distance house music from disco, emulated the techno sound. [cite web|url=http://www.timlawrence.info/linernotes/2005/acidhousesj.php|title=Acid? Can You Jack? ("Soul Jazz" liner notes)|date=2005-06-14|accessdate=2008-04-03|last=Lawrence|first=Tim] There is also suggestion that the Chicago house sound developed as a result of Frankie Knuckles' using a drum machine he bought from Derrick May. [Brewster B. & Broughton F., "Last Night a DJ Saved My Life: The History of the Disc Jockey", Avalon Travel Publishing, 2nd ed., 2006, (p. 353)] Juan Atkins claims that: Cquote| "Derrick sold Chicago DJ Frankie Knuckles a TR909 drum machine. This was back when the Powerplant was open in Chicago, but before any of the Chicago DJs were making records. They were all into playing Italian imports; 'No UFOs' was the only U.S.-based independent record that they played. So Frankie Knuckles started using the 909 at his shows at the Powerplant. Boss had just brought out their little sampling footpedal, and somebody took one along there. Somebody was on the mic, and they sampled that and played it over the drumtrack pattern. Having got the drum machine and the sampler, they could make their own tunes to play at parties. One thing just led to another, and Chip E used the 909 to make his own record, and from then on, all these DJs in Chicago borrowed that 909 to come out with their own records."Atkins Interview, from "Music Technology Magazine," December 1988. [http://www.mobeus.org/archives/juanatkins/] ]
"The New Dance Sound of Detroit"
The success of Chicago house and acid house in a number of UK clubs paved the way for the Detroit sound. [Brewster B. & Broughton F., "Last Night a DJ Saved My Life: The History of the Disc Jockey", Avalon Travel Publishing,2nd ed., 2006, (pp. 398-443).] ["I was on a mission because most people hated house music and it was all rare groove and hip hop…I'd play Strings of Life at the Mud Club and clear the floor. Three weeks later you could see pockets of people come onto the floor, dancing to it and going crazy - and this was without ecstasy" -
Mark Moorecommenting on the initially slow response to House music in 1987, Brewster B. & Broughton F. (2006), p. 419.] A club following for house music grew steadily from 1985 with scenes in London, Manchester, Nottingham, and later Sheffield and Leeds, sustaining interest. The DJ's thought to be responsible for house's UK success inlcude Mike Pickering, Mark Moore, Colin Faver, and Graeme Park. By 1988 house music had exploded and acid housewas increasingly popular. [Rietveld, H.C., "This is Our House: House Music, Cultural Spaces and Technologies", Ashgate Publishing, Aldershot, 1998, pp. 40-50.] In the same year the Balearic party vibe associtated with Ibiza based DJ Alfredo Fiorito was transported to London, when Danny Ramplingand Paul Oakenfoldopened the clubs Shoom and Spectrum, respectively. Both night spots quickly became synonymous with acid house and it was during this period that the use of MDMA, as a party drug, started to gain prominence. Other important UK clubs at this time included Back to Basics in Leeds, Sheffield's Leadmill and Music Factory, and in Manchester The Hacienda, where Mike Pickering and Graeme Park's Friday night spot, called Nude, was an important proving ground for American EDM, including the first techno from Detroit. [Rietveld, H.C., "This is Our House: House Music, Cultural Spaces and Technologies", Ashgate Publishing, Aldershot, 1998, pp. 50-57.]
thumb|left|Cover_for_the_1988_release._[http://www.discogs.com/release/57919 "Techno! The New Dance Sound of Detroit"] ] In the UK there was also a long established warehouse party
subculturebased around the sound system scene. By 1988 the music played at warehouse parties was predominantly house music. By the summer of that year acid house party fever escalated in London and Manchester and it was fast becoming a cultural phenomenon. At this point MDMA fueled club goers, faced with 2am closing hours, were seeking refuge in a warehouse party scene that ran all night. To escape the attention of the press, and the authorites, this afterhours activity quickly went underground. Within a year, up to 10'000 people at a time were attending the first commercially organised mass parties, called raves, and a media storm ensued. [Rietveld, H.C., "This is Our House: House Music, Cultural Spaces and Technologies", Ashgate Publishing, Aldershot, 1998, pp. 54-59.]
This explosion of interest in EDM during the late 1980s provided a context for the development of techno as an identifiable
genre. Following the release in 1988 of an album compiled by Neil Rushton (an A&Rscout for "10 Records") [ [http://www.discogs.com/label/Ten+Records+Ltd.+(10+Records) 10 Records catalog on Discogs website] ] and Derrick May, titled "Techno! The New Dance Sound of Detroit," [Tracklisting for [http://www.discogs.com/release/57919 "Techno! The New Dance Sound of Detroit"] ] the UK music press began to characterize techno as Detroit's high-tech interpretation of Chicago house. The release was an important milestone and marked the introduction of the word "techno", in reference to a specific genre of music. [Brewster B. & Broughton F., "Last Night a DJ Saved My Life: The History of the Disc Jockey", Avalon Travel Publishing, 2nd ed., 2006, (p. 354)] In 1993, Rushton was quoted as saying he, Atkins, May, and Saunderson came up with the name together, but that the Belleville Three voted down calling the music some kind of regional brand of house; they instead favored a term they were already using, "techno".citation|url=http://www.rocksbackpages.com/article.html?ArticleID=10053|title=Machine Soul: A History Of Techno|newspaper=The Village Voice|last=Savage|first=Jon|year=1993 "The U.K. likes discovering trends," Rushton says. "Because of the way that the media works, dance culture happens very quickly. It's not hard to hype something up. …When the first techno records came in, the early Model 500, Reese, and Derrick May material, I wanted to follow up the Detroit connection. I took a flyer and called up Transmat; I got Derrick May and we started to release his records in England. …Derrick came over with a bag of tapes, some of which didn't have any name: tracks which are now classics, like 'Sinister' and 'Strings of Life.' Derrick then introduced us to Kevin Saunderson, and we quickly realized that there was a cohesive sound of these records, and that we could do a really good compilation album. We got backing from Virgin Records and flew to Detroit. We met Derrick, Kevin, and Juan and went out to dinner, trying to think of a name. At the time, everything was house, house house. We thought of Motor City House Music, that kind of thing, but Derrick, Kevin, and Juan kept on using the word "techno". They had it in their heads without articulating it; it was already part of their language."]
Derrick May views this as one of his busiest times and recalls that it as a period where he Cquote|"was working with
Carl Craig, helping Kevin, helping Juan, trying to put Neil Rushton in the right position to meet everybody, tyring to get Blake Baxterendorsed so that everyone liked him, trying to convince Shake (Anthony Shakir) that he should be more assertive...and keep making music as well as do the Mayday mix (for the show Street Beat on Detroit's WJLB radio station) and run Transmat records...For years no one cared about what Juan and I were doing in Detroit, and then I found myself dealing with people that were jealous, out of the clear blue sky." [Sicko, D. (1999), "Techno Rebels: The Renegades of Electronic Funk", Billboard Books, (p. 98)]
Virgin Recordsdisappointment with the poor sales of Rushton's compilation, the record was successful in establishing an identity for techno and was instrumental in establishing a platform in Europe for the music and it's producers. Ultimately, the release served to distinguish the Detroit sound from Chicago house and other forms of EDM that were emerging during the rave era of the late 1980s and early 90s. [Sicko, D. (1999), "Techno Rebels: The Renegades of Electronic Funk", Billboard Books, (pp. 95-120)]
In mid 1988, developments in the Detroit scene lead to the opening of nightclub called the Music Institute (MI), located at 1315 Broadway in downtown Detroit. The venue was secured by George Baker and Alton Miller with Darryl Wynn and Derrick May participating as Friday night DJs, and Baker and Chez Damier playing to a mostly gay crowd on Saturday nights. The club closed on
November 24, 1989, with Derrick May playing "Strings of Life" along with a recording of clock tower bells. [citation|title=Techno Rebels|last=Sicko|first=Dan|publication-year=1999|publisher=Billboard Books|isbn=0-8230-8428-0|pages=92–94] May explains that:Cquote|"it all happened at the right time by mistake, and it didn't last because it wasn't suposed to last.Our careers took off right around the time we [the MI] had to close, and maybe it was the best thing. I think we were peaking - we were so full of energy and we didn't know who we were or [how to] realize our potential.We had no inhibitions, no standards, we just did it. That's why it came off so fresh and innovative, and that's why...we got the best of the best.". [citation|title=Techno Rebels|last=Sicko|first=Dan|publication-year=1999|publisher=Billboard Books|isbn=0-8230-8428-0|pages=93–94] Though short-lived, MI was known internationally for its all-night sets, its sparse white rooms, and its juice bar stocked with " smart drinks" (the Institute never served liquor). The MI, notes Dan Sicko, along with Detroits early techno pioneers, "helped give life to one of the city's important musical subcultures - one that was slowly growing into and international scene." [citation|title=Techno Rebels|last=Sicko|first=Dan|publication-year=1999|publisher=Billboard Books|isbn=0-8230-8428-0|page=94]
As the original sound evolved it also diverged to such an extent that a wide spectrum of stylistically distinct musics was being referred to as techno. [Sicko, D. (1999), "Techno Rebels: The Renegades of Electronic Funk", Billboard Books, (p.102)] This ranged from overtly pop oriented acts such as
Moby[Moby's track "Go!" , a work featuring a sample from the Twin Peaksopening theme, entered the top 20 of UK Chartsin late 1991 - Reynolds, S.(1998), "Energy Flash: a Journey Through Rave Music and Dance Culture", Pan Macmillan, (p. 131).] to the distinctly anti-commercial sentiments ["Presenting themselves as a sort of techno Public Enemy, Underground Resistance were dedicated to 'fighting the power' not just through rhetoric but through fostering their own autonomy." Reynolds, S.(1998), "Energy Flash: a Journey Through Rave Music and Dance Culture", Pan Macmillan, (pp. 219-222).] of the appropriately named Underground Resistance. Derrick May's experimentation on works such as "Beyond the Dance" (1989) and "The Beginning" (1990) were credited with taking techno "in dozens of new directions at once and having the kind of expansive impact John Coltrane had on Jazz". [Sicko, D. (1999), "Techno Rebels: The Renegades of Electronic Funk", Billboard Books, (p.80)] By the late 1980s and early '90s, the original techno sound had garnered a large underground following in the United Kingdom, Germany, and Belgium. The growth of techno's popularity in Europe between 1988 and 1992 was largely due to the emergence of the party scene known as raveand a thriving club culture. [Sicko, D. (1999), "Techno Rebels: The Renegades of Electronic Funk", Billboard Books, (pp. 95-120).]
In America, apart from regional scenes in Detroit,
New York, and Chicago, interest was limited. Producers from Detroit, frustrated by the lack of opportunity in their home country, looked to Europe for their future livelihood. [Reynolds, S.(1998), "Energy Flash: a Journey Through Rave Music and Dance Culture", Pan Macmillan, (p. 219).] This first wave of Detroit expatriates was soon joined by a number of up-and-coming artists, the so called "second-wave", including Carl Craig, Jay Denham, Kenny Larkin, and Stacey Pullen, with UR's Jeff Mills, Mike Banks, and Robert Hoodpushing their own unique sound. A number of New York producers were also making an impression at this time, notably Frankie Bones, Lenny Dee, and Joey Beltram. In the same period, close to Detroit ( Windsor, Ontario), Richie Hawtin, with business partner John Acquaviva, launched the influential imprint Plus 8Records. [Sicko, D. (1999), "Techno Rebels: The Renegades of Electronic Funk", Billboard Books, (pp. 121-160)]
Developments in American-produced techno between 1990 and 1992 fueled the expansion and eventual divergence of techno in Europe, particularly in Germany. [Sicko, D. (1999), "Techno Rebels: The Renegades of Electronic Funk", Billboard Books, (pp. 161-184).] Reynolds, S.(1998), "Energy Flash: a Journey Through Rave Music and Dance Culture", Pan Macmillan, (pp. 228-229).] In
Berlin, following the closure of a free party venue called UFO, the club Tresoropened in 1991. The venue was for a time the standard bearer for techno and played host to many of the leading Detroit producers, some of whom relocated to Berlin. [Reynolds, S.(1998), "Energy Flash: a Journey Through Rave Music and Dance Culture", Pan Macmillan, (p. 215).] By 1993, as interest in techno in the UK club scene started to wane, Berlin was considered the unofficial "techno capital" of Europe. [Sicko, D. (1999), "Techno Rebels: The Renegades of Electronic Funk", Billboard Books, (p. 181).]
Although eclipsed by Germany,
Belgiumwas another focus of second-wave techno in this time period. The Ghent-based label R&S Recordsembraced harder-edged techno by "teenage prodigies" like Beltram and C.J. Bolland, releasing "tough, metallic tracks…with harsh, discordant synth lines that sounded like distressed Hoovers," according to one music journalist.citation|periodical=The Wire|issue=161|date=July 1997|title=From Detroit To Deep Space|last=Shallcross|first=Mike|page=21]
Germany's engagement with American EDM during the 1980s paralleled that in the UK. By 1987 a German party scene based around the Chicago sound was well established. The following year (1988) saw acid house making as significant an impact on popular consciousness in Germany as it had in England. [Short [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gu78EKCS54g&feature=related excerpt] from special on German "Tele 5" from Dec.8, 1988. The show is called "Tanzhouse" hosted by a young Fred Kogel. It includes footage from Hamburg's "Front" with Boris Dlugosch, Kemal Kurum's "Opera House" and the "Prinzenbar".] In 1989 German DJs
Westbamand Dr. Motte established "UFO", an illegal party venue, and co-founded the Love Parade. After the Berlin Wallfell on 9th November 1989, free underground techno parties mushroomed in East Berlin, and a rave scene comparable to that in the UK was established. East German DJ Paul van Dykhas remarked that techno was a major force in reestablishing social connections between East and West Germany during the unification period. [Messmer, S. (1998), "Eierkuchensozialismus", TAZ, 10.7.1998, (p. 26).]
In 1991 a number of party venues closed, including "UFO", and the Berlin Techno scene centred itself around three locations close to the foundations of the Berlin Wall: "Planet" (later renamed "
E-Werk" by Paul van Dyk),Brewster B. & Broughton F., Last Night a DJ Saved My Life: The History of the Disc Jockey, Avalon Travel Publishing, (p. 361).] "Der Bunker", and the now legendary "Tresor". [Henkel, O.; Wolff, K. (1996) Berlin Underground: Techno und Hiphop; Zwischen Mythos und Ausverkauf, Berlin: FAB Verlag, (pp. 81-83).] It was in Tresor at this time that a trend in paramilitary clothing was established (amongst the techno fraternity) by a DJ named Tanith; [Reynolds, S.(1998), "Energy Flash: a Journey Through Rave Music and Dance Culture", Pan Macmillan, (p. 112).] possibly as an expression of a commitment to the underground aesthetic of the music, or perhaps influenced by UR's paramilitary posturing. [Sicko, D. (1999), "Techno Rebels: The Renegades of Electronic Funk", Billboard Books, (pp. 145).] In the same period German DJs began intensifying the speed and abrasiveness of the sound, as an acid infused techno began transmuting into hardcore. [Schuler, M.(1995),"Gabber + Hardcore",(p. 123), in Anz, P.; Walder, P. (Eds) (1999 rev. edn, 1st publ. 1995, Zurich: Verlag Ricco Bilger)"Techno". Reinbek: Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag.] DJ Tanith commented at the time that: "Berlin was always hardcore, hardcore hippie, hardcore punk, and now we have a very hardore house sound. At the moment the tracks I play are an average one hundred and thiry-five beats per minuteand every few months we add fifteen more". This emerging sound is thought to have been influenced by Dutch gabberand Belgian hardcore; styles that were in there own perverse way paying homage to Underground Resistanceand Richie Hawtin's Plus 8 Records. Other influences on the development of this style were European Electronic Body Musicgroups of the mid 1980s such as DAF, Front 242, and Nitzer Ebb. [Reynolds, S.(1998), "Energy Flash: a Journey Through Rave Music and Dance Culture", Pan Macmillan, (p. 110).] In Germany, fans referred to this sound as ‘Tekkno’ (or ‘Bretter’). [Robb, D. (2002), Techno in Germany: Its Musical Origins and Cultural Relevance, "German as a Foreign Language Journal", No.2, 2002, (p. 134).]
"A Techno Alliance"
In 1993 the German techno label
Tresor Recordsreleased the compilation album "Tresor II: Berlin & Detroit - A Techno Alliance", [ [http://www.discogs.com/release/48297 Tresor II: Berlin & Detroit - A Techno Alliance] album details at Discogs] testament to the influence of the Detroit sound upon the German techno scene and a celebration of a "mutual admiration pact" between the two cities. As the mid 90s approached Berlin was becoming a haven for Detroit producers; Jeff Millsand Blake Baxter even resided there for a time. In the same period, with the assistance of Tresor, Underground Resistance released their X-101/X-102/X103 album series, Juan Atkins collaborated with 3MB's Thomas Fehlmannand Moritz Von Oswaldand Tresor affiliated label Basic Channelhad taken to having their releases mastered by Detroit's National Sound Corporation; the main masteringhouse for the entire Detroit dance music scene. In some sense popular electronic music had come full circle; Düsseldorf's Kraftwerk having been a primary influence on the electronic dance music of the 1980s. The dance sounds of Chicago also had a German connection as it was in Munichthat Giorgio Moroderand Pete Bellote had first produced the 1970s Eurodisco synth pop sound.Robb, D. (2002), Techno in Germany: Its Musical Origins and Cultural Relevance, "German as a Foreign Language Journal", No.2, 2002, (p. 133-135).]
As EDM continued to transmute a number of Detroit producers began to question the trajectory techno was taking. One response came in the form of so-called
minimal techno(a term producer Daniel Bellfound difficult to accept, finding the term "minimalism", in the artistic sense of the word, too "arty").Sicko, D., "Techno Rebels: The Renegades of Electronic Funk", Billboard Books, 1999, (pp. 199-200)] It is thought that Robert Hood, a Detroit based producer and one time member of UR, is largely responsible for ushering the emergence of the minimal strain of techno. [Mike Banks [http://www.thewire.co.uk/articles/271/ interview] , The Wire, Issue #285 (November '07)] Hood describes the situation in the early 1990s as one where techno had become too "ravey", with increasing tempos leading to the emergence of gabber. Such trends saw the demise of the soul infused techno that typified the original Detroit sound leading Hood and others to redefine the music as "a basic stripped down, raw sound. Just drums, basslines and funky grooves and only what's essential. Only what is essential to make people move". [Robert Hood [http://www.spannered.org/music/802/ interview] hosted at [http://www.spannered.org/ spannered.org] ] Hood explains that Cquote|"I think Dan [Bell] and I both realized that something was missing - an element...in what we both know as techno. It sounded great from a production point of standpoint, but there was a 'jack' element in the [old] structure. People would complain that there's no funk, no feeling in techno anymore, and the easy escape is to put a vocalist and some piano on top to fill the emotional gap.I thought it was time for a return to the original underground".Sicko, D., "Techno Rebels: The Renegades of Electronic Funk", Billboard Books, 1999.]
Some techno has also been influenced by or directly infused with elements of jazz.citation
title=Techno Dances With Jazz
newspaper=New York Times
url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9503E4DA123AF933A0575AC0A9679C8B63 "Electronic producers of all stripes are now inspired by a broader jazz palette, whether as fodder for samples, as part of the search for rhythmic diversity, or as a reference point for their own artistic aspirations toward a cerebral sophistication removed from the sweat of the dance floor." The article provides, as examples, the music of Kirk Degiorgio, Matthew Herbert, Spring Heel Jack, Tom Jenkinson (Squarepusher), Jason Swinscoe (Cinematic Orchestra) and Innerzone Orchestra (Carl Craig with ex-Sun Ra/James Carter group members, et al.).] This led to increased sophistication in the use of both rhythm and harmony in a number of techno productions. [Sicko, D. (1999), "Techno Rebels: The Renegades of Electronic Funk", Billboard Books, (p.198)]
Manchester(UK) based techno act 808 Statehelped fuel this development with tracks such as "Pacific State" [Gerard Simpson ( A Guy Called Gerald) maintains that "Pacific State" was intended for a John Peelsession exclusively, but 808 State's Graham Masseyand Martin Price added additonal elements by drawing upon Massey's collection of "exotic jazz" records for inspiration. This lead to the inclusion of a distinctive saxophone solo. Massey recalls that: "We were trying to do something in the vein of Marshall Jefferson's 'Open Your Eyes'…That track was happening everywhere." The production was released as a white label in May 1989 and later issued on the mini-album " Quadrastate" at the end of July that year, just as the second Summer of Lovewas flowering. Massey remembers taking the white label to Mike Pickering, Graeme Park, and Jon Da Silva, and notes that "it rose through the ranks to become the last tune of the night. "Lawrence, T (2006), "Discotheque: Haçienda", sleeve notes for album release of the same name, retrieved from the [http://www.timlawrence.info/linernotes/2006/Hacienda.php authors website] ] from the mini-album Quadrastate, and "Cobra Bora," taken from the 1989 release "Ninety". [Graham Massey has discussed the use of unusual meters in 808 State's music commenting online in June 18, 2004, that: "I always thought Cobra Bora could have stood a chance. It was sometimes played at Hot Night at the Hacienda despite it's funny time signature" (the feel of the track was created by combining parts in 6/8 time with others in 4/4). Butler, M.J. (2006), "Unlocking the Groove: Rhythm, Meter, and Musical Design in Electronic Dance Music", Indiana University Press, (p. 114).] In Detroit, a producer heavily influenced by said jazz sensibilities at this time was Detroit's Mike Banks, a demonstration of which can be found on the influential Underground Resistancerelease "Nation 2 Nation" (1991).Kodwo E. (1998), "More Brilliant Than the Sun: Adventures in Sonic Fiction", Quartet Books, (p. 127).] By 1993, Detroit acts such as Model 500and UR had made explicit references to the genre, with the tracks "Jazz Is The Teacher" (1993) and "Hi-Tech Jazz" (1993), the latter being part of a larger body of work and group called Galaxy 2 Galaxy, a self-described jazz project based on Kraftwerk's "man machine" doctrine.cite web|url=http://www.submerge.com/Merchant2/merchant.mvc?Screen=PROD&Product_Code=SUBCD-3010-2|accessdate=2008-07-21|title=Galaxy 2 Galaxy - A Hi Tech Jazz Compilation|publisher=Submerge "Galaxy 2 Galaxy is a band that was conceptualized with the first hitech Jazz record produced by UR in 1986/87 and later released in 1990 which was "Nation 2 Nation" (UR-005). Jeff Mills and Mike Banks had visions of Jazz music and musicians operating on the same "man machine" doctrine dropped on them from Kraftwerk. Early experiments with synthesisers and jazz by artists like Herbie Hancock, Stevie Wonder, Weather Report, Return to Forever, Larry Heard and Lenny White's Astral Pirates also pointed them in this direction. UR went on to produce and further innovate this form of music which was coined 'Hitech Jazz' by fans after the historic 1993 release of UR's "Galaxy 2 Galaxy" (UR-025) album which included the underground UR smash titled 'Hitech Jazz'."] This lead was followed by a number of techno producers in the UK who were evidently influenced of both jazz and UR, Dave Angels' "Seas of Tranquility EP" (1994) being a case in point. [cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= | title= Dave Angel: Background Overview at Discogs |date=2003-02-13 | publisher= | url =http://www.discogs.com/artist/Dave+Angel | work = | pages = | accessdate = 2007-08-11 | language = ] [ [http://www.techno.de/mixmag/interviews/dave.html Angelic Upstart] : "Mixmag" interview with Dave Angel detailing his interest in jazz. Retrieved from [http://www.techno.de/ Techno.de] ]
In 1991 UK music journalist Matthew Collin wrote that "Europe may have the scene and the energy, but it's America which supplies the ideological direction...if Belgian techno gives us riffs, German techno the noise, British techno the breakbeats, then Detroit supplies the sheer cerebral depth". [Brewster B. & Broughton F., "Last Night a DJ Saved My Life: The History of the Disc Jockey", Avalon Travel Publishing,2nd ed., 2006, (p. 364).] By 1992 a general rejection of rave culture, by a number of European producers and labels who were attempting to redress what they saw as the corruption and commercialisation of the original techno ideal, was evident. [Reynolds (1998), p183.] Following this the ideal of an "intelligent" or Detroit derived "pure techno" aesthetic began to take hold. Detroit techno had maintained its integrity throughout the rave era and was inspiring a new generation of so called "intelligent techno" producers.
As the mid-1990s approached, the term had gained common usage in an attempt to differentiate the increasingly sophisticated takes on EDM [ Anker M., Herrington T., Young R. (1995), [http://www.thewire.co.uk/articles/220/ "New Complexity Techno"] , "The Wire", Issue #131 (January '95)] from other strands of techno that had emerged, including variants such as
breakbeat hardcore, Schranz, Dutch Gabber, and overtly commercial strains that were simply referred to as "cheese." Simon Reynolds observes that this progression "...involved a full-scale retreat from the most radically posthuman and hedonistically functional aspects of rave music toward more traditional ideas about creativity, namely the auteur theory of the solitary genius who humanizes technology...". [Reynolds (1998), p182.] Warp Recordswas among the first to capitalise upon this development with the release of the compilation album Artifical Intelligence [Tracklisting for the Warp Records 1992 compilation [http://www.discogs.com/release/29372 "Artificial Intelligence"] ] Of this time, Warp founder and managing director Steve Beckett has said that Cquote|"…the dance scene was changing and we were hearing B-sides that weren't dance but were interesting and fitted into experimental, progressive rock, so we decided to make the compilation "Artificial Intelligence", which became a milestone… it felt like we were leading the market rather than it leading us, the music was aimed at home listening rather than clubs and dance floors: people coming home, off their nuts, and having the most interesting part of the night listening to totally tripped out music. The sound fed the scene." [Birke S. (2007), [http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/music/music-magazine/label-profile/label-profile-warp-records-768021.html "Label Profile: Warp Records"] , The Independent (UK), Music Magazine (supplement), newspaper article published 2007-02-11]
Warp had originally marketed Artificial Intelligence using the description "electronic listening music" but this was quickly replaced by "
intelligent techno". In the same period (1992–93) other names were also bandied about such as armchair techno, ambient techno, and electronica, ["Of all the terms devised for contemporary non-academic electronic music (the senseintended here), 'electronica' is one of the most loaded and controversial. While on the one hand it does seem the most convenient catch-all phrase, under any sort of scrutiny it begins to implode. In its original 1992-3 sense it was largely coterminous with the more explicitly elitist 'intelligent techno', a term used to establish distance from and imply distaste for, all other more dancefloor-oriented types of techno, ignoring the fact that many of its practitioners such as Richard James (Aphex Twin) were as adept at brutal dancefloor tracks as what its detractors present as self-indulgent ambient 'noodling'". Blake, Andrew, "Living Through Pop", Routledge, 1999. p 155.] but all were used to describe an emerging form of "post-rave" dance music for the "sedentary and stay at home". [Reynolds (1998), p181.] Following the commercial success of the compilation in the United States, Intelligent Dance Musiceventually became the phrase most commonly used to describe much of the experimental EDM emerging during the mid to late 1990s.
Although it is primarily Warp that has been credited with ushering the commercial growth of IDM and electronica, in the early 1990s there were many notable labels associated with the initial "intelligence" trend that received little, if any, wider attention. Amongst others they include:
Black Dog Productions(1989), Carl Craig's Planet E (1991), Kirk Degiorgio's Applied Rhythmic Technology (1991), Eevo Lute Muzique (1991), General Production Recordings (1991), New Electronica (1993), Mille Plateaux(1993), 100% Pure (1993), and Ferox Records (1993).
In the early 1990s a post-rave, DIY,
free partyscene had established itself in the UK. It was largely based around an alliance between warehouse partygoers from various urban squat scenes and politically inspired new age travellers. The new agers offered a readymade network of countryside festivals that were hastily adopted by squatters and ravers alike. ["The traveling lifestyle began in the early seventies, as convoys of hippies spent the summer wandering from site to site on the free festival circuit. Gradually, these proto- crustyremnants of the original counterculturebuilt up a neomedieval economybased on crafts, alternative medicine, and entertainment...In the mid-eighties, as squattingbecame a less viable option and the government mounted a clampdown on welfare claimants, many urban crusties tired of the squalorof settled life and took to the roving lifestyle". Reynolds, S.(1998), "Energy Flash: a Journey Through Rave Music and Dance Culture", Pan Macmillan, (p. 163).] Prominent among the sound systemsoperating at this time were Tonka in Brighton, DiY in Nottingham, Bedlam, Circus Warp, LSDiesel and London’s Spiral Tribe. The high point of this free party period came in May 1992 when with less than 24 hours notice and little publicity more than 35,000 gathered at the Castlemorton Common Festivalfor 5 days of partying. St. John, G.(ed.), FreeNRG: Notes From the Edge of the Dance Floor, Common Ground, Melbourne, 2001, (pp. 100-101).]
This one event was largely responsible for the introduction in 1994 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act; [cite web|url=http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1994/Ukpga_19940033_en_6.htm#mdiv63 |title=Public Order: Collective Trespass or Nuisance on Land - Powers in relation to raves |work=Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 |publisher=
Her Majesty's Stationery Office|accessdate=2006-01-17| year=1994] effectively leaving the British free partyscene for dead. Following this many of the traveller artists moved away from Britain to Europe, the US, Goain India, Koh Phanganin Thailandand Australia’s East Coast. In the rest of Europe, due in some part to the inspiration of traveling sound systems from the UK, rave enjoyed a prolonged existence as it continued to expand across the continent. [Sicko, D. (1999), "Techno Rebels: The Renegades of Electronic Funk", Billboard Books, (pp. 161-184).]
Spiral Tribe, Bedlam and other English sound systems took their cooperative techno ideas to Europe, particularly
Eastern Europewhere it was cheaper to live, and audiences were quick to appropriate the free party ideology. It was European Teknivalfree parties, such as the annual Czechtekevent in the Czech Republic that gave rise to several French, German and Dutch sound systems. Many of these groups found audiences easily and were often centered around squated locations in cities such as Amsterdamand Berlin. [St. John, G.(ed.), FreeNRG: Notes From the Edge of the Dance Floor, Common Ground, Melbourne, 2001, (pp. 100-101).]
By 1994 there were a number of techno producers in the UK and Europe building on the Detroit sound, but a growing range of EDM styles were by then vying for attention. Some drew upon the Detroit techno aesthetic, while others fused components of preceding dance music forms. This led to the appearance (in the UK initially) of inventive new music, some of which bore little, if any, relation to the original techno sound; jungle (
drum and bass) being a primary example, its origins having more to do with hip-hop, soul, and reggae, than with the EDM from Detroit and Chicago.
With an increasing diversification (and commercialisation) of dance music, the collectivist sentiment prominent in the early
ravescene diminished, each new faction having its own particular attitude and vision of how dance music (or in certain cases, non-dance music) should evolve. Some examples not already mentioned are trance, industrial techno, breakbeat hardcore, acid techno, and happy hardcore. Less well-known styles related to techno or its subgenres include the primarily Sheffield (UK) based bleep techno, a regional variant that had some success between 1989 and 1991, and a scene that was responsible for putting Warp Records on the map (largely as a result of its fifth release, LFO's self-titled 12″). By the end of the 1990s a number of post-techno ["Any form of electronica genealogically related to Techno but departing from it in one way or another." Cox C. & Warner D. ed. (2004), "Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music", Continuum International Publishing Group Ltd, London, (p. 414).] EDM styles had emerged including wonky techno, ghettotech(a style that combines some of the aesthetics of techno with hip-hop and house music), nortec, glitch, digital hardcore, and so-called "no-beat techno". [Loubet E.& Couroux M., Laptop Performers, Compact Disc Designers, and No-Beat Techno Artists in Japan: Music from Nowhere, "Computer Music Journal", Vol. 24, No. 4. (Winter, 2000), pp. 19-32.]
Whilst techno and its derivatives only occasionally produce commercially successful mainstream acts—Underworld and Orbital being two better known examples—the genre has significantly affected many other areas of music. In an effort to appear relevant, many established artists, for example Madonna and
U2, have dabbled with dance music, yet such endeavors have rarely evidenced a genuine understanding or appreciation of techno's origins. [citation|title=Music and Technoculture|pages=185–186|first=Andrew|last=Ross|first2=René|last2=Lysloff|first3=Leslie|last3=Gay|isbn=0819565148|year=2003|publisher=Wesleyan University Press] The mainstream music industry has been responsible for the growth of a huge remixindustry. This is largely a drive to gain exposure for artists that are not identified with club styles such as house, techno, and drum & bass. Many club acts and dance DJs have made very successful careers out of remixing alone, Armand Van Heldenbeing a good example.
contemporary R&Bhas taken a significant foray into the dance genre, thanks largely to club scene remixes such as Freemasons' recent interpretations of Beyoncéand Kelly Rowland, and whilst some criticise this as indicative of the music industry's seeking greater exposure for its big-act roster, it can also be viewed as a natural part of the process of musical evolution. One R&B artist, Missy Elliott, inadvertently exposed the popular music audience to the Detroit techno sound when she featured material from Cybotron's "Clear" on her 2006 release "Lose Control"; this resulted in Juan Atkins' receiving a Grammy Awardnomination for his writing credit. Elliott's 2001 album "Miss E... So Addictive" also clearly demonstrates the influence of club culture.
In recent years, the publication of relatively accurate histories by authors Simon Reynolds ("Generation Ecstasy" aka "Energy Flash") and Dan Sicko ("Techno Rebels"), plus mainstream press coverage of the
Detroit Electronic Music Festival, have helped to diffuse the genre's more dubious mythology.cite news | first=Robert | last=Gorell | coauthors= | title=Permanent record: Jeff Mills talks Detroit techno and the exhibit that hopes to explain it. | date= | publisher= | url =http://www.metrotimes.com/editorial/story.asp?id=4496 | work =Metro Times | pages = | accessdate = 2007-08-11 | language = ] Even the Detroit-based company Ford Motorseventually became savvy to the mass appeal of techno, noting that "...this music was created partly by the pounding clangor of the Motor City's auto factories. It became natural for us to incorporate Detroit techno into our commercials after we discovered that young people are embracing techno." With a marketing campaign targeting under-35s, Ford would choose Model 500's "No UFO's" to underpin its November 2000 MTVtelevision advertisement for the Ford Focus. [Ford Motors [http://media.ford.com/newsroom/release_display.cfm?release=6543 press release] ,DETROIT, November 8, 2000.] [Derrick May [http://www.lunarmagazine.com/features/may.php interview] hosted at Atlanta's Lunar Magazine website] [Baishya K.(2005), [http://media.www.chicagoflame-inferno.com/media/storage/paper535/news/2005/10/17/Music/Techno.As.It.Should.Be.Juan.Atkins.And.Minimal.Techno-1023037.shtml "Techno as it should be: Juan Atkins and minimal techno"] , Chicago Flame, news article published 10/17/05.] In attempting to sum up the changes since the heyday of Detroit techno, Derrick May has since revised his famous quote in stating that “"Kraftwerk got off on the third floor and now George Clinton’s got Napalm Deathin there with him. The elevator’s stalled between the pharmacy and the athletic wear store".” [ [http://www.fantazia.org.uk/DJs/derekmay.htm Interview] with Derrick May hosted at Fantazia.org]
Kraftwerk: Computer World (1981)] In exploring techno's origins writer Kodwo Eshunmaintains that "Kraftwerk are to Techno what Muddy Waters is to the Rolling Stones: the authentic, the origin, the real". [Kodwo, E. (1998), "More Brilliant Than the Sun: Adventures in Sonic Fiction", Quartet Books, (p. 100).] Juan Atkins has acknowledged that he had an early enthusiasm for Kraftwerkand Giorgio Moroder, particularly Moroder's work with Donna Summerand the producer's own album "E=MC2." Atkins also mentions that "...around 1980 I had a tape of nothing but Kraftwerk, Telex, Devo, Giorgio Moroder and Gary Numan, and I'd ride around in my car playing it."Atkins Interview, from "Music Technology Magazine", December 1988. [http://www.mobeus.org/archives/juanatkins/] ] Atkins has also claimed he was unaware of Kraftwerk's music prior to his collaboration with Rick Davis, which was two years after he had first started experimenting with electronic instruments. [Sicko, D. (1999), "Techno Rebels: The Renegades of Electronic Funk", Billboard Books, (p.79)] Regarding his initial impression of Kraftwerk, Atkins notes that they were "clean and precise" relative to the "weird UFO sounds" featured in his seemingly "psychedelic" music. [Sicko, D. (1999), "Techno Rebels: The Renegades of Electronic Funk", Billboard Books, (p.71).]
Derrick May identified the influence of Kraftwerk and other European synthesizer music in commenting that "it was just classy and clean, and to us it was beautiful, like outer space. Living around Detroit, there was so little beauty... everything is an ugly mess in Detroit, and so we were attracted to this music. It, like, ignited our imagination!".Silcott, M. (1999). "Rave America: New school dancescapes". Toronto, ON: ECW Press.] May has commented that he considered his music a direct continuation of the European synthesiser tradition.Brewster B. & Broughton F., "Last Night a DJ Saved My Life: The History of the Disc Jockey", Avalon Travel Publishing, 2000, (p. 349)] Kevin Saunderson has also acknowledged the influence of Europe but he claims to have been more inspired by the idea of making music with electronic equipment: "I was more infatuated with the idea that I can do this all myself". The noted popularity of
Euro discoand Italo discomusic of various acts including Moroder, Alexander Robotnick, and Claudio Simonetti(referred to as "progressive" in Detroit) and new romantic synth popperformers such as Visage, Human League, and Heaven 17on the Detroit high school party scene from which techno emerged [Sicko, D. (1999), "Techno Rebels: The Renegades of Electronic Funk", Billboard Books, (pp. 45-49).] has prompted a number of commentators to try and redefine the origins of techno, by incorporating musical precursors to the Detroit sound as part of a wider historical survey of the genres development. [Kodwo, E. (1998), (p. 100.)] [Brewster B. & Broughton F. (2006), "Last Night a DJ Saved My Life: The History of the Disc Jockey", Avalon Travel Publishing,(pp. 343-346).] [Reynolds, S. (1998), "Energy Flash: a Journey Through Rave Music and Dance Culture", Pan Macmillan, (p. 190).] This results in a chronologically distinct point of origination being removed. To support this view, they point to examples such as "Sharevari" (1981) by A Number of Names, [Gillen B.M. (2001), [http://www.metrotimes.com/editorial/story.asp?id=2691 "Name that number:The history of Detroit's first techno record"] , Metro Times Detroit, news article published on 11/21/2001.] danceable selections from Kraftwerk(1977–83), the earliest compositions by Cybotron(1981), Donna Summerand Giorgio Moroder's "I Feel Love" (1977), Moroder's "From Here to Eternity" (1977), and Manuel Gottsching's "proto-techno masterpiece" [Reynolds, S. (1998), "Energy Flash: a Journey Through Rave Music and Dance Culture", Pan Macmillan, (p. 190).] " E2-E4" (1981). Another example is a record entitled "Love in C minor", released in 1976 by Parisian Euro disco producer Jean-Marc Cerrone; cited as the first so called "conceptual disco" production and the record from which house, techno, and other EDM styles flowed. [Sicko, D. (1999), "Techno Rebels: The Renegades of Electronic Funk", Billboard Books, (p.48)]
It is apparent that certain electro-
discoand European synth pop productions share with techno a dependence on machine-generated dance rhythms but comparisons are not without contention. Efforts to regress further into the past, in search of antecedents, entails a further regression, to the sequenced electronic music of Raymond Scott, whose "The Rhythm Modulator," "The Bass-Line Generator," and "IBM Probe" are considered early examples of technolike music. In a review of Scott's Manhattan Research Inc. compilation album the English newspaper The Independentsuggested that "Scott's importance lies mainly in his realization of the rhythmic possibilities of electronic music, which laid the foundation for all electro-pop from disco to techno." [cite news|title=Raymond Scott's Manhatten Research|date=2006-02-21|url=http://raymondscott.com/mripr.html|accessdate=2007-08-11 Extensive collection of review excerpts hosted on the Raymond Scott website. ] Another example of early EDM-like music has recently come to light (2008). On a tape, allegedly made in the mid to late 1960s by the original composer of the Dr. Whotheme, Delia Derbyshire, is evidence of music virtually indistinguishable from contemporary EDM. Paul Hartnoll, formerly of the dance group Orbitaldescribes the example as "quite amazing" and notes that it sounds not unlike something that "could be coming out next week on Warp Records". [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/7512072.stm Lost tapes of the Dr Who composer] news report hosted on the BBC News website.] It is also noteworthy that the possible influence of electronic music found in American sci-fimovie soundtracks, such as the work of Louis and Bebe Barronfor the film Forbidden Planet, appears to be unconsidered.
Music production practice
In general, techno is very DJ-friendly, being mainly
instrumental(commercial varieties being an exception) and is produced with the intention of its being heard in the context of a continuous DJ set, wherein the DJ progresses from one record to the next via a synchronized segueor "mix." [Butler, M.J., Unlocking the Groove: Rhythm, Meter, and Musical Design in Electronic Dance Music, Indiana University Press, 2006, (pp.12-13, p.94).] Much of the instrumentation in techno emphasizes the role of rhythmover other musical parameters, but the design of synthetic timbres, and the creative use of music production technology in general, are important aspects of the overall aesthetic practice.
The main drum part is almost universally in
common time(4/4); meaning 4 quarter notepulses per bar. [Butler, M.J., Unlocking the Groove: Rhythm, Meter, and Musical Design in Electronic Dance Music, Indiana University Press, 2006, (p. 8).] In its simplest form, timeis marked with kicks ( bass drumbeats) on each quarter-note pulse, a snare or clap on the second and fourth pulse of the bar, with an open hi-hatsound every second eighth note. This is essentially a disco(or even polka) drum pattern and is common throughout house music and its derivatives (of which techno is one). The tempotends to vary between approximately 120 bpm (quarter note equals 120 pulses per bar) and 150 bpm, depending on the style of techno.
Some of the drum programming employed in the original Detroit-based techno made use of
syncopationand polyrhythm, yet in many cases the basic disco-type pattern was used as a foundation, with polyrthythmic elaborations added using other drum machinevoices. It is this syncopated-feel ( funkiness) that distinguishes the Detroit strain of techno from other variants; indeed, this is a feature that many DJs and producers still use to distinguish their music from commercial forms of techno, the majority of which are devoid of syncopation. Derrick May has summed up the sound as 'Hi-tech Tribalism': something "very spiritual, very bass oriented, and very drum oriented, very percussive. The original techno music was very hi-tech with a very percussive feel... it was extremely, extremely Tribal. It feels like you're in some sort of hi-tech village."Derrick May [http://www.lunarmagazine.com/features/may.php interview] hosted at Atlanta's Lunar Magazine website]
EDM tends to be produced with the aid of instruments (synthesizer keyboards) that are designed with the Western musical tradition in mind. However, techno does not always adhere to conventional harmonic practice, [Fikentscher, K. (1991), "The Decline of Functional Harmony in Contemporary Dance Music", Paper presented at the 6th International Conference On Popular Music Studies, Berlin, Germany, July 15-20, 1991.] and such strictures are often ignored in favor of timbral manipulation alone. The use of motivic development (though relatively limited) and the employment of conventional musical frameworks is more widely found in commercial techno styles, for example
Euro-trance, where the template is often an AABA song structure.
There are numerous ways to create techno, but the vast majority depend upon the use of loop-based step sequencing as a compositional method. Many techno musicians, or "producers," rather than employing traditional compositional techniques, will work in an
Instruments utilized by the original techno producers based in Detroit, many of which are now highly sought after on the retro music technology market, include classic drum machines like the Roland
TR-808and TR-909, devices such as the Roland TB-303bass line generator, and synthesizers such as the Roland SH-101, Kawai KC10, Yamaha DX7, and Yamaha DX100 (as heard on Derrick May's seminal 1987 techno release "Nude Photo"). [Sicko, D. (1999), "Techno Rebels: The Renegades of Electronic Funk", Billboard Books, (p. 80)] Much of the early music sequencing was executed via MIDIusing hardware sequencers such as the Korg SQD1 and Roland MC-50, and the limited amount of sampling that was featured in this early style was accomplished using an Akai S900. [Keyboard Magazine Vol. 21, No.7 (issue #231), July 1995, "12 Who Count: Juan Atkins".]
The TR-808 and TR-909 drum machines have since achieved legendary status, a fact that is now reflected in the prices sought for used devices. During the 1980s the 808 became the staple beat machine in
Hip hopproduction while the 909 found it's home in House musicand techno. It was "the pioneers of Detroit techno [who] were making the 909 the rhythmic basis of their sound, and setting the stage for the rise of Roland's vintage Rhythm Composer". In November 1995 the UK music technology magazine Sound on Soundnoted that: [ [http://www.soundonsound.com/sos/1995_articles/nov95/rolandtr909.html 909 LIVES!] : Overview of the Roland TR-909 drum machine published by Sound on Sound magazine in November 1995.] Cquote|"There can be few hi-tech instruments which still command a second-hand price only slightly lower than their original selling price 10 years after their launch. Roland's now near-legendary TR-909 is such an example -- released in 1984 with a retail price of £999, they now fetch up to £900 on the second-hand market! The irony of the situation is that barely a year after its launch, the 909 was being 'chopped out' by hi-tech dealers for around £375, to make way for the then-new TR-707 and TR-727. Prices hit a new low around 1988, when you could often pick up a second-user 909 for under £200 -- and occasionally even under £100. Musicians all over the country are now garrotting themselves with MIDI leads as they remember that 909 they sneered at for £100 -- or worse, the one they sold for £50 (did you ever hear the one about the guy who gave away his TB-303 Bassline -- now worth anything up to £900 from true loony collectors -- because he couldn't sell it?" By May 1996 Sound on Sound was reporting that the popularity of the 808 had started to decline, with the rarer TR-909 taking it's place as "the dance floor drum machine to use". This is thought to have arisen for a number of reasons: the 909 gives more control over the drum sounds, has better programming and includes MIDI as standard. Sound on Sound reported that the 909 was selling for between £900 and £1100 and noted that the 808 was still collectible, but maximum prices had peaked at about £700 to £800. [ [http://www.soundonsound.com/sos/1997_articles/may97/rolandtr808.html 808 Statement] : Overview of the Roland TR-808 drum machine published by Sound on Sound magazine in May 1997.] Such prices have held in the 12 years since the article was published, this can be evidenced by a quick search on eBay.
In the latter half of the 1990s the demand for vintage drum machines and synthesisers motivated a number of software companies to produce computer based emulators. One of the most notable was the "
ReBirth RB-338", produced by the Swedish company Propellerheadand originally released in May 1997. [ [http://www.soundonsound.com/sos/1997_articles/aug97/rebirthaug97.html BORN WIBBLY] Steinberg/Propellerheads Rebirth RB-338 v2.0 Techno Microcomposer Software For Mac & Pc.Overview of the original ReBirth RB-338 published by Sound on Sound magazine in November 1998] Version one of the software featured two TB-303's and a TR-808 only but the release of version two saw the inclusion of a TR-909. A Sound on Sound review of the RB-338 V2 in November 1998 noted that Rebirth had been called "the ultimate techno software package" and mentions that it was "a considerable software success story of 1997". [ [http://www.soundonsound.com/sos/nov98/articles/rebirth.htm THE COOL OF REBIRTH] Steinberg/Propellerheads Rebirth RB-338 v2.0 Techno Microcomposer Software For Mac & Pc.Overview of the ReBirth RB-338 V2 published by Sound on Sound magazine in November 1998] In America "Keyboard Magazine" asserted that ReBirth had "opened up a whole new paradigm: modeled analog synthesiser tones, percussion synthesis, pattern based sequencing, all integrated in one piece of software". [Jim Aikin, Keyboard Magazine, reprinted in Software Synthesizers: The Definitive Guide to Virtual Musical Instruments. Backbeat Books, 2003.] Despite the success of ReBirth RB-338, it was officially taken out of production in September 2005. Propellerhead then made it freely available for download from a website called the "ReBirth Museum". The site also features extensive information about the software's history and development. [ [http://www.rebirthmuseum.com/ ReBirth Museum] ] In March 2001, with the release of Reason V1, Propellerhead upped the ante in providing a £300 software based electronic music studio, comprising a 14-input automated digital mixer, 99-note polyphonic 'analogue' synth, classic Roland-style drum machine, sample-playback unit, analogue-style step sequencer, loop player, multitrack sequencer, eight effects processors, and over 500Mb of synthesiser patches and samples. With this release Propellerhead were credited with "creating a buzz that only happens when a product has really tapped into the zeitgeist, and may just be the one that many [were] waiting for." [ [http://www.soundonsound.com/sos/mar01/articles/propellorhead.asp REASONS TO BE CHEERFUL] Propellerhead Software Reason Virtual Music Studio. Published by Sound on Sound magazine in March 2001 ] Reason has since achieved popular appeal and is now (as of April 2008) at version 4. [Overview of [http://www.propellerheads.se/products/reason/ Reason 4] hosted at the Propellerhead website.]
In recent years, as computer technology has become more accessible and
music softwarehas advanced, interacting with music production technology is now possible using means that bear no relationship to traditional musical performance practices: [Emmerson, S. (2007), "Living Electronic Music", Ashgate, Adlershot, pp. 111-113.] for instance, laptop performance ("laptronica") [Emmerson, S. (2007), pp. 80-81.] and live coding. [Emmerson, S. (2007), pp. 115.] [Collins, N.(2003a), Generative Music and Laptop Performance, "Contemporary Music Review": Vol. 22, Issue 4. London: Routledge: 67-79.] In the last decade a number of software-based virtual studio environments have emerged, with products such as Propellerhead's Reason and Ableton Livefinding popular appeal. [ [http://www.wintermusicconference.com/events/idmas/winners2008.php 23rd Annual International Dance Music Awards:] Best Audio Editing Software of the Year - 1st Abelton Live , 4th Reason. Best Audio DJ Software of the Year - Abelton Live.] These software-based music production tools provide viable and cost-effective alternatives to typical hardware-based production studios, and thanks to advances in microprocessortechnology, it is now possible to create high quality music using little more than a single laptop computer. Such advances have, for better or for worse, democratized music creation, [Chadabe, J., Electronic music and life, "Organised Sound", 9(1): 3–6, 2004 Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom.] leading to a massive increase in the amount of home-produced music available to the general public via the internet. Artists can now also individuate their sound by creating personalized software synthesizers, effects modules, and various composition environments. Devices that once existed exclusively in the hardware domain can easily have virtual counterparts. Some of the more popular software tools for achieving such ends are commercial releases such as Max/Mspand Reaktorand freewarepackages such as Pure Data, SuperCollider, and ChucK. In some sense, as a result of technological innovation, the DIY mentality that was once a core part of dance music culture [St. John, G.(ed.), "FreeNRG: Notes From the Edge of the Dance Floor", Common Ground, Melbourne, 2001,(pp. 93-102).] [Rietveld, H (1998), "Repetitive Beats: Free Parties and the Politics of Contemporary DIY Dance Culture in Britain", in George McKay (ed.), "DIY Culture: Party and Protest in Nineties Britain", pp.243–67. London: Verso.] is seeing a resurgence. [ [http://www.indymedia.org.uk/ Indy Media] item mentioning DIY resurgence: [http://www.indymedia.org.uk/en/regions/london/2005/05/311472.html "One year of DIY Culture"] ] [Gillmor, D., [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/4789852.stm "Technology feeds grassroots media"] , BBC news report, published Thursday, 9 March 2006, 17:30 GMT.]
* Daniel Bell (USA/Detroit)
Joey Beltram(USA/New York)
C. J. Bolland(Belgium)
Frankie Bones(USA/New York)
* The Black Dog (UK)
A Guy Called Gerald(UK)
* LFO (UK)
* Derrick May (USA/Detroit)
* Orbital (UK)
* Regis (UK)
* Slam (Scotland)
* Surgeon (UK)
* System 7 (UK)
* Umek (Slovenia)
* UR (USA/Detroit)
* Underworld (UK)
Adam X(USA/New York)
Detroit Electronic Music Archive
* Anz, P. & Walder, P. (eds.),"Techno", Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1999 (ISBN 3908010144).
* Barr, T., "Techno: The Rough Guide", Rough Guides, 2000 (ISBN 978-1858284347).
* Brewster B. & Broughton F., "Last Night a DJ Saved My Life: The History of the Disc Jockey", Avalon Travel Publishing, 2006, (ISBN 978-0802136886).
* Butler, M.J., "Unlocking the Groove: Rhythm, Meter, and Musical Design in Electronic Dance Music", Indiana University Press, 2006 (ISBN 978-0253218049).
* Cannon, S. & Dauncey, H., "Popular Music in France from Chanson to Techno: Culture, Identity and Society", Ashgate, 2003 (ISBN 978-0754608493).
* Collin, M., "Altered State: The Story of Ecstasy Culture and Acid House", Serpent's Tail, 1998 (ISBN 978-1852426040).
* Cox, C.(Author), Warner D (Editor), "Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music", Continuum International Publishing Group Ltd., 2004 (ISBN 978-0826416155).
* Fritz, J., "Rave Culture: An Insider's Overview", Smallfry Press, 2000 (ISBN 978-0968572108).
* Kodwo, E., "More Brilliant Than the Sun: Adventures in Sonic Fiction", Quartet Books, 1998 (ISBN 978-0704380257).
* Nelson, A., Tu, L.T.N., Headlam Hines, A. (eds.), "TechniColor: Race, Technology and Everyday Life", New York University Press, 2001 (ISBN 978-0814736043).
* Pesch, M. (Author), Weisbeck, M. (Editor), "Techno Style: The Album Cover Art", Edition Olms; 5Rev Ed edition, 1998 (ISBN 978-3283002909).
* Rietveld, H.C., "This is Our House: House Music, Cultural Spaces and Technologies", Ashgate Publishing, Aldershot, 1998 (ISBN 978-1857422429).
* Reynolds, S., "Energy Flash: a Journey Through Rave Music and Dance Culture", Pan Macmillan, 1998 [also published in abridged form as "Generation Ecstasy: Into the World of Techno and Rave Culture", Routledge, New York 1999] (ISBN 978-0330350563).
* Savage, J., "The Hacienda Must Be Built", International Music Publications, 1992 (ISBN 978-0863598579).
* Sicko, D., "Techno Rebels: The Renegades of Electronic Funk", Billboard Books, 1999 (ISBN 978-0823084289).
* St. John, G., "Rave Culture and Religion", Routledge, 2003 (ISBN 978-0415314497).
* St. John, G.(ed.), "FreeNRG: Notes From the Edge of the Dance Floor", Common Ground, Melbourne, 2001 (ISBN 978-1863350846).
* Toop, D., "Ocean of Sound", Serpent's Tail, 2001 [new edition] (ISBN 978-1852427436).
* Watten, B., "The Constructivist Moment: From Material Text to Cultural Poetics", Wesleyan University Press, 2003 (ISBN 978-0819566102).
*"High Tech Soul" - Catalog No.: PLX-029; Label: Plexifilm; Released:
2006-09-19; Director: Gary Bredow; Length: 64 minutes.
* "Technomania" - Released: 1996 (screened at [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1248/is_n10_v84/ai_18749030/pg_6 "NowHere"] , an exhibition held at Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, Denmark, between May 15th and September 8th 1996); Director: Franz A. Pandal; Length: 52 minutes.
* "Tresor Berlin: The Vault and the Electronic Frontier" - Pyramids of London Films; Released 2004; Director: Michael Andrawis; Length: 62 minutes
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RSX_r0u3uzE&feature=related "Universal Techno"] - Label: Les Films à Lou; Released: 1996; Director: Dominique Deluze; Length: 63 minutes.
*"WE CALL IT TECHNO!" - A documentary about Germany’s early Techno scene and culture - Label: Sense Music & Media, Berlin, DE; Released:
June 2008; A film by Maren Sextro & Holger Wick.
* [http://www.soundsliketechno.com.au/ Sounds Like Techno] – an online documentary exploring techno music, from its roots and early influences in the USA to its place in Australian music today.an exhibit at Detroit Historical Museum (Jan 2003 – Jun 2004).
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bwzTpCGLchs Korg EMX Summer in Detroit] - A video example of techno being performed live.
* [http://www.photophunk.com photophunk.com] - club 'n' dance photo archive with hundreds of djs, liveacts and bands.
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YuCU14SfzNE&feature=related Clip] from a 1989 documentary featuring interviews with Gerald Simpson (A Guy Called Gerald) and Derrick May.
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