Ma Ying-jeou

Ma Ying-jeou
Ma Ying-jeou
President of the Republic of China
Assumed office
May 20, 2008
Premier Liu Chao-shiuan
Wu Den-yih
Vice President Vincent Siew
Preceded by Chen Shui-bian
Chairman of the Kuomintang
Assumed office
October 17, 2009
Preceded by Wu Po-hsiung
In office
July 27, 2005 – February 13, 2007
Preceded by Lien Chan
Succeeded by Wu Po-hsiung
Mayor of Taipei
In office
December 25, 1998 – December 25, 2006
Preceded by Chen Shui-bian
Succeeded by Hau Lung-pin
Personal details
Born July 13, 1950 (1950-07-13) (age 61)
Kwong Wah Hospital, Yau Ma Tei, British Hong Kong
Nationality  Republic of China
Political party Kuomintang
Spouse(s) Christine Chow
Alma mater National Taiwan University
New York University School of Law
Harvard Law School
Website Official website
Ma Ying-jeou
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese

Ma Ying-jeou (traditional Chinese: 馬英九; simplified Chinese: 马英九; pinyin: Mǎ Yīngjiǔ; born July 13, 1950) is the 12th term and current President of the Republic of China (ROC), commonly known as Taiwan, and the Chairman of the Kuomintang Party, also known as the Chinese Nationalist Party. He formerly served as Justice Minister from 1993 to 1996, Mayor of Taipei from 1998 to 2006, and Chairman of the Kuomintang (KMT) from 2005 to 2007. Ma was elected Mayor of Taipei in 1998 and re-elected in 2002. He was elected Chairman of the Kuomintang on July 16, 2005. He announced his resignation on February 13, 2007, after being indicted by the Taiwan High Prosecutors Office on charges of misuse of mayoral funds during his tenure as the mayor of Taipei;[1] he was later cleared of all charges. Ma subsequently won the presidency by 58.45% of the popular vote in the ROC presidential election of 2008. He was sworn into office as president on May 20, 2008, and sworn in as the Chairman of the Kuomintang on October 17, 2009.[2]


Personal background

Ma Ying-jeou was born in Kwong Wah Hospital [3] in Kowloon, Hong Kong on 13 July 1950,[4] He is of Hakka ancestry, originating from Hunan Province of China.[5] In a family of five children, Ma was the only son.[4]

Ma earned his LL.B. from National Taiwan University in 1972. He pursued further studies in the United States, first earning an LL.M. from New York University Law School in 1976 and then an S.J.D. from Harvard Law School in 1981.

After receiving his LL.M., Ma worked as an associate for a Wall Street law firm in New York and as a legal consultant for a major bank in Massachusetts before completing his doctoral studies.[6] In 1981, Ma returned to Taiwan and started working for President Chiang Ching-kuo.

Ma is married to Christine Chow, and the couple has two daughters. Lesley (Ma Wei-chung, 馬唯中) was born in 1981 in New York when Ma was attending Harvard. She completed her undergraduate studies in life sciences at Harvard University and then her graduate studies at New York University.[7][8] Ma's younger daughter is Kelly (Ma Yuan-chung, 馬元中), who was born in Taiwan and completed her undergraduate studies at Brown University in Rhode Island.[7][9]

Ma and his wife sponsor children of low-income families in El Salvador through World Vision. On an official trip to Central America in June 2009, Mrs. Ma was able to meet with one of her sponsored children, an 11-year-old boy in San Salvador.[10]

Controversy over birthplace

On December 11, 2008, DPP legislator Chai Trong-rong called a press conference and produced a document that alleges Ma's birthplace to be contrary to what is officially reported. On this document, the birth certificate for one of Ma's daughters, Ma fills out "Shengchin" [sic] as his own birthplace, contradictory to his officially-reported birthplace of "Hong Kong" (under British rule).

Chai also noted that First Lady Christine Chow's birthplace was listed as "Nanking, China," even though she is listed as also being born in Hong Kong.

Chai continue to charges that, since Ma was born after 1949 and in Shenzhen, he is legally a citizen of the People's Republic of China. Presidential Spokesperson Yu-chi Wang (王郁琦) responded to Legislator Chai's charges by reaffirming that all information from the President's Office regarding the President's birth is accurate. Wang also informed that Ma, on his December 11 visit to Hong Kong, was able to obtain records of his birth at Kowloon's Kwong-Wah Hospital and Ma also keeps the original of his birth certificate issued by the Registrar General of Hong Kong,[3] thereby confirming once again his birth in the former British colony instead of the Communist state. Copies of Ma's birth certificate have also been previously shown to the public.[11] Wang also dispelled rumors that Ma had received affirmative action in his applications to Jianguo High School (建國高級中學) and the National Taiwan University with an "overseas Chinese" status.[3]

Rise in politics

Ma Ying-jeou started working for President Chiang Ching-kuo as Deputy Director of the First Bureau of the Presidential Office and the President's English interpreter. Ma was later promoted to the chair of the Research, Development, and Evaluation Commission under the Executive Yuan at the age of 38, becoming the youngest cabinet member in the ROC government.[12]

Ma was deputy secretary-general of the KMT from 1984 to 1988, also serving for a period as deputy of the Mainland Affairs Council (MAC), a cabinet-level body in charge of cross-straits relations.[13] President Lee Teng-hui appointed him ROC Justice Minister in 1993. Ma was relieved of his post in 1996.[14] His supporters claim that firing was caused by his efforts at fighting corruption among politicians and the police.[15] He remained a supporter of the Kuomintang, rather than supporting the New Party formed by KMT supporters who campaigned on an anti-corruption platform. Ma returned to academia and most people at the time believed his political career to have effectively ended.

Mayoralty, 1998 – 2006

Taipei City Hall, the workplace of Taipei's mayor.

In 1998, the KMT fielded Ma to challenge the then-incumbent Taipei mayor Chen Shui-bian of the opposition Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), who was seeking re-election.[16] Despite Chen's public approval rating of over 80%,[citation needed] he was defeated. In the 2000 Presidential Election, Ma remained loyal to the KMT and supported its candidate, Lien Chan, over James Soong, who had bolted from the party and was running as an independent.[17] The competition between Lien and Soong split the Pan-Blue vote and allowed his former rival Chen to win the presidential election with less than 50% of the popular vote.[18] The election result, combined with other factors, incited a great deal of anger against Ma when he tried to dissuade discontented Lien and Soong supporters from protesting by appealing to them in his dual capacities as Taipei City mayor and a high-ranking KMT member.[19][20]

Ma was able to repair the political damage and, in December 2002, became the leading figure in the KMT by easily winning reelection as mayor of Taipei with the support of 64% of Taipei voters while DPP challenger Lee Ying-yuan received 36%.[21] His solid victory, especially in light of opposition from both President Chen and former President and KMT Chairman Lee Teng-hui, led many to speculate about his chances as the KMT candidate for the 2004 presidential elections, although nothing came of it.[22][23][24]

Ma again dissuaded angry Pan-Blue supporters from protesting, following the very close re-election victory of President Chen in 2004 after the 3-19 shooting incident.[25] Ma chose not to join in calls to challenge or contest the election.[26] Ma also avoided associating himself with claims that the assassination was staged.

Ma suffered some political damage as a result of the SARS epidemic in early 2003 and was criticized for not mobilizing the Taipei city government quickly enough and for keeping Chiu Shu-ti, the public health director, who was previously criticized for her lack of concern for the outbreak.[27] Flooding in metropolitan Taipei in 2004 also led to public questioning of his leadership and caused Ma's approval rating to slide.[28]

During his time as Taipei's mayor, Ma had many conflicts with the central government over matters such as health insurance rates and control of the water supply during the drought.[29][30] Ma also was implicated in a scandal of Taipei Bank stock releases in 2003.[31] However, the case was dismissed after an investigation by the Taipei prosecutor. He was strongly criticized by the DPP for not allowing the ROC national flag to be flown along with a PRC flag during Asian Women's Football Championship held in Taipei.[32] Ma responded that he was merely following Olympic protocol, which only officially recognizes the Chinese Taipei Olympic Flag and forbids ROC national flags from being shown in an Olympic Game Stadium.

His initiatives in administering the city of Taipei include changing the transliterations of street names and the line and stations of the Taipei Metro to Hanyu Pinyin, as opposed to Tongyong Pinyin.[33] Ma has expressed mild support for Chinese reunification and opposition to Taiwan independence.[34] He opposed the 2004 referendum, which had been widely criticized by the U.S. and PRC.[35] Nevertheless, his opposition to the Anti-Secession Law of the People's Republic of China, while other leaders of his party remained silent on the issue, led to him being banned from visiting Hong Kong to make a public speaking tour in 2005.[36] He also criticized the PRC for the Tian'anmen crackdown.[37]

Ma's cross-political following has led some to note him as a rare example of relative civility in the notoriously rough and tumble world of Taiwanese politics. Ma has generally avoided being accused of using the vitriolic and sometimes offensive rhetoric common in Taiwanese political debate. His academic background and bearing have helped cultivate the image of Ma as an honest, dispassionate technocrat. Despite this reputation, and his wooden speaking style and shy demeanor, Ma is also considered a charismatic figure and is popular among women and youth. On the other hand, Ma's critics claim that Ma, overeager to appear unbiased and/or neutral, is overly indecisive and lacks bold vision. Ma is often accused of avoiding being out in front on some of the more vigorous or controversial criticisms of President Chen or opposing parties, or involving himself in intra-party disputes. Among these critics, Ma has been referred to as a "non-stick pan" or "Teflon-man." Recently, there has also been some criticism of his stumping for election candidates suspected of and later indicted for corruption charges. Many in the Pan-Green Coalition expressed opinions that Ma misled voters by lending his clean charismatic image to unscrupulous candidates in his own party.

In recent years, Ma has increasingly employed Taiwanese (Hoklo) in public speaking, perhaps to avoid backlash for his parents' mainland China origins, and he has called himself a "child of Bangka (Wanhua)", identifying himself with the historic district of Taipei where he grew up. Others claim that Ma's mainland Chinese ancestry will further alienate members of the KMT who are "light-blue" vs. the pro-unification "deep-blue."

Mayoral controversies

While often nicknamed as "Teflon pot" for his extreme preservation of personal image, Ma was nonetheless caught in some political controversies. A series of mishaps during his tenure as the mayor of Taipei, including the administration problems that enlarged the extent of the Typhoon Nari (納莉風災),[38] the shutdown of Hoping Hospital (和平封院事件),[39] the Phosgene Incident (捷運光氣事件), the Scalping Incident (捷運扯頭皮事件) and the Human Ball Scandal (邱小妹人球事件),[40] impaired Ma's reputation. However, Ma maneuvered through these incidents relatively unscathed.

One of Ma's most satisfactory mayoral construction was the Maokong Gondola. However, the frequent breakdown of the gondola earned the residents' distrust of the new transportation system. One poll showed only 14% of the Taipei City residents were satisfied with it,[41] and it even led to protests.[42] The Taiwan Environmental Information Center (台灣環境資訊協會) states that the choice to use a gondola lift intended for temperate zones in a tropical zone shows the failure of the Taipei City government led by Ma.[43]

Corruption allegations

On November 14, 2006, Ma was questioned by prosecutors over his alleged misuse of a special expenses account as Taipei mayor. This occurred after Chen Shui-Bian was being investigated for corruption, and many KMT supporters believed that this prosecution was politically motivated.[citation needed]

At the same time, rumors surfaced that former party chairman Lien Chen would run in the presidential election of 2008. The incident may have affected the clean image of Ma and his political future. The next day, Ma admitted one of his aides forged receipts to claim Ma's expenses as Taipei mayor, and apologized for the latest political scandal.[44] However, Ma argued that he, like most other government officials, regarded the special expense account as supplemental salary for personal expenses undertaken in the course of official duties and that his use of this account was legal.

On February 13, 2007, Ma was indicted by the Taiwan High Prosecutors Office on charges of allegedly embezzling approximately NT$11 million (US$339,000), regarding the issue of "special expenses" while he was mayor of Taipei.[45] The prosecutor's office said that Ma had allegedly used government funds for personal use, such as paying for one of his daughter's living expenses while studying abroad and paying for his household utilities. Before that, Ma had admitted personal usage and claims that the special funds were simply a part of his salary[46] but had used all funds for public use or public benefit (charity donations).[47]

Shortly after the indictment, he submitted his resignation as chairman of the Kuomintang in accordance with party rules which prohibit an indicted person from serving as KMT chairman[48] The resignation was initially rejected but then accepted by the party's Central Standing Committee before amending a clause that barred members from running for office if charged with a crime.[49] Shortly after the resignation, however, Ma announced his presidential candidacy.

On August 14, 2007, the Taipei District Count found Ma not guilty of corruption.[50] Ma's defense is that he viewed "Special Expenses" as essentially "Special Allowance", originally designed to compensate for mayor's "social spending" without actually raising salary.[51] On December 28, 2007, the Taiwan High Court found Ma again not guilty of graft charges.

On April 24, 2008, The Supreme Court cleared Ma of corruption charges, delivering a final ruling in this matter before his inauguration on May 20, 2008. The island's highest court said Ma had neither collected illegal income nor tried to break the law.[52] Ma's secretary, however, was found guilty and faced a year in prison for his own failures in administrative duties.[53]

KMT chairmanship, 2005–2007

Ma's prestige increased after the loss by Lien Chan in the 2004 ROC Presidential Election, as he is widely seen as the natural successor of Lien Chan.[54] His handling of the post-election demonstrations of the Pan-Blue Coalition, in which he at one point sent riot police to control the demonstrations of his pan-blue party supporters, was generally seen as impartial.[55] In 2005, Ma and Wang Jin-pyng were candidates in the first competitive election for KMT chairmanship.[56] On 5 April 2005, in an exclusive interview with CTV talk show host Sisy Chen, Ma said he wished to lead the opposition Kuomintang with Wang, if he were elected its chairman, as their support bases are complementary.[57] On July 16, 2005, Ma defeated Wang by a 72% to 28% margin, a margin larger than anticipated by either camp or news sources, despite Wang receiving a last-minute endorsement by the People First Party (PFP) chairman James Soong, who had retained significant following within the KMT.[58][59] Some, particularly the supporters of Wang Jin-pyng, accuse Ma of unfairly implying that Wang is involved in "black gold" and criticized Ma's aides for being rude to Wang during the campaign.[60] After the election, Ma had stated repeatedly that he wishes Wang to remain as first-ranked deputy chairman. Wang, however, has so far rebuffed the gesture, instead stating that he wishes to serve as a "permanent volunteer."[61] Wang has, indeed, accepted a party post that is incompatible with vice chairmanship, effectively ending the possibility that he would be vice chairman, although after meeting with Wang, Ma had stated that he would "leave the position open" for Wang.[62] Ma has also repeatedly stated that he had no plans to resign from the Taipei mayorship, even after he formally took over the chairmanship from incumbent Lien Chan during the 17th Party Congress of the KMT in August 2005.[63][64]

Led by Ma Ying-jeou, the Kuomintang made a resounding win in the three-in-one election held on December 3, 2005.[65] The KMT gained six more seats in the mayoral/magistratical race, from eight seats in the last election, to a total of fourteen seats. Before the election, Ma swore that he would quit the chairmanship if his party could not win over half of the seats, which was a first for a KMT chairman.[66] It was a decisive win for Ma Ying-jeou as well, since he took over the party chairmanship only 110 days before. In the election, the KMT won back the counties of Taipei and Yilan, and the city of Chiayi, which had been the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP)'s strongholds for over twenty years.[67] It was the first time in many years that the KMT regained popularity as far south as Cho-Shui River (Zhuo-Shui River). Repeating his famous quote, Ma said, "we should only be excited about it for one evening."

2008 presidential campaign

Ma at the 2006 10th Taipei International Marathon.

On the same day he resigned as chairman of the KMT, Ma also announced his intention to run in the 2008 presidential election. He was the official nominee of the Kuomintang for the 2008 presidential election.

Ma led a visit to India and Singapore in June 2007 to increase bilateral exchanges as well as to gain legitimacy and experience for his 2008 presidential bid.

Ma's vice-presidential running mate was former premier Vincent Siew, Lien Chan's running mate in the 2000 presidential election.[68]

During a campaigning event in an aboriginal community, Ma made a controversial remark. Responding to a question from an aboriginal woman, Ma said, "If you come into the city, you are a Taipei citizen... Aborigines should adjust their mentality -- if you come into the city you have to play by its rules."[69] This statement was thought to be extremely inappropriate.[70]

U.S. green card issue

Democratic Progressive Party candidate Frank Hsieh questioned Ma for his possession of a US Permanent Resident Card. Ma denied having one and publicly expressed that no members of his family had one.[8] However, the fact that Ma and his wife had applied for green cards and that his sisters and his elder daughter Lesley Weichung Ma are United States citizens caused controversy, as the DPP continued to question Ma's loyalty to the country.[71] In response to the DPP attack on the US citizenship of his sisters and daughter, Ma commented that having a US passport or green card did not necessarily mean that someone was not loyal to Taiwan.[71]

A week before the presidential election, incumbent President Chen Shui-bian vowed to quit if Ma could provide legal documents of the invalidation of his green card. The DPP presidential candidate Frank Hsieh also said that he was willing to withdraw from the race if Ma could prove, using official documents, that his green card was invalidated twenty years ago.[72] Ma responded the next day to the president that he should work on improving Taiwan's economy instead of caring about the election so much; earlier, Ma also provided copies of US non-immigrant visas issued to him during the 1980s and 1990s, claiming the card was invalid, as such visas are not issued to green card holders.

Environmental criticism

Ma has been criticized by many environmental groups. His mayoral construction of the Maokong Gondola was criticized by the Taiwan Environmental Information Center.[43] The construction of the Taipei Arena also drew negative reactions from these groups. The Society of Wilderness (SOW; 荒野保護協會) pointed out that of the three hundred and eighty-four trees that were moved for the construction, more than a hundred had already died.[73] The city government said that the ages of the trees are unknown; therefore, they are not protected by law. The SOW then responded that, according to pictures taken by the United States Air Force in 1947 and 1948, these trees were present already during the Japanese rule era.[73]

During his presidential campaign, Ma participated in one of the debates that discussed many topics, including environmental protection. The Taiwan Academy of Ecology evaluated the policies of both candidates Hsieh and Ma, and the secretary of its workstation in Taipei said that both candidates failed their expectations, but they had more hope for Hsieh than Ma because Ma's environmental concepts lack considerations of reality.[74] In February 2008, several environmental groups created a list of commitments for the two candidates to sign. DPP candidate Frank Hsieh agreed to all the items on the list and signed it in March. Ma did not and emailed the group instead. The Taiwan Environmental Protection Union (TEPU) criticized Ma for ignoring important issues and not having the guts to sign the commitments.[75]

After Ma was elected president on March 22, 2008, the Green Party Taiwan expressed its fear that president-elect Ma would focus too much on improving the economy and would ignore many critical environmental issues. The head of the Environmental Quality Protection Foundation also emphasized the importance of environmental protection as one of the factors of economic development.[76]

Presidency, 2008 – present

Ma officially won on March 22, 2008 with 58% of the vote, ending eight years of DPP rule and becoming officially recognized as the sixth president of the Republic of China.[77] Ma won with 7,659,014 votes against Hsieh's 5,444,949 votes. Ma's overwhelming victory in the presidential election gave him political mandate to make changes in Taiwan.[78]

Party Candidate Votes Percentage
President Vice president
Kuomintang Ma Ying-Jeou Vincent Siew 7,659,014 58.45%
Democratic Progressive Party Frank Hsieh Su Tseng-Chang 5,444,949 41.55%
Total 13,103,963 100.00%

Ma took office on May 20, 2008.[79] The inaugural ceremony took place in the Taipei Arena in Taipei. A state dinner took place in Kaohsiung the same day.

Ma was named among the 2008 Time 100 in its "Leaders & Revolutionaries" section. He is described by Time as "one of those rare politicians who have an opportunity to shape the destiny not only of their own nation but also of an entire region."[80]

On August 12, 2008, Ma embarked on his first foreign trip as President. Ma's visit centered upon improving relations with Taiwan's Latin American allies. He attended the inaugurations of both Leonel Fernández of the Dominican Republic and Fernando Lugo of Paraguay. Ma also made a stop at Panama and met with President Martin Torrijos. There was an emphasis that there would be no new aid packages during the visits; if any new economic aid were to be announced, they would be announced from Taiwan and not from abroad. The trip included U.S. stop-overs in Los Angeles, Austin, and San Francisco. Ma's trip across the Pacific was via commercial flight and only chartered a smaller jet from the United States; he was accompanied by an 81-member delegation.[81][82]

Cross-strait relations

Ma, in his inaugural address, laid out his promise in dealing with cross-strait relations that there would be "no reunification, no independence, and no war" (不統, 不獨, 不武) during his tenure as President.[83] However, after Ma formally took office, his policies have been largely pro-PRC and have been seen by critics as part of a long-run scheme to steer Taiwan to "eventual unification." Critics argue that Ma, rather than follow his campaign promise, has been following his father's will instead, where Ma He-Ling clearly states his final words were "Repress independence supporters; Lead (Taiwan) to unification." During an interview in England in 2006, Ma affirmed that his goal was to lead Taiwan to "eventual unification."[84]

An article published in the August 11, 2008 edition of Time Magazine said that in less than three months' time, "relations between Taiwan and PRC have arguably seen the most rapid advancement in the six-decade standoff between the two governments. Ma launched direct weekend charter flights between PRC and Taiwan for the first time, opened Taiwan to mainland Chinese tourists, eased restrictions on Taiwan investment in mainland China and approved measures that will allow mainland Chinese investors to buy Taiwan stocks."[85] He has also loosened bans on "Chinese brides," leading to social unrest over Chinese women who marry old veterans but file for divorce after they obtain citizenship.

Ahead of a visit by Chen Yunlin on November 3, 2008, chairman of the Beijing-based the Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits (ARAT), the opposition Pan-Green Coalition criticized the visit as "taking steps toward eventual reunification" and damaging Taiwan's sovereignty.[86][87] Opposition to the visit by the chairman of the ARAT also sparked massive peaceful rallies and protests organised by the opposition DPP party on October 25, 2008. Preliminary estimates place the number of protesters at around 500,000.[88][89][90] Protesters accused Taiwanese President Ma Ying-jeou "of making too many concessions and moving too fast in relaxing restrictions on trade and investment with China."[90] Government's polls have suggested that Chen Yunlin's visit and the government's policy of normalising cross-strait relations have support of 50% to 60% of the Taiwanese population.[91][92]

Chen's visit was the highest level visit from China to Taiwan that had taken place since the Chinese Civil War in 1949. Chen was expected to meet with his Taipei-based counterpart, Chiang Pin-kung beginning on November 4, 2008. The two sides signed four agreements on November 5, detailing the loosening of restrictions with regards to air, marine, and postal links as well as better regulations on food safety.[93] The Ma government refused to disclose the treaties only until days before they went into effect.[94]

During Chen's visit in Taipei, he was met with a series of strong protests directed at himself and Ma Ying-jeou, some of which were violent, with Molotov cocktails being thrown by the protesters at riot police. A series of arrests were made after the protests, with a secret letter being sent from the police to a member of the media.[95] Local police reported that 149 of its officers were injured during the opposition protests.[96] Chen referred to Ma simply as "Mr. Ma," not as "President". However, this is consistent with the previous convention in 2008, when KMT ex-politician Lien Chan met Hu Jintao in Peru. Lien did not call the PRC President Hu Jintao "President," but instead used his title "General Secretary" as the head of the Chinese Communist Party.[97]

After the chaos during and after Chen's visit, college students and professors launched a peaceful sitout, known as the Wild Strawberry student movement (Chinese: 野草莓運動), demanding a more reasonable assembly law and a stop to police violence. A few days into the sitout, the prime minister Liu Chao-shiuan accidentally spoke of his opinion during an interview on air that he did not think the movement would last more than three days, angering students, professors, and the general public.[citation needed] In the end, the sitout lasted one month. Then, it moved into an organizational direction. However, the polls in two of Taiwan's biggest newspapers after the visit still reported that about 70% of the Taiwanese public considered Chen's visit to have a positive effect on Taiwan's development, while 22% of the respondents thought the effect would be negative, with the remaining 8% not expressing an opinion.[98] The opposition Pan-Green caucus have continuously alleged this result being a form of media manipulation by the KMT. However, other major polls in Taiwanese newspapers and news websites have shown similar results regardless of political alignment.

Economic Issues

One of Ma's promises as presidential candidate was called the "633 Plan", which promised economic growth rate of 6%, unemployment rate of less than 3%, and per capita income of more than US$30,000. However, due to the global financial crisis happening at the same time, relatively high unemployment rate (~4.06% in July) and high consumer price index[99] attributed to a high misery index, three months after Ma's inauguration, not seen in 28 years.[100]

The economic downturn caused about 2,000 companies in Taiwan to go bankrupt in the six months following Ma's inauguration, according to a governmental commercial office in Taipei.[101] The Taiwan Stock Exchange also fell to two-year lows in September 2008.,[102] hoping that closer economic cooperation and relationship with the mainland would save Taiwan's economy from moving closer into default.

On September 11, 2008, Ma's cabinet unveiled a $5.6-billion USD ($180-billion TWD) economic stimulus package. Among the items of the package were infrastructure projects, economic incentives to small businesses, and other tax cuts. Stock transaction taxes were also halved for the next six months. Taiwan's economy was projected to grow 4.3% in 2008, down from 5.7 in 2007, according to Fitch Ratings.[103][104]

Although an economic stimulus plan was introduced, Taiwan stocks still closed lower on September 11, 2008. The Financial Times describes Taiwan's economic downturn as results from "downward pressure driven by global factors." Analysts also point out that, "during its first 100 days in office, the government has made a series of bold steps to deregulate economic ties between Taiwan and China. But as these policies coincided with the global downturn and foreign investors had already bought Taiwan stocks heavily before the election, betting on the reforms, the island's market has seen a sell-off worse than the regional average." [105] Taiwan's government reported that the economy slumped 8.36 percent during the last three months of 2008.[106]

Taiwan's economy has experienced significant growth since then, growing 10% in 2010, due to strong demand from China and tourism from China.[107][108]

Direct links

On December 15, 2008, Taiwan and the Chinese mainland resumed direct sea, air, and mail links.[109] It ended an almost six-decade-long ban between the two sides on such trips. Previous flights between the two regions required a connections at Hong Kong, and doubled the travel times.[110] As many as 108 flights per week are scheduled, as well as 60 cargo flights per month across the strait, evenly divided between Taiwanese and Mainland airlines.[111][112][113]

Shipping companies, because of shorter voyages and time-savings, can also save up to US$120 million (TWD $4 billion) each year. Previously, shipping companies from both sides of the strait were required to reroute their ships into third-country waters. The two sides also agreed that neither the ROC nor the PRC flag will be displayed when a ship enters port.[114]

In July 2009, Ma refused to open airspace of the Taiwan Strait to accommodate higher passenger traffic, citing the Taiwan Strait airspace's importance to Taiwan's security.[115]

Bid for KMT leadership

Ma Ying-jeou registered as the sole candidate for the election of the KMT chairman on June 25, 2009 and won the next day with 93.87% of the vote. Ma inaugurated as the chairman of the Kuomintang on September 12, 2009.[116] This will allow Ma to be able to meet with People's Republic of China (PRC) President Hu Jintao (who is also the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China) and other PRC delegates, as he would be able to represent the KMT as the leader of a Chinese political party, rather than as head-of-state of a political entity unrecognized by the PRC.[117] Ma, however, ruled out meeting his PRC counterpart Hu Jintao in a July 14, 2009 interview with Taiwan's Commercial Times newspaper. In the interview, Ma states, "A meeting in the capacity of a party chairman will not solve the problem because other people would still insist that I meet him as the president."[118]

Typhoon Morakot

Typhoon Morakot, the worst typhoon to strike Taiwan in fifty years, hit Taiwan on August 8, 2009. In the storm's aftermath, President Ma was criticized for his handling of the disaster by both sides of Taiwan's political spectrum. Many news outlets likened Typhoon Morakot to being Ma's "Hurricane Katrina." Editorials and political commentators accused Ma of, among other charges, of poor leadership and poor crisis management. Many critics believe that hundreds of lives could have been spared, had the Ma administration been aware of the typhoon's seriousness. Taiwan's political commentators were most critical of Ma's refusal to declare a state of emergency and fully mobilize the military. Instead, Ma Ying-jeou blamed the local governments for the villagers not being evacuated earlier.[119] Ma's approval ratings sank from 52% (in May) to 29% in a United Daily News poll. In an August 2009 CNN online poll, 82% of respondents wanted Ma to resign.[120] An editorial piece lambasted Ma, saying, "[Ma] has been distant and arrogant, and he has only made [victims] more angry instead of comforting them...He has not shown decisiveness required in a leader when facing a sudden disaster."[121]

After thorough criticism, Ma was forced to apologize publicly for his government's failure to respond swifter with rescue and recovery efforts. Ma has cancelled 2009's Double Ten Day national celebrations and his state visit to the Solomon Islands for the Third Taiwan-South Pacific summit.[122][123] A probe was launched to investigate why government response was slow and inadequate, and vice foreign minister Andrew Hsia tendered his resignation to Ma's premier, Liu Chao-shiuan. On September 10, Liu and the rest of cabinet resigned en masse[dubious ] under pressure.[124]

Another scandal in the disaster's aftermath involved a document leaked from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, refusing aid from all foreign nations, while contemplating receiving aid from China. Vice Foreign Minister Andrew Hsia made an unconvincing[weasel words] explanation, saying that it was meant to say "temporarily" refuse aid, but nevertheless took the blame and offered to resign. However, critics are convinced that Hsia's resignation was only part of the cover-up and believe that Ma gave the order.[125]

Political positions

View on independence

In February 2006, while visiting Europe, Ma said that although he and the KMT favor eventual reunification, the KMT respects the opinions of Taiwanese people and independence is a choice for the people of Taiwan. This caused widespread criticism within the party and from mainland China. In a December 2005 Newsweek International interview, when asked about unification, Ma stated that "for our party, the eventual goal is reunification, but we don't have a timetable", explaining that he meant it was a choice for Taiwan, but also a choice for the Chinese KMT.[126] Perhaps to deflect heavy criticism from the Pan-Green Coalition, the KMT later made an advertisement in the Liberty Times recognizing that independence is an option for the Taiwanese people. Wang Jin-pyng praised Ma for the policy shift, since Wang himself made a similar statement during the 2004 election, but James Soong said he was "shocked" and Lien Chan said he was never consulted. This event actually won some welcome voices from Southern Taiwan, where voters customarily favor the Pan-Green Coalition. One top KMT official said "we might as well let the measles out now so that we will be immune to it when election year comes close, because reunification or independence can be a hot topic by then."[citation needed]

Ma Ying-jeou, seen here waving to supporters during a visit to UC Berkeley in March 2006, proposed "Five Dos" on dealing with the PRC.

Ma clarified later that the current KMT policy of retaining the status quo has not changed and has reiterated this position several times; further, he has also reiterated his party's support of the one-China policy. Ma has defined the status quo as the "Five No's." During a visit to the United States in March 2006, he proposed a "proactive" approach to cross-strait relations which he called the "Five Do's."

On March 17, 2008, Ma threatened to boycott the Beijing Olympics if elected, should the 2008 unrest in Tibet spiral out of control.[127] After he was elected president, he refused to let the Dalai Lama visit Taiwan, citing the timing as inappropriate, but approved a later visit for the Dalai Lama in the aftermath of Typhoon Morakot in August 2009.

In April 2009, President Ma made himself the first ROC president to pay homage in person to the legendary Yellow Emperor, believed to have founded China as a nation more than 5,000 years ago. Accompanied by all his government leaders, the president sang the ROC's national anthem as the starter. Ma then burned joss sticks, laid a wreath, and offered fruit, cloth, and wine to the mythological national founder. He read a eulogy before he concluded the rites by bowing three times to the west, where the Chinese mainland is located. [128] Ma's spokesman said the president wanted to pay his respects to the Yellow Emperor on National Tomb-Sweeping Day in person to stress the importance of China's ancestor-worshipping tradition. However, others saw the precedent-making ceremonies at the Martyrs' Shrine as meant to be a show by President Ma of his unprofessed commitment to maintain a close relationship between Taiwan and mainland China.[128]

View on human rights and democracy

In June 2009, the anniversary of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 in Beijing, a leader of the Chinese democracy movement and then student leader Wang Dan (Chinese: 王丹) visited Taiwan, as in previous years, to meet with Ma about human rights and democracy in China. However, Ma postponed the appointment three times and eventually cancelled the appointment with Wang. In a press meeting with DPP Chairwoman Tsai Ing-wen, Wang Dan spoke of how it has become more difficult to see "President Ma" in comparison to "Mayor Ma of Taipei City." Wang cited that he understand the importance of the cross strait relationship to Taiwan's economy but also stated that a confident government should have nothing to be afraid of. [129] Prior to his election as President, Ma was known to be a very vocal supporter of the Chinese democracy movement and had stated that unless Beijing admitted their wrongdoings at Tiananman Square Protests, there would be no talks about reunification. [130]

View on cross-strait relations

After his success in the presidential election, Ma Ying-jeou said he had no immediate plans to visit mainland China and would work to fulfill his campaign pledge to improve relations with mainland China, starting direct charter flights, allowing mainland Chinese tourists to visit Taiwan and lifting the ROC's legislative restrictions on the financial sector to invest in mainland China.[131]

Since then, Ma Ying-jeou has repeatedly mentioned the "1992 Consensus" as the existing basis for constructive dialogue and exchange between Mainland China and Taiwan. On 12 April 2008, then Vice-President-elect Vincent Siew formally met with Hu Jintao at the Boao Forum in Hainan, China.

On September 2, 2008, Ma declared that the relations between Taiwan and mainland China were "special", but "not between two states", meaning that they are relations based on two areas of one state. Taiwan considers that state as the Republic of China, while mainland China considers that state as the People's Republic of China.[132][133][134] While the governing authorities on mainland China and Taiwan cannot recognise each other as a legitimate government due to legal and constitutional reasons, Ma seeks that they would refrain from denying the other side being the de facto governing authority of one area of the state.[135] On October 18, 2008, Ma said he hoped that a cross-strait peace accord could be reached during his term in office.[136]

Ma has received criticism from the DPP, the opposition party, for praising the PRC on human rights, especially during the 20-year anniversary of the Tiananmen Square Protests. Departing from his usual critical view of the mainland China's handling of the 1989 protests, Ma made a statement praising the PRC for its recent improvements in human rights.[137] That same day, he also asked the PRC government to face its history directly and honestly.[138]

Within a week of his remarks on Tiananmen, Ma voiced support for the acceptance of Simplified Chinese for written text and the continued use of Traditional Chinese for printed text.[139] Ma had to clarify his remarks regarding simplified characters at in a 15-minute speech before the sixth International Conference on Internet Chinese Education on June 19, 2009. Ma reiterated his policy of urging the Chinese to learn the traditional system; his previous call was for the ability of Taiwan's population to recognize simplified characters and not for simplified characters to supplant the traditional system in Taiwan.[140][141]

In 2009, Ma spoke at a leadership conference in Taipei and called for peace with Beijing and for Taiwan's greater participation in international affairs. He said: "The Chinese civil war of the 1940s must never happen again. Peace never comes easily, because over 1,000 missiles deployed by Beijing are still aimed at Taiwan.”[142]

See also


  1. ^ Chang, Rich; Yan-chih, Mo (February 13, 2007). Ma starts 2008 bid after indictment. Taipei Times.
  2. ^ "President takes over as KMT chair, says will punish mavericks". The China Post. 18 October 2009. 
  3. ^ a b c "雙重國籍爭議/綠質疑 藍為保馬 包庇李慶安". The Liberty Times. 12 December 2008. Retrieved 12 December 2008. 
  4. ^ a b "Biography of President Ma Ying-jeou". Office of the President, Republic of China (Taiwan). Retrieved 2 February 2011. 
  5. ^ [客家電視]專訪馬英九談客家政策(一) [2007-12-14]. YouTube.
  6. ^ Biography. Taipei City Government.
  7. ^ a b Next first lady may keep her Mega job. The China Post. March 24, 2008.
  8. ^ a b Shih Hsiu-chuan (29 January 2008). "Hsieh's promptings force Ma onto back foot over green card". Taipei Times. 
  9. ^ 馬唯中 & 馬元中: A Look at the First Daughters (Pictures). Digital Alchemy. March 22, 2008.
  10. ^ First lady meets with sponsored boy in El Salvador. The China Post. June 2, 2009.
  11. ^ Chang Rich (February 4, 2009). Chai says president continues to lie about his birthplace. Taipei Times.
  12. ^ Tsao, W. Y. (1988). Free China review. 38. (7-12).
  13. ^ Ma Ying-jeou, new chairman of Chinese KMT. People's Daily. August 19, 2005.
  14. ^ Taiwan review. (2003). 53. Kwang Hwa Pub. Co. p. 25.
  15. ^ Taiwanese disappointed in Lee. The Victoria Advocate. June 30, 1996.
  16. ^ Erik Eckholm (6 December 1998). "Nationalists Oust Taipei Mayor in Vote Watched by China". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  17. ^ "Big names support Lien's flagging campaign". Taipei Times. 18 March 2000. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  18. ^ Stephanie Low (19 March 2000). "39% - A-bian wins - just". Taipei Times. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  19. ^ Yu Sen-lun (20 March 2000). "Angry Soong supporters besiege KMT headquarters". Taipei Times. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  20. ^ William Ide (21 March 2000). "Protesters say Lien was misused". Taipei Times. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  21. ^ "Ma wins Taipei; Hsieh holds Kaohsiung". The China Post. 8 December 2002. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  22. ^ Sandy Huang; Ko Shu-Ling (11 November 2002). "President looks for cooperative mayor". Taipei Times. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  23. ^ Lin Mei-Chun (5 December 2002). "Lee urges voters to avoid `good-looking' candidates". Taipei Times. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  24. ^ "Mayoral elections give few clues about presidential race". The China Post. 8 December 2002. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  25. ^ Jewel Huang (22 March 2004). "Ma finally tells protesters they should go home". Taipei Times. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  26. ^ Andy Morton (27 March 2004). "Ma: Jump ship while the lifeboat is in reach". Taipei Times. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  27. ^ Debby Wu (17 May 2003). "Health-bureau head under fire". Taipei Times. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  28. ^ "Ma defies critics, to keep rapid transit chief". The China Post. 15 September 2004. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  29. ^ "Row between Taipei City and BHNI over premiums heats up". The China Post. 16 June 2006. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  30. ^ "Ma stands firm on plan to cut county’s water". The China Post. 17 June 2002. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  31. ^ "Ma denies irregularities in sale of city’s TaipeiBank to Fubon". The China Post. 4 October 2003. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  32. ^ Sandy Huang (25 December 2001). "Taipei councilors take Mayor Ma to task over flag ban". Taipei Times. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  33. ^ "Ma expresses doubts on new Pinyin system". The China Post. 12 July 2002. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  34. ^ Jonathan Adams (26 December 2005). "'Conditions Aren't Ripe'". Newsweek. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  35. ^ "Cabinet approves referendum despite Ma's objection". The China Post. 5 February 2004. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  36. ^ Teddy Ng; Michael Ng (8 January 2005). "Groups told me to lie about visa, says Ma". The Standard. 
  37. ^ Jewel Huang (5 June 2004). "Ma Ying-jeou hopes truth will out". Taipei Times. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  38. ^ 丘昌泰; 楊永年、趙家民等. "台北市政府防災組織與功能研究:納莉風災的省思" (in Traditional Chinese) (PDF). National Taipei University website. Archived from the original on 2008-04-09. Retrieved 2007-11-15. 
  39. ^ 臺北市政府專案調查小組 (2003-06-12). "台北市立和平醫院處理嚴重急性呼吸道症候群(SARS)事件調查報告" (in zh-hant) (DOC). 台北市政府网站. Archived from the original on May 7, 2005. Retrieved 2007-11-15. 
  40. ^ "張珩轉調市醫總院長". Epoch Times. 13 January 2005. 
  41. ^ 林恕暉 (8 January 2007). "貓纜變懶貓 滿意度僅14%" (in Chinese). Liberty Times. 
  42. ^ 誰的貓空?誰的纜車?—地方居民抗爭全紀錄, Chengchi University, 8/21
  43. ^ a b Lee Yu-chin 貓纜通車首日故障 爆出市府公共政策問題, Taiwan Environmental Information Center, July 5, 2007
  44. ^ Mo Yan-chih (2006-11-16). "Ma sorry for 'administrative defects'". Taipei Times. Retrieved 2007-02-23. 
  45. ^ Peter Enav (13 February 2007). "Taiwanese opposition leader indicted". Archived from the original on 14 May 2008. Retrieved 22 February 2007. 
  46. ^ Jewel Huang; Mo Yan-chih (2006-08-03). "Ma accused of embezzlement". Taipei Times. Retrieved 2007-02-23. 
  47. ^ Mo Yan-chih (2006-11-24). "Ma questioned over donation records". Taipei Times. Retrieved 2007-02-23. 
  48. ^ "Taiwan opposition leader resigns". BBC News. February 13, 2007. Retrieved April 5, 2010. 
  49. ^ [1][dead link]
  50. ^ "Taiwan court clears presidential candidate Ma of corruption". AFP. 14 August 2007. 
  51. ^ "臺灣臺北地方法院刑事判決 96年度矚重訴字第1號" (in Traditional Chinese). Taiwan Taipei District Court. 14 August 2007. 
  52. ^ "Court clears Ma of graft charges". The China Post. 25 April 2008. Retrieved 6 May 2008. 
  53. ^ "特別費案 最高院認定是公款 仍判馬無罪" (in Chinese). The Liberty Times. 25 April 2008. 
  54. ^ Jewel Huang (13 April 2004). "Forget Lien Chan: the KMT's future is Ma Ying-jeou versus Wang Jin-pyng". Taipei Times. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  55. ^ Jewel Huang (29 March 2004). "Riot police clean up Ketagalan Blvd". Taipei Times. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  56. ^ "Wang to run for KMT chairmanship". The China Post. 18 March 2005. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  57. ^ "Ma seeks joint leadership of Kuomintang with Wang". The China Post. 6 April 2005. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  58. ^ Caroline Hong (16 July 2005). "Wang should lead the KMT: Soong". Taipei Times. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  59. ^ "Mayor Ma elected as KMT chairman in landslide victory". The China Post. 17 July 2005. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  60. ^ "Wang supporters mad at corruption allegations in ad". Taipei Times. 1 July 2005. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  61. ^ Jewel Huang (15 August 2005). "Ma Ying-jeou set to meet with Wang before convention". Taipei Times. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  62. ^ Ko Shu-Ling (16 August 2005). "Ma, Wang hold first post-election meeting". Taipei Times. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  63. ^ "Lien Chan bids farewell to KMT chairmanship as Ma takes over". The China Post. 20 August 2005. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  64. ^ "Despite calls, Ma won’t quit as mayor of Taipei". The China Post. 5 November 2006. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  65. ^ Ko Shu-ling (4 December 2005). "KMT crushes DPP in landslide victory". Taipei Times. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  66. ^ Mo Yan-chih (2 December 2005). "Ma pledges to resign if KMT 'fails'". Taipei Times. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  67. ^ "Ma wins his last-minute gamble". The China Post. 4 December 2005. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  68. ^ "Ma said to pick Siew for 2008 race". The China Post. 2007-06-23. Retrieved 2007-06-23. 
  69. ^ Ko Shu-ling (27 December 2007). "Ma humiliated Aborigines: Hsieh". Taipei Times. 
  70. ^ "「把原民當人看」馬發言挨批" (in Chinese). Liberty Times. 27 December 2007. Retrieved 17 August 2008. 
  71. ^ a b "DPP continues attack on Ma Ying-jeou", Taipei Times, 31 January 2008
  72. ^ Presidential election 2008: 6 days to go: Chen vows to quit if Ma proves he has no green card, Taipei Times, 16 March 2008
  73. ^ a b "老樹爭議 巨蛋環評續保留" (in Chinese). The Liberty Times. 18 March 2008. 
  74. ^ "環團︰都不及格 但謝還有救" (in Chinese). The Liberty Times. 25 February 2008. 
  75. ^ "不敢給承諾 環團批馬沒擔當" (in Chinese). The Liberty Times. 13 March 2008. 
  76. ^ "環團憂馬只重經濟不重環保" (in Chinese). The Liberty Times. 24 March 2008. 
  77. ^ "Ma Ying-jeou sworn in as Taiwan's president". Central News Agency. May 20, 2008. Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  78. ^ 中時電子報[dead link]
  79. ^ Ralph Jennings, "Taiwan new leader takes office on China pledges", Reuters (International Herald Tribune), May 20, 2008.
  80. ^ "The 2008 Time 100". Time. April 30, 2009.,28804,1733748_1733757_1735546,00.html. Retrieved April 5, 2010. 
  81. ^ "Taiwan president heads to Latin America, via US". AFP. Retrieved on 2008-08-14.
  82. ^ "Taiwan's President Ma departs for three-country Latin America tour". Earth Times. Retrieved on 2008-08-14.
  83. ^ "台灣‧就職演說強調不統不獨不武‧馬英九吁兩岸協商" (in Chinese). Sin Chew Daily. 20 May 2008. 
  84. ^ "骨灰罈上「化獨漸統興中國」 馬父遺志子題字" (in Chinese). 29 October 2007. 
  85. ^ Monday, Aug. 11, 2008 (2008-08-11). ""Talking to Taiwan's New President". Time. Retrieved on 2008-08-14".,8599,1831748,00.html?xid=rss-topstories. Retrieved 2011-03-12. 
  86. ^ "扁嗆特偵組:馬上來捉我 [Chen Shui-bian challenges the Special Investigation Unit: Come Arrest Me At Once]" (in Traditional Chinese). Liberty Times. 4 October 2008. Retrieved 27 October 2008. 
  87. ^ "馬稱兩岸非國與國 李斥叛國 [Ma: "Special non-state-to-state" Lee: "Treason"]" (in Traditional Chinese). Liberty Times. 7 September 2008. Retrieved 27 October 2008. 
  88. ^ "Thousands in Taiwan Protest Talks With China". The New York Times. October 26, 2008. Retrieved April 5, 2010. 
  89. ^ Jennings, Ralph (October 25, 2008). "Half a million march in Taiwan against China, president". Yahoo! News and Reuters. Retrieved October 28, 2008. [dead link]
  90. ^ a b "Thousands in Taiwan protest China ties". CNN. 26 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-05. [dead link]
  91. ^ "Majority support visit by China’s top negotiator". Central News Agency (Taipei). 23 October 2008. Retrieved 27 October 2008. 
  92. ^ "「大陸政策與兩岸協商」民意調查 (Opinion polls on "mainland policy and cross-strait talks") (in Traditional Chinese) Mainland Affairs Council of the Republic of China. Retrieved on 2008-10-27.
  93. ^ Sun, Yu-huay (27 October 2008). "China, Taiwan to Sign Agreements Nov. 5, Evening News Reports". Bloomberg. 
  94. ^ "馬英九跟著陳雲林說謊" (in Chinese). Liberty Times. 29 October 2008. 
  95. ^ "18 arrested for 'disturbing order' in siege protest". China Post. 8 November 2008. 
  96. ^ [2][dead link]
  97. ^ "Lien Chan meets with Hu Jintao at APEC summit". Central News Agency (Taipei). 23 November 2008. 
  98. ^ William Foreman (7 November 2008). "Chen Yulin ends historic visit". Associated Press. 
  99. ^ "經濟成長率差一截 失業率、物價攀高// 馬633政見 嚴重跳票" (in Chinese). Liberty Times. 23 August 2008. 
  100. ^ "百日成績 政院發文宣 綠營再撻伐" (in Chinese). Liberty Times. 29 August 2008. 
  101. ^ "民眾痛苦指數飆高". Liberty Times. 30 August 2008. 
  102. ^ "http". // Retrieved 2011-03-12. 
  103. ^ [3][dead link]
  104. ^ Ong, Janet (2008-09-11). "Taiwan to Spend NT$181 Billion on Economy, Stocks (Update3)". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2011-03-12. 
  105. ^ "/ Asia-Pacific - Taiwan stock market slides". 2008-09-11. Retrieved 2011-03-12. 
  106. ^ "Taiwanese economy slumps into recession". CNN. February 18, 2009. Retrieved April 5, 2010. 
  107. ^ "Taiwan economy grows 9.2 percent in Q4". Associated Press. 22 February 2010. Retrieved 2 February 2011. 
  108. ^ "Taiwan's exports surge 19 percent in December amid economic recovery". Associated Press. 7 January 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2011. 
  109. ^ Sun, Yu-huay; Tang, Eugene (December 15, 2008). Taiwan, China Start Direct Links as Relations Improve. Bloomberg L.P..
  110. ^ China, Taiwan reopen regular links. CNN. December 14, 2008.
  111. ^ Chinese mainland, Taiwan start direct transport, mail services. VietNamNet. December 15, 2008.
  112. ^ McDonald, Mark (December 15, 2008). Direct flights between China and Taiwan begin. The New York Times.
  113. ^ Sui, Cindy (December 15, 2008). Daily China-Taiwan flights begin. BBC News.
  114. ^ UPDATE: Taiwan President Hails China Transport Links. December 17, 2008.
  115. ^ Defense ministry opposed to flights across Taiwan Strait middle line. The China Post. July 6, 2009.
  116. ^ President Ma elected KMT chairman - CNA ENGLISH NEWS
  117. ^ Taiwan President Ma Ying-jeou registers for KMT leadership race - eTaiwan News
  118. ^
  119. ^ Jonathan Adam (18 August 2009). "Taiwan president under fire over typhoon response". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 25 August 2009. 
  120. ^ KO Shu-ling (18 August 2009). "MORAKOT: THE AFTERMATH: CNN poll shows 80 percent want president to resign". Taipei Times. Retrieved 15 September 2009. 
  121. ^ Tania Branigan (19 August 2009). "Taiwan cabinet members offer to resign over typhoon Morakot response". London: Retrieved 25 August 2009. 
  122. ^
  123. ^ David Young (19 August 2009). "President Ma apologizes". The China Post. 
  124. ^ [4][dead link]
  125. ^ (in Chinese) 拒外援請辭 夏立言:我竟成「救災不力」主嫌. China Times. 10 September 2009. 
  126. ^ Taiwan Mayor on Unification with China - Newsweek: International Editions -[dead link]
  127. ^ "Taiwan presidential candidate threatens to boycott Beijing Olympics: Sports".,taiwan-presidential-candidate-threatens-to-boycott-beijing-olympics.html. Retrieved 2008-03-19. 
  128. ^ a b Joe Hung (4 April 2009). "President Ma pays homage in person to the Yellow Emperor". The China Post. 
  129. ^ "兩岸重於人權? 馬放王丹鴿子" (in traditional Chinese). 
  130. ^ "馬英九:六四不平反 兩岸統一無條件" (in traditional Chinese). 
  131. ^ "Taiwan's Ma: No plans to visit China". CNN. March 23, 2008. Archived from the original on March 25, 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-23. 
  132. ^ "Taiwan and China in 'special relations': Ma". China Post. 2008-09-04. 
  133. ^ "'Non-state-to-state' discourse based on Constitution: spokesman". Central News Agency of the Republic of China. 2008-09-11. 
  134. ^ "Ma refers to China as ROC territory in magazine interview". Taipei Times. 2008-10-08. 
  135. ^ "Ma clarifies ‘two areas,’ reaffirms non-denial". China Post. 2008-10-25. 
  136. ^ "Ma hopes for peace deal while he's in office". Taipei Times. 19 October 2008. 
  137. ^ Tiananmen 20th anniversary brings new repression. Zee News. June 4, 2009.
  138. ^ Taiwan Leader Draws Fire For Praising China On Human Rights. NASDAQ. June 4, 2009.
  139. ^ "Taiwan president Ma wants to allow writing in simplified characters". June 10, 2009. 
  140. ^ David Young (20 June 2009). "Ma dispels misunderstanding over views on traditional Chinese script". The China Post. 
  141. ^ "Taiwan President clarifies his view on Chinese character - Taiwan News Online". 2009-06-19. Retrieved 2011-03-12. 
  142. ^ Bilateral economic ties will ease tensions with China: Ma, China Post, January 18, 2009

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Lu Youwen
Minister of Justice of the Republic of China
Succeeded by
Liao Zhenghao
Preceded by
Chen Shui-bian
Mayor of Taipei
Succeeded by
Hau Lung-pin
President of the Republic of China
2008 – Present
Party political offices
Preceded by
Lien Chan
Chairman of the Kuomintang
Succeeded by
Wu Po-hsiung
Kuomintang presidential nominee
Succeeded by
Most recent
Preceded by
Wu Po-hsiung
Chairman of the Kuomintang
2009 – Present

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно решить контрольную?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Ma Ying-jeou — in UC Berkeley Ma Ying jeou (chinesisch 馬英九 Mǎ Yīngjiǔ, W. G. Ma Ying chiu, * 13. Juli 1950 in Hongkong) ist ein taiwanischer Politiker der Kuomintang (KMT) und seit dem 20. Mai 2008 Präsident der …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ma Ying-Jeou — (März 2006) Ma Ying jeou (chin. 馬英九, Mǎ Yīngjiǔ, W. G. Ma Ying chiu, * 13. Juli 1950 in Hongkong) ist ein taiwanischer Politiker der Kuomintang (KMT) und seit dem 20. Mai 2008 Präsident der Republik China …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ma Ying Jeou — 馬英九 6e Président de la République de Chine (Taïwan) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ma Ying-jeou — 馬英九 Ma Ying jeou le 24 mars 2006 à l université de Californie, Berkeley. Mandats …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ma Ying-jeou — Ma Ying jeou …   Wikipedia Español

  • Ma Ying-jeou — ▪ 2009 born July 13, 1950, Hong Kong       On March 22, 2008, Ma Ying jeou, a Harvard educated former mayor of Taipei, won a landslide victory in Taiwan s presidential election, defeating Frank Hsieh of the pro independence Democratic Progressive …   Universalium

  • Republic of China presidential election, 2008 — For the Legislative Yuan elections held in 2008, see Republic of China legislative election, 2008. For the referendum that will be held in March 2008, please see Republic of China transitional justice referendums, 2008 Republic of China… …   Wikipedia

  • Kuomintang — KMT redirects here. For other uses, see KMT (disambiguation). Kuomintang of China 中國國民黨 …   Wikipedia

  • Präsidentenwahl in der Republik China 2008 — Die Präsidentenwahl in der Republik China 2008 fand am 22. März statt. Sie war die vierte Direktwahl des Präsidenten der Republik China seit 1996. Hauptkandidaten waren Hsieh Chang ting von der Demokratischen Fortschrittspartei (DPP) und der… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Chen Shui-bian — 陳水扁 President of the Republic of China In office May 20, 2000 – May 20, 2008 Vice President Annette Lu …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”