Bone: Maxilla Side view. Maxilla visible at bottom left, in green. Front view. Maxilla visible at center, in yellow. Gray's subject #38 157 Precursor 1st branchial arch MeSH Maxilla Dorlands
The maxilla (plural: maxillae) is a fusion of two bones along the palatal fissure that form the upper jaw. This is similar to the mandible (lower jaw), which is also a fusion of two halves at the mental symphysis. Sometimes (e.g. in bony fish), the maxilla is called "upper maxilla," with the mandible being the "lower maxilla." Conversely, in birds the upper jaw is often called "upper mandible."
The maxilla assists in forming the boundaries of three cavities:
Each half of the fused maxilla consists of:
- The body of the maxilla
- Four processes
- Infraorbital foramen
- The maxillary sinus
The maxilla articulates with nine bones:
- two of the cranium: the frontal and ethmoid
- seven of the face: the nasal, zygomatic, lacrimal, inferior nasal concha, palatine, vomer, and the adjacent fused maxillary bone.
In other animals
In most vertebrates, the foremost part of the upper jaw, to which the incisors are attached in mammals consists of a separate pair of bones, the premaxillae. These fuse with the maxilla proper to form the bone found in humans, and some other mammals. In bony fish, amphibians, and reptiles, both maxilla and premaxilla are relatively plate-like bones, forming only the sides of the upper jaw, and part of the face, with the premaxilla also forming the lower boundary of the nostrils. However, in mammals, the bones have curved inward, creating the palatine process and thereby also forming part of the roof of the mouth.
- Bone terminology
- Terms for anatomical location
- Ossification of maxilla
- Maxillofacial surgery
1.sicher oral anatomy 2. human anatomy by grey's 3.controversies in oral and maxillofacial surgery by peter warthington
The Bones which form the Orbit Bones of head and neck: the facial skeleton of the skull (TA A02.1.08–15, GA 2.156–177) MaxillaSurfacesProcessesOther Zygomatic PalatineFossaePlatesProcesses Mandible Minor/
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