- Riot Grrrl
Infobox Music genre
Punk Rock, Hardcore Punk, Anarcho punk, Street Punk, indie rock, indie pop, girl groups
third wave feminism, queer theory, straight edge
Pacific Northwestand Washington DC, United States
Electric guitar- Bass - drums
popularity=Early 1990s, primarily underground
regional_scenes=Washington State, Washington, D.C.
Feminism, Grunge, Guerrilla Girls, Queercore, Third-wave feminism
Riot grrrl was an underground
feministpunk movement that started in the early 1990s, and is often associated with third-wave feminism(it is sometimes seen as its starting point). However, riot grrrl's emphasis on universal female identity and separatism often appears more closely allied with second-wave feminism than with the third wave. Rosenberg, Jessica, Gitana Garofalo, 'Riot Grrrl: Revolutions from within' in "Signs", Vol. 23, No. 3, Feminisms and Youth Cultures (Spring, 1998)] Riot grrrl bands often address issues such as rape, domestic abuse, sexuality, and female empowerment. Some bands associated with the movement are: Bikini Kill, Bratmobile, Excuse 17, Heavens to Betsy, Huggy Bear, Sleater-Kinney, and Team Dresch. In addition to a music scene, riot grrrl is also a subculture; zines, the DIYethic, art, political action, and activism are part of the movement. Riot grrrls hold meetings, start chapters, and support and organize women in music. Schilt, Kristen, '"A Little Too Ironic": The Appropriation and Packaging of Riot Grrrl Politics by Mainstream Female Musicians' in "Popular Music and Society", Vol. 26, 2003]
In the early 1990s, many young women involved in
underground musicscenes throughout the United States articulated their feminist thoughts and desires through the "Do-It-Yourself" methods of making punk-rock fanzines and forming garage bands. The political model of collage-based, photocopied handbills and booklets was already used by the punk movement as a way to activate underground music, leftistpolitics and alternative (to mainstream) sub-cultures. Many women found that while they identified with a larger, music-oriented subculture, they often had little to no voice in their local scenes, so they took it upon themselves to represent their own interests by making their own fanzines, music and art.
In 1991, in what many believe to be an unorganized collective response to the Christian Coalition's
Right to Lifeattack on abortionand the Senate Judiciary Hearings of Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas--in which Anita Hillaccused Thomas of sexual harassment and was mocked by the media--young feminist voices were heard through multiple protests, actions and events (L7's Rock for Choice) that would later become part of a larger organized consciousness. This consciousness coalesced in late 1991 under the movement known as "riot grrrl."
Women and bands often cited as important influences to this movement in feminism include but are not limited to:
Suzi Quatro, X-Ray Spex, Crass, The Avengers, Yoko Ono, Joan Jettand The Runaways, The Slits, L7, Lunachicks, Ann Magnusonof Bongwater, Gladys Bentley, The Plasmatics, Siouxsie and the Banshees, The Ronettes, The Raincoats, Aretha Franklin, Betty Davis, The Shirelles, Honey Bane, Ma Rainey, Moe Tucker, Big in Japan, Judy Nylon, Nico, Bush Tetras, Au Pairs, Niagara, Sharon Cheslow, Penetration, The Shaggs, Rubella Ballet, LiLiPUT, Lydia Lunch, Poison Girls, Exene Cervenkaof X, Julia Cafritzof Pussy Galore, Le Butcherettes; a band of two women that sing about women social issues using raw meat and blood, The Nuns, The Bags, Frightwig, The Shop Assistants, Kim Gordon, Yeastie Girlsand others; feminist artists like Carolee Schneemann, Lynda Benglis, Yayoi Kusama, Martha Rosler, Johanna Went, Diamanda Galás, and Barbara Kruger; and writers such as Angela Davis, Kathy Acker, bell hooks, Gertrude Stein, Julia Kristeva, and Emma Goldman.
Uses and meanings of the term 'Riot Grrrl' developed slowly over time, but its etymological origins can be traced to the actual Mount Pleasant race riots in spring 1991. Writing in "Dance of Days: Two Decades of Punk in the Nation's Capital", Mark Andersen reports that early
Bratmobilemember Jen Smith (later of Rastro! and The Quails), reacted to the violence by prophetically writing in a letter to Allison Wolfe: "This summer's going to be a girl riot." Other reports say she wrote, "We need to start a girl riot." Soon afterwards, Wolfe and Molly Neumancollaborated with Kathleen Hannaand Tobi Vailto create a new zine and called it "Riot Grrrl", combining the "riot" with an oft-used phrase that first appeared in Vail's fanzine "Jigsaw": "angry grrls".
"Revolution Grrrl Style Now"
Although they're known for frequently denying exclusive credit for the movement, two bands in particular remain inextricably linked to its early formation.
Kathleen Hannahad been working as an exotic dancerto support herself, volunteering at a women's shelter, and studying photographyat Evergreen State Collegein Olympia, where she'd opened her own small art gallerycalled Reko Muse, and would frequently have bands like The Go Teamand Some Velvet Sidewalkplay in between art exhibitions (partially just to keep the gallery running). While there, she started a band herself called Amy Carter with fellow gallery-founders Heidi Arbogast and Tammy Rae Carlandto open at shows. After touring with some other projects like Viva Knievel, she hooked up with The Go Team drummerand zinester Tobi Vail, who'd been writing of her own experiences:
I feel completely left out of the realm of everything that is so important to me. And I know that this is partly because punk rock is for and by boys mostly and partly because punk rock of this generation is coming of age in a time of mindless
They started working together on another fanzine called "Bikini Kill", which would eventually become a band after recruiting friends
Kathi Wilcoxand Billy "Boredom" Karren.
Allison Wolfe met Molly Neuman at the
University of Oregon, and while Wolfe was turning Neuman onto bands like Beat Happeningand The Melvins, Neuman was introducing Wolfe to sociologyclasses and Public Enemy.
They began working on zines called "
Girl Germs", and later " [http://zinewiki.com/index.php?title=Riot_grrrl_%28zine%29 riot grrrl] " with Vail and Hanna.
It was a really
hippietown, and we were getting really politicized, but also really into this DIY thing, so we kinda started creating. 'Let's make our own fanzine!' ["Cinderella's Big Score: Women of the Punk and Indie Underground" by Maria Raha]
Wolfe and Neuman started frequenting shows by bands like
Fugaziand Nirvana, bragging every chance they got about their band Bratmobile (which at the time didn't really exist yet). In 1990 though, Calvin Johnson called them up and asked them to play a show on Valentine's Daywith Some Velvet Sidewalk and Bikini Kill, which had just started. Terrified at first, insisting they weren't really a band and having only played a few garagey jam sessions at each others' houses, they finally accepted it as a dare and played the show at Olympia's North Shore Surf club. After eventually hooking up with guitarist Erin Smith in March '91, they finally started playing together as a trio just in time for the IPU convention in August of that year.
International Pop Underground Convention
August 20- August 25, 1991, K Recordsheld an indie music festival called the International Pop Underground (IPU) Convention. A promotional poster reads:
As the corporate ogre expands its creeping influence on the minds of industrialized youth, the time has come for the International Rockers of the World to convene in celebration of our grand independence. Hangman hipsters, new modrockers, sidestreet walkers, scooter-mounted dream girls, punks, teds, the instigators of the Love Rock Explosion, the editors of every angry grrrl zine, the plotters of youth rebellion in every form, the midwestern
librarians and Scottish skiinstructors who live by night, all are setting aside August 20-25, 1991 as the time.
An all-female bill on the first night called "Love Rock Revolution Girl Style Now" signalled a major step in the movement, featuring artists like Bratmobile,
Heavens to Betsy, Nikki McClure, Lois Maffeo, Jean Smithof Mecca Normal, 7 Year Bitch, and 2 side projects of Kathleen Hanna: the first was Suture with Sharon Cheslowof Chalk Circle (DC's first all-women punk band) and Dug E. Bird of Beefeater, the second was the Wondertwins with Tim Green of Nation of Ulysses. It was here that so many zinesterpeople who'd only known each other from networking, mail, or talking on the phone, finally met and were brought together by an entire night of music dedicated to, for, and by women.
The following days would also feature bands like
Unwound, L7, The Fastbacks, The Spinanes, Shadowy Men on a Shadowy Planet, Girl Trouble, The Pastels, Kicking Giant, Rose Melberg, Seaweed, Kreviss, I Scream Truck, Scrawl, Nation of Ulysses, The Melvins, Jad Fair, Thee Headcoats, and Steve Fisk.
Influenced heavily by
DIY culture, most bands' presentation subverted traditional or classically trained 'musicianship' in favor of raw, primitive, avant- lo-fipassion and fiercely deliberate amateurism: an idea growing rapidly in popularity, especially in the Olympia music scene, with bands like Beat Happening coining the slogans: "Learn how to NOT play your instrument" and "hey, you don't have to sound like the flavor of the month, all you have to do is sound like yourselves", arguing that traditional musical skill doesn't ultimately matter and should always be subservient to the passion, the fun and ideas in their music. This argument is similar to the ideological origins of punk rock itself, which started partially as an attempt to dissolve the growing division between audience and performer. These indie-punk bands (and riot grrrl bands in particular) were often ridiculed for "not being able to play their instruments", but fans are quick to counter that identical criticisms were often faced by the first-wave of punk rock bands in the 70s, and that this DIY garage amateurism "play just 'cause you wanna, no matter what" attitude was one of the most appealing and liberating aspects of both movements.
Quickly amassing a devoted cult audience, the riot grrrl bands worked to ensure their shows were safe spaces in which women could find solidarity and create their own subculture, thus setting the tone for much of the movement. Consciousness-raising activist-punk group meetings began taking place in international chapters, held in any available space from
dorm rooms to community centres to studio apartments, soon becoming much bigger things like conventions and conferences, one of the first of which took place from July 31- August 2, 1992in Washington, DC.
Other bands and artists associated with the riot grrrl movement in one way or another include
Mecca Normal, Slant 6, Sta-Prest, Sue P. Fox, Jenny Toomey, Autoclave, Jack Off Jill, Raooul, Nomy Lamm, Excuse 17, Oiler, Canopy, Third Sex, Cheesecake, CWA (Cunts with Attitude), Tattle Tale, Growing Up Skipper, The Need, Team Dresch, Fifth Column, Bangs, Free Kitten, Emily's sassy lime, The PeeChees; in the UK, bands like Huggy Bear, Mambo Taxi, Skinned Teen, Pussycat Trash, The Phantom Pregnancies, Linus, Budget Girls, Sister George, Karen Ablaze, and Voodoo Queens; and in Asia, bands like Hang on the Box, Nonstop Body, Red Bacteria Vacuum, and Lolita No. 18.
However, it's also worth noting that there were quite a few girl-centric or all-women punk bands of this era like
7 Year Bitch, Red Aunts, Thee Headcoatees, or Spitboy, who were plenty independent and political themselves, but didn't necessarily self-identify with the 'riot grrrl' label, despite sharing similar DIY tactics and feminist ideologies.
Zines and self publishing
Even as the Seattle-area rock scene came to international mainstream media attention, riot grrrl remained a willfully underground phenomenon. Most musicians shunned the major record labels, devotedly working instead with indie labels such as
Kill Rock Stars, K Records, Slampt, Piao! Records, Catcall, WIIIJAand Chainsaw Records. The movement also figured fairly prominently in cassette culture, with artists often starting their own DIY cassette labels by as basic and spartan a means as recording their music onto cheap off-the-shelf boom-boxes and passing the cassettes out to friends, seldom charging anything beyond the cost of the actual tapes themselves.
Riot grrrl's momentum was also hugely supported by an explosion of creativity in defiantly homemade cut-and-paste,
xeroxed, collagey zines that covered a variety of feminist topics, frequently attempting to draw out the political implications of intensely personal experiences with sexism, mental illness, body imageand eating disorders, sexual abuse, racism, rape, discrimination, stalking, domestic violence, incest, homosexuality, and sometimes vegetarianism. These zines were archived by [http://zinewiki.com/index.php?title=Main_Page zinewiki.com] , and Riot Grrrl Press, started in Washington DC in 1992 by Erika Reinstein & May Summer. Others can be found anthologized in "A Girl's Guide to Taking over the World: Writings from the Girl Zine Revolution", for which actress/ singer/ musician/ writer/ performance artist Ann Magnusonof Bongwater fame wrote as a foreword:
When I think of how much benefit my teenage self could have gained from the multitude of zines that have proliferated over the past decade, I weep for all the lost potential. Except for
Joan of Arcand Anne Frank, the thoughts of teenage girls have rarely been taken seriously.
Many of the women involved with
queercorewere also interested in riot grrrl, and zines such as " Chainsaw" by Donna Dresch, "Sister Nobody", "Jane Gets A Divorce" and "I (heart) Amy Carter" by Tammy Rae Carlandembody both movements. There were also national conventions like in Washington D.C. or the Pussystockfestival in New York City, as well as various subsequent indie-documentaries like "Don't Need You: the Herstoryof Riot Grrrl".
Although many riot grrrl bands included male band members, like
Billy Karrenof Bikini Killor Jon Slade and Chris Rowley of Huggy Bear, the bands weren't always so enthusiastically received at shows by male audience members. Bands like Bikini Kill would often actively invite members of the audience to talk about their personal experiences with sensitive issues like sexual abuse, pass out lyric sheets to everyone in the audience girl and boy, and almost always demand that the mosh boys move to the back or side to allow space in front for the girls in the audience, a controversial decision which sometimes led to booing(and sometimes violence) and once caused " Melody Maker" to accuse them and riot grrrl in general of misandry, a common criticism.
Punk Planet" editor Daniel Sinker wrote in "We Owe You Nothing":
The vehemence fanzines large and small reserved for riot grrrl - and Bikini Kill in particular - was shocking. The punk zine editors' use of '
bitches', ' cunts', 'man-haters', and 'dykes' was proof-positive that sexism was still strong in the punk scene. Kathi Wilcoxsaid in a fanzine interview:
I've been in a state of surprise for several years about this very thing. I don't know why so-called punk rockers are so threatened by a little shake-up of the truly boring dynamic of the standard show atmosphere. How fresh is the idea of fifty sweaty hardcore boys slamming into each other or jumping on each others' heads? Granted, it's kind of cool to be on stage and have action in the front, much more inspiring than to look out at a crowd of zombies, but so often the survival-of-the-fittest principle is in operation in the pit, and what girl wants to go up against a pack of Rollins boys who usually only want to be extra mean to her anyway just to make her "prove" her place in the pit. This was the case when I was first going to shows, and it's sad that things haven't changed at all since. And I usually took the attitude of "Fuck them, I don't care if I DIE in there cuz I can be in front for this band I want to see," and I was kind of into the violent aspect of it anyway. But it would have been so cool if at one of these shows someone onstage would have said, hey let's have more girls up in the front, just so I could have had more company and girls over to side could have seen better/been in the action.
So yeah, we do encourage girls to the front, and sometimes when shows have gotten really violent (like when we were in England) we had to ask the boys to move to the side or the back because it was just too fucking scary for us, after several attacks and threats, to face another sea of hostile boy-faces right in the front. Especially when it was at the expense of girls who really wanted to see us and liked us anyway, who stayed in the back. And it's also for the safety of the boys, because a few times the girls have gotten a little out of control, like when we played with the rocking
Tribe 8, if I was a boy I would stay far away from the wild chicks in the pit, FOR REAL.
As far as why people are scared, well cool boys and the real punk rockers know that shaking up the scene can be a good thing and aren't necessarily as reactionary as the poseurs who get all their ideas and fashion tips from
Mtv. It's just like real life. [ [http://www.flickr.com/photo_zoom.gne?id=154041389&size=l zine scan] ]
Bands would often reappropriate ordinarily derogatory phrases like 'cunt', 'bitch', 'dyke' and '
slut' (the very same words often received from male audience members), writing them proudly on their skin with lipstickor fat markers, thus nullifying their attempted offensive power and making them ultimately harmless and funny.
Kathleen Hanna would later write:
It was also super schizo to play shows where guys threw stuff at us, called us cunts and yelled "take it off" during our set, and then the next night perform for throngs of amazing girls singing along to every lyric and cheering after every song. [ [http://www.letigreworld.com/sweepstakes/html_site/fact/khfacts.html http://www.letigreworld.com/sweepstakes/html_site/fact/khfacts.html] "Letigreworld.com" ]
Molly Neuman once summarized: "We're not anti-boy, we're pro-girl." [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fJmvaPdPG5Y&mode=related&search= http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fJmvaPdPG5Y&mode=related&search=] "YouTube.com" ]
Indeed, members of riot grrrl culture, fans or members of bands, include males too. Calvin Johnson and
Slim Moonhave been instrumental in publishing a great many of the bands on the labels they founded, K Recordsand Kill Rock Starsrespectively. Alec Empireof Atari Teenage Riotsaid, "I was totally into the riot grrrl music, I see it as a very important form of expression. I learned a lot from that, way more maybe than from 'male' punk rock." Dave Grohland Kurt Cobaindated Kathleen Hanna and Tobi Vail (also respectively), and often played with Bikini Kill even after splitting with them; Kurt was a big fan of The Slitsand even convinced The Raincoatsto reform. He once said, "The future of rock belongs to women." ["Grrrls: Viva Rock Divas" by Amy Raphael]
As media attention increasingly focused on Grunge and Alternative Rock in the early nineties, the term 'Riot Grrrl' was often applied to less political (and less independent) female
alternative rockacts such as 7 Year Bitch, Babes in Toyland, The Breeders, The Gits, Hole, L7, PJ Harvey, Veruca Salt, and even No Doubt. To their chagrin, riot grrrls found themselves in the media spotlight during 1992, accused of dragging feminism into the mosh pitin magazines from "Seventeen" to " Newsweek". This increased press coverage led to conflict within the riot grrrl community as many felt that the culture was being misappropriated by the media against the movement's will and its radical message marginalized, as well as adversely affecting their private lives, with the media often deliberately lying and relying largely on erroneous speculation and conjecture about personal information and motivations. [ [http://www.papercoffin.com/misc/riot%20archives/riot%20docs/bkis.html http://www.papercoffin.com/misc/riot%20archives/riot%20docs/bkis.html] "Papercoffin.com" ] [ [http://medlem.spray.se/aboutkathleen/in2.html http://medlem.spray.se/aboutkathleen/in2.html] "Medlem.spray.se" ] Fallout from the media coverage led to resignations of people like Jessica Hopper, who was at the center of the "Newsweek" article. Kathleen Hanna called that year for "a press block". In an essay from January 1994, included in the CD version of Bikini Kill's first two records, Tobi Vail responded to media simplifications and mis-characterization of Riot Grrrl:
one huge misconception for instance that has been repeated over and over again in magazines we have never spoken to and also by those who believe these sources without checking things out themselves is that Bikini Kill is the definitive 'riot girl band' ... We are not in anyway 'leaders of' or authorities on the 'Riot Girl' movement. In fact, as individuals we have each had different experiences with, feelings on, opinions of and varying degrees of involvement with 'Riot Girl' and though we totally respect those who still feel that label is important and meaningful to them, we have never used that term to describe ourselves AS A BAND. As individuals we respect and utilize and subscribe to a variety of different aesthetics, strategies, and beliefs, both political and punk-wise, some of which are probably considered 'riot girl.'
historian/performance artist Sharon Cheslowsaid in EMP's "Riot Grrrl Retrospective" documentary:
There were a lot of very important ideas that I think the mainstream media couldn't handle, so it was easier to focus on the fact that these were girls who were wearing
barrettes in their hairor writing 'slut' on their stomach. Corin Tuckerof Heavens to Betsyand Sleater-Kinneysaid:
I think it was deliberate that we were made to look like we were just ridiculous girls parading around in our
underwear. They refused to do serious interviewswith us, they misprinted what we had to say, they would take our articles, and our fanzines, and our essaysand take them out of context. We wrote a lot about sexual abuseand sexual assaultfor teenagersand young women. I think those are really important concepts that the media "never" addressed. [ [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vw3aIijPXws http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vw3aIijPXws] "YouTube.com" ]
By the mid-nineties, riot grrl had severely splintered. Many within the movement felt that the mainstream media had completely misrepresented their message, and that the politically radical aspects of riot grrrl had been subverted by the likes of the
Spice Girlsand their " girl power" message, or co-opted by ostensibly women-centered bands and festivals (though sometimes with only one female performer per band) like Lilith Fair.
However, the influence of riot grrrl can still be felt in many aspects of indie and punk rock culture.
Kaia Wilsonof Team Dreschand multimedia artist Tammy Rae Carlandwent on to form the now-defunct Mr. Lady Recordswhich released albums by The Butchies, The Need, Kiki and Herb, and Tracy + the Plastics.
Many of the women involved in riot grrrl are still active in creating politically charged music. Kathleen Hanna went on to found the electro-feminist post-punk '
protestpop' group Le Tigre, Kathi Wilcox joined [http://profile.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=user.viewprofile&friendID=36448217 the Casual Dots] with Christina Billotteof Slant 6, and Tobi Vail formed [http://www.myspace.com/spiderandthewebs Spider and the Webs] . Corin Tuckerof Heavens to Betsy and Carrie Brownsteinof Excuse 17 co-founded Sleater-Kinney at the tail end of the movement, and Bratmobile reunited in 2000 to release two albums, before Allison Wolfe began singing with a new all-women band, Partyline. Molly Neuman now plays with New York punk band Love Or Perishand runs her own indie label called Simple Social Graces Discos, as well as co-owning Lookout! Recordsand managing The Donnas, Ted Leo, Some Girls, and The Locust.
In addition, girl-positive independent music festivals such as
Ladyfestcontinue to thrive, and many DIY elements promoted by the early riot grrrl tradition endure in other contemporary independent female bands, whether or not they personally self-identify with the movement, including The Gossip, Erase Errata, Scarling., Swan Island, Mika Miko, The Peppermints, Comet Gain, The Husbands, Lung Leg, Panty Raid, the tigers, Gravy Train!!!!, The Riff Randells, LOOK LOOK (dancing boys), Manic Cough, titti!, Comanechi, Winelord, Le Paper Dolls!, Follow That Bird!, FINALLY PUNK, BEESSIES FOREVER, Care Bears On Fire, Tricrotic, Tu Seras TerriblemenT Gentille, Tamar-Kali, The Deptford Beach Babes, Misty Martinez, The A-Lines, Las Pulpas, New Bloods, The Magik Markers, Les Georges Leningrad, MODERN REVERIES, Shoplifting, Caroliner Rainbow, The Shondesand Peaches.
The legacy of riot grrrl is clearly visible in numerous girls and women worldwide who cite the movement as an interest or an influence on their lives and/or their work. Some just listen to riot grrrl bands while others form or join bands themselves, slowly paving the way for fulfillment of one of the goals of original riot grrrl - increasing the number and significance of women in alternative music and music in general. Some of them are self-proclaimed riot grrrls while others consider themselves simply admirers or fans. There are many
fansitesand message boardsfor riot grrrl on the Internet.
In the foreword to "Riot Grrrl: Revolution Girl Style Now!"
Beth Dittowrites of riot grrrl,
A movement formed by a handful of girls who felt empowered, who were angry, hilarious, and extreme through and for each other. Built on the floors of strangers' living rooms, tops of Xerox machines, snail mail, word of mouth and mixtapes, riot grrrl reinvented punk. [Monem, Nadine. (2007)"Riot Grrrl: Revolution Style Girl Now!" Black Dog Publishing, London UK. P.8]
Writing about riot grrrl's personal influence on her and her music, she muses on the meaning of the movement for her generation,
Until I found riot grrrl, or riot grrrl found me I was just another Gloria Steinem NOW feminist trying to take a stand in shop class. Now I am a musician, a writer, a whole person. [Monem, Nadine. (2007)"Riot Grrrl: Revolution Style Girl Now!" Black Dog Publishing, London UK. P.8]
Relation to feminism
Riot grrrl culture is often associated with
third wave feminism, which also grew rapidly during the same early nineties timeframe. It is often viewed as a third wave feminismcultural movement, and sometimes seen as its starting point. However, riot grrrl's emphasis on universal female identity and separatism often seems more closely allied with second wave feminism.Fact|date=February 2007 On the other hand, third wave feminism attempted to foster an acceptance of the diversity of feminist expression.Fact|date=February 2007 Riot grrrl arose after the queercoremovement, although the distinction between the two movements is at times blurred, given bands such as Team Dreschand Fifth Columnwho embraced both genres. Riot grrrl lyrics often address issues such as rape, domestic abuse, sexuality and female empowerment. Nomy Lammhas said:
I'd never had feminism presented to me in any way that was interesting at all, like all I knew of feminism was that it was like you can then work in a
corporationand get paid the same amount as a man. Corin Tuckersaid:
The whole point of riot grrrl was that we were able to re-write feminism for the 21st century. Feminism was a concept that our mothers and that generation had, but for teenagers there wasn't any kind of real access to feminism. It was written in a language that was
academic, that was inaccessible to young women. And we took those ideas and re-wrote them in our own vernacular.
List of all-women bands
Rock Against Sexism
* [http://zinewiki.com/index.php?title=Main_Page zinewiki.com]
* [http://www.myspace.com/portraitcollection/ The Riot Grrrl Portrait Collection
* [http://www.freewebs.com/riotgrrrluk/index.htm/ Riot Grrrl UK site]
* [http://www.linusland.co.uk/Andy93.html Andy from Linus's 1993 diary] —a glimpse into the UK riot grrrl scene at that time
* [http://www.stewarthomesociety.org/cranked/leftone.htm Cranked Up Really High. Chapter IX: Suck My Left One] , by Stewart Home
* [http://www.hot-topic.org/riotgrrrl/ Riot Grrrl Online Forums]
* [http://riotgrrrlonline.wordpress.com/ Riot Grrrl Blog]
* [http://www.emplive.org/exhibits/index.asp?categoryID=129&ccID=135 Riot Grrrl Retrospective] at the
Experience Music Project
* [http://grrrlzines.net/zines/N.htm grrrl zine archive]
* [http://queercontrol.com Queer Control Records]
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