192–1832 → Vietnam. To the north (in yellow) lay Đại Việt; to the west (in blue), Angkor. Capital Indrapura
Language(s) Cham, Sanskrit Religion Cham religion, Hinduism and Buddhism, later Islam Government Monarchy History - Established 192 - Panduranga was annexed by Nguyễn Vietnam. 1832
The kingdom of Champa (Campadesa or nagara Campa in Cham and Cambodian inscriptions written in Devanagari as चंपा; Chăm Pa in Vietnamese, 占城 Chiêm Thành in Hán Việt and Zhàn chéng in Chinese records) was an Indianized kingdom that controlled what is now southern and central Vietnam from approximately the 7th century through to 1832.
Champa was preceded in the region by a kingdom called Lin-yi (林邑, Middle Chinese *Lim Ip) or Lâm Ấp (Vietnamese) that was in existence from 192 AD, but the historical relationship between Lin-yi and Champa is not clear. Champa reached its apogee in the 9th and 10th centuries. Thereafter began a gradual decline under pressure from Đại Việt, the Vietnamese polity centered in the region of modern Hanoi. In 1471, Viet troops sacked the northern Cham capital of Vijaya, and in 1697 the southern principality of Panduranga became a vassal of the Vietnamese emperor. In 1832, the Vietnamese emperor Minh Mạng annexed the remaining Cham territories. Mỹ Sơn, a former religious center, and Hội An, one of Champa's main port cities, are now heritage listed.
Geography of historical Champa
Between the 7th and the 15th centuries, Champa at times included the modern Vietnamese provinces of Quảng Nam, Quảng Ngãi, Bình Định, Phú Yên, Khánh Hòa, Ninh Thuận, and Bình Thuận. Though Cham territory included the mountainous zones west of the coastal plain and (at times) extended into present-day Laos, for the most part the Cham remained a seafaring people dedicated to trade, and maintained few settlements of any size away from the coast.
Historical Champa consisted of up to five principalities:
- Indrapura ("City of Indra") was the capital of Champa from about 875 to about 1000 AD. It was located at the site of the modern village of Dong Duong, not far from the modern city of Da Nang. Also in the region of Da Nang are the ancient Cham city of Singhapura ("City of the Lion"), the location of which has been identified with an archeological site in the modern village of Trà Kiệu, and the valley of Mỹ Sơn, where a number of ruined temples and towers can still be viewed. The associated port was at modern Hội An. The territory once controlled by this principality included present-day Quảng Bình, Quảng Trị, and Thừa Thiên–Huế provinces.
- Amaravati was located in present-day Quảng Nam province.
- Vijaya was located in present-day Bình Định Province. The capital has been identified with the archeological site at Cha Ban. The associated port was at present-day Qui Nhơn. Important excavations have also been conducted at nearby Thap Mam, which may have been a religious and cultural center. Vijaya became the political and cultural center of Champa around 1000 AD, when the northern capital of Indrapura was abandoned due to pressure from the Viet. It remained the center of Champa until 1471, when it as sacked by the Viet and the center of Champa was again displaced toward the South. In its time, the principality of Vijaya controlled much of present-day Quang-Nam, Quang-Ngai, Binh Dinh, and Phu Yen Provinces.
- Kauthara was located in the area of modern Nha Trang in Khánh Hòa Province. Its religious and cultural center was the temple of Po Nagar, several towers of which still stand at Nha Trang.
- Panduranga was located in the area of present-day Phan Rang in Ninh Thuận Province. Panduranga was the last of the Cham territories to be annexed by the Vietnamese.
Within the four principalities there were two main clans: the "Dua" and the "Cau". The Dua lived in Amarvati and Vijaya while the Cau lived in Kauthara and Panduranga. The two clans differed in their customs and habits and conflicting interests led to many clashes and even war. But they usually managed to settle disagreements through intermarriage.
Historiography of Champa
Sources for the historiography of Champa
- Physical remains, including brick structures and ruins as well as stone sculptures;
- Inscriptions in Cham and Sanskrit on steles and other stone surfaces;
- Chinese and Vietnamese histories, diplomatic reports, and other texts.
Overarching theories in the historiography of Champa
Modern scholarship has been guided by two competing theories in the historiography of Champa. Scholars agree that historically Champa was divided into several regions or principalities spread out from South to North along the coast of modern Vietnam and united by a common language, culture and heritage. However, scholars have disagreed on whether these several regions belonged to a single political unit, or whether they were politically independent of one another. It is acknowledged that the historical record is not equally rich for each of the regions in every historical period. For example, in the 10th century, the record is richest for Indrapura; in the 12th century, it is richest for Vijaya; following the 15th century, it is richest for Panduranga. Some scholars have taken these shifts in the historical record to reflect the movement of the Cham capital from one location to another. According to such scholars, if the 10th century record is richest for Indrapura, it is so because at that time Indrapura was the capital of Champa. Other scholars have disputed this contention, holding that Champa was never a united country, and arguing that the presence of a particularly rich historical record for a given region in a given period is no basis for claiming that the region functioned as the capital of a united Champa during that period.
Sources of foreign cultural influence
Through the centuries, Cham culture and society were influenced by forces emanating from China, from India, from Cambodia, from Java, as well as from other sources. Lin Yi, the predecessor state of historical Champa, began its existence in 192 AD as a breakaway Chinese colony. An official successfully revolted against Chinese rule in central Vietnam, and Lin Yi was founded in 192. In the 4th century, wars with the neighboring Kingdom of Funan in Cambodia and the acquisition of Funanese territory led to the infusion of Indian culture into Cham society. Sanskrit was adopted as a scholarly language, and Hinduism, especially Shaivism, became the state religion. From the 10th century onwards Arab maritime trade in the region brought increasing Islamic cultural and religious influences. Champa came to serve as an important link in the Spice Route which stretched from the Persian Gulf to southern China and later in the Arab maritime routes in Indo-China as a supplier of aloe. Despite the frequent wars between Champa and Cambodia the two countries also traded and cultural influences moved in both directions. Royal families of the two countries intermarried frequently. Champa also had close trade and cultural relations with the powerful maritime empire of Srivijaya and later Majapahit of the Malay Archipelago. Minangkabau people in Sumatra Indonesia believe that one of their ancestor come from Champa who called as Harimau Campo (Tiger of Champa). Harimau Campo together with Datuak Suri Dirajo (one of Minangkabau founding father), Kambiang Hutan, and Anjiang Mualim created basic concept of martial art of Minangkabau called silek (silat). Evidences gathered from linguistic studies also confirm that a very strong cultural influence of Champa in Indonesia is found in Aceh, indicated by the use of chamic or Aceh–Chamic language as main language in coastal districts of Aceh Besar, Pidie, Bireun, Aceh Utara, Kota Lhokseumawe, Aceh Timur, Aceh Barat, Aceh Barat Daya, and Aceh Jaya.
History of Champa
The people of Champa were descended from Malayo-Polynesian settlers who appear to have reached the Southeast Asian mainland from Borneo about the time of the Sa Huynh culture in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. There are pronounced ceramic, industrial and funerary continuities with sites such as the Niah Caves in Sarawak, East Malaysia. Sa Huynh sites are rich in iron artifacts, by contrast with the Dong Son culture sites found in northern Vietnam and elsewhere in mainland Southeast Asia, where bronze artifacts are dominant. The Cham language is part of the Austronesian family. According to one study, Cham is related most closely to modern Acehnese.
Cham tradition claims that the founder of the Cham state was Lady Po Nagar. She originated from Khanh Hoa province, in a peasant family in the mountains of Dai An. Spirits assisted her when she sailed on a drift piece of sandalwood to China, where she married a Chinese crown prince, the son of the Emperor of China, with whom she had two children, and then became Queen of Champa. When she returned to Champa to visit her family, the Prince refused to let her go, but she flung the sandalwood into the ocean, disappeared with her children and reappeared at Nha Trang to her family. When the Chinese prince tried to follow her back to Nha Trang, she was furious, and turned him and his fleet into stone.
The Sa Huỳnh Culture
The Sa Huynh culture is a late prehistoric metal age society on the central coast of Viet Nam. In 1909, about 200 jar burials were uncovered at Sa Huynh, a coastal village located south of Da Nang. Since then, many more burials have been found, at some 50 sites. The Sa Huynh shows a distinct regional Bronze Age culture, with its own styles of axes, daggers, and ornaments. Carbon dating has placed the Sa Huynh culture roughly the same time line with the Dong Son culture, that is about the first millennium BC. From about 200 AD, the central coast of Viet Nam was inhabited by the Chams, who had adopted elements of Indian political and religious culture. Recent researches by Vietnamese archaeologists has shown that the Chams are linguistic and cultural descendants of the Sa Huynh people. The uncovered artifacts show the Sa Huynh people were highly skilled craftsmen in the production of jewelry and ornaments made with hard stones and glass. Sa Huynh styled ornaments were also found in Thailand, Taiwan and Philippines suggesting they were traded with South East Asian neighbors, over land and maritime routes. Archaeologists also observe that iron seems to have been used by the Sa Huynh peoples when their Dong Son neighbors were still mostly using bronze.
To the Chinese, the country of Champa was known as 林邑 Linyi in Mandarin and Lam Yap in Cantonese and to the Vietnamese, Lâm Ấp (which is the Sino-Vietnamese pronunciation of 林邑). It had been founded in 192 AD in the region of modern Huế by Khu Lien, a local leader rebelling against the Han Dynasty. Over the next several centuries, Han forces made repeated unsuccessful attempts to retake the region.
From its neighbor Funan to the west, Lâm Ấp soon received the gift of Indian civilization. Scholars locate the historical beginnings of Champa in the 4th century, when the process of Indianization was well underway. It was in this period that the Cham people began to create stone inscriptions in both Sanskrit and in their own language, for which they created a unique script.
The Book of Jin has some records about Lam Ap during the 3rd to 5th centuries. Fan Wen (范文) became the king in 336 CE. He attacked and annexed Daqijie, Xiaoqijie, Ship, Xulang, Qudu, Ganlu, and Fudan. Fan Wen sent a message and paid tribute to the Chinese Emperor, and the message was "written in barbarian characters". Lam Ap sometimes maintained the tributary status and sometimes was hostile to the Jin dynasty, and the Commandery of Rinan (日南, Chinese:Rinan, Vietnamese:Nhật Nam) was frequently under attack from Lam Ap.
The first king acknowledged in the inscriptions is Bhadravarman, who reigned from 380 to 413 AD. At Mỹ Sơn, King Bhadravarman established a god named Bhadresvara, whose name was a combination of the king's own name and that of the Hindu god of gods Shiva. The worship of the original god-king under the name Bhadresvara and other names continued through the centuries that followed.
The capital of Lâm Ấp at the time of Bhadravarman was the citadel of Simhapura ("Lion City", not to be confused with Singapore which shares similar pronunciation and etymology), which was located along two rivers and had a wall eight miles in circumference. A Chinese writer described the people of Lâm Ấp as both warlike and musical, with "deep eyes, a high straight nose, and curly black hair."
According to Chinese records, Sambhuvarman (Fan Fan Tche) was crowned king of Lâm Ấp in 529 AD. Inscriptions credit him with rehabilitating the temple to Bhadresvara after a fire. Sambhuvarman also sent delegations and tribute to China, and unsuccessfully invaded what is now northern Vietnam.
The Chinese sent General Pham Tu to pacify the Chams after they raided Vietnam, which was part of China in 543, the Chams were defeated.
In 605 AD, a general Liu Fang (劉方) of the Sui dynasty invaded Lâm Ấp, won a battle by luring the enemy war-elephants into an area booby-trapped with camouflaged pits, massacred the defeated troops, and captured the capital. In the 620s, the kings of Lâm Ấp sent delegations to the court of the recently established Tang Dynasty and asked to become vassals of the Chinese court.
Chinese records report the death of the last king of Lâm Ấp as falling in 756 AD. Thereafter for a time, the Chinese referred to Champa as "Hoan Vuong" or "Huanwang". The earliest Chinese records using a name related to "Champa" are dated 877 AD; however, such names had been in use by the Cham themselves since at least 629 AD, and by the Khmer since at least 657 AD.
Champa at its peak
From the 7th to the 10th centuries, the Cham controlled the trade in spices and silk between China, India, the Indonesian islands, and the Abbassid empire in Baghdad. They supplemented their income from the trade routes not only by exporting ivory and aloe, but also by engaging in piracy and raiding.
Religious foundations at Mỹ Sơn
By the second half of the 7th century AD, royal temples were beginning to make their appearance at Mỹ Sơn. The dominant religious cult was that of the Hindu god Shiva, but temples were also dedicated to Vishnu. Scholars have called the architectural style of this period Mỹ Sơn E1, in reference to a particular edifice at Mỹ Sơn that is regarded as emblematic of the style. Important surviving works of art in this style include a pedestal for a linga that has come to be known as the Mỹ Sơn E1 Pedestal and a pediment depicting the birth of Brahma from a lotus issuing from the navel of the sleeping Vishnu.
In an important stone inscription dated 657 AD. and found at Mỹ Sơn, King Prakasadharma, who took on the name Vikrantavarman I at his coronation, claimed to be descended through his mother from the Brahman Kaundinya and the serpent princess Soma, the legendary ancestors of the Khmer of Cambodia. This inscription thus underlines the ethnic and cultural connection of Champa with the Khmer Empire, its perennial rival to the west. It also commemorates the king's dedication of a monument, probably a linga, to Shiva. Another inscription documents the king's almost mystical devotion to Shiva, "who is the source of the supreme end of life, difficult to attain; whose true nature is beyond the domain of thought and speech, yet whose image, identical with the universe, is manifested by his forms."
Temporary preeminence of Kauthara
In the 8th century, during the time when the Chinese knew the country as "Huanwang", the political center of Champa shifted temporarily from Mỹ Sơn southward to the regions of Panduranga and Kauthara, centered around the temple complex of Po Nagar near modern Nha Trang that was dedicated to the indigenous Earth goddess Yan Po Nagar. In 774 AD. raiders from Java disembarked in Kauthara, burned the temple of Po Nagar, and carried off the image of Shiva. The Cham king Satyavarman pursued the raiders and defeated them in a naval battle. In 781 AD, Satyavarman erected a stele at Po Nagar, declaring that he had regained control of the area and had restored the temple. In 787 AD, Javanese raiders destroyed a temple dedicated to Shiva near Panduranga.
The Buddhist dynasty at Indrapura
In 875 AD, King Indravarman II founded a new northern dynasty at Indrapura (Dong Duong near Da Nang in modern Vietnam). Eager to claim an ancient lineage, Indravarman declared himself the descendant of Bhrigu, the venerable sage whose exploits are detailed in the Mahabharata, and asserted that Indrapura had been founded by the same Bhrigu in ancient times. From 877 onward, the Chinese knew Champa as "Cheng-cheng", discontinuing their use of the term "Huan-wang."
Indravarman was the first Cham monarch to adopt Mahayana Buddhism as an official religion. At the center of Indrapura, he constructed a Buddhist monastery (vihara) dedicated to the bodhisattva Lokesvara. The foundation, regrettably, was devastated during the Vietnam War. Thankfully, some photographs and sketches survive from the prewar period. In addition, some stone sculptures from the monastery are preserved in Vietnamese museums. Scholars have called the artistic style typical of the Indrapura the Dong Duong Style. The style is characterized by its dynamism and ethnic realism in the depiction of the Cham people. Surviving masterpieces of the style include several tall sculptures of fierce dvarapalas or temple guardians that were once positioned around the monastery. The period in which Buddhism reigned as the principal religion of Champa came to an end in approximately 925, at which time the Dong Duong Style also began to give way to subsequent artistic styles linked with the restoration of Shaivism as the national religion.
Kings belonging to the dynasty of Indrapura built a number of temples at Mỹ Sơn in the 9th and 10th centuries. Their temples at Mỹ Sơn came to define a new architectural and artistic style, called by scholars the Mỹ Sơn A1 Style, again in reference to a particular foundation at Mỹ Sơn regarded emblematic for the style. With the religious shift from Buddhism back to Shaivism around the beginning of the 10th century, the center of Cham religion also shifted from Dong Duong back to Mỹ Sơn.
Attrition through conflict with the Việt and the Khmer
Champa reached its peak in the civilization of Indrapura centered in the region of Dong Duong and Mỹ Sơn. Factors contributing to the decline of Champa over the next several centuries include its enviable position along the trade routes, its relatively small population base, and its frequently antagonistic relations with its closest neighbors: the Viet to the north and the Khmer to the west.
Interesting parallels may be observed between the history of northern Champa (Indrapura and Vijaya) and that of its neighbor and rival to the west, the Khmer civilization of Angkor, located just to the north of the great lake Tonlé Sap in what is now Cambodia. The foundation of the Cham dynasty at Indrapura in 875 AD. was followed just two years later by the foundation at Roluos in 877 of the Khmer empire by King Indravarman I, who united two previously independent regions of Cambodia. The parallels continued as the two peoples flourished from the 10th through the 12th centuries, then went into gradual decline, suffering their ultimate defeat in the 15th century. In 1238, the Khmer lost control of their western possessions around Sukhothai as the result of a Thai revolt. The successful revolt not only ushered in the era of Thai independence, but also foreshadowed the eventual abandonment of Angkor in 1431 AD. following its sack by Thai invaders from the kingdom of Ayutthaya, which had absorbed Sukhothai in 1376. The decline of Champa was roughly contemporaneous with that of Angkor, and was precipitated by pressure from the Đại Việt of what is now northern Vietnam, culminating in the conquest and obliteration of Vijaya in 1471 AD.
Around the 11th century the Daoyi Zhilue documents Chinese merchants who went to Cham ports in Champa, married Cham women, to whom they regularly returned to after trading voyages. A Chinese merchant from Quanzhou, Wang Yuanmao, traded extensively with Champa, and married a Cham princess.
Khmer invasions of Kauthara
In 944 and 945 AD, Khmer troops from Cambodia invaded the region of Kauthara. Around 950, the Khmer pillaged the temple of Po Nagar and carried off the statue of the goddess. In 960, the Cham King Jaya Indravaman I sent a delegation with tribute to the first king of the Chinese Song Dynasty, which had been established in Kaifeng around 960. In 965, the king restored the temple at Po Nagar and reconstructed the statue of the goddess to replace the one stolen by the Khmer.
War with Đại Việt and the abandonment of Indrapura
In the latter half 10th century, the kings of Indrapura waged war against the Đại Việt of what is now northern Vietnam. The Viet had spent the better part of the century securing their independence from Chinese rule. Following the defeat of the Chinese fleet by Ngô Quyền in the Battle of Bạch Đằng in 938 AD, the country had gone through a period of internal turmoil until its final reunification by the Đinh Dynasty in 968 under the name Dai Co Viet, and the establishment of a capital at Hoa Lu near modern Hanoi.
In 979 AD, the Cham King Parameshvaravarman I (Phê Mi Thuê to the Viet) sent a fleet to attack Hoa Lu. The ill-fated expedition was however scuttled by a tempest. In 982, King Lê Hoàn of the Đại Việt sent three ambassadors to Indrapura. When the ambassadors were detained, Lê Hoàn decided to go on the offensive. Viet troops sacked Indrapura and killed King Phê Mi Thuê. They carried off Cham dancers and musicians who subsequently came to influence the development of the arts in Đại Việt. As a result of these setbacks, the Cham abandoned Indrapura around 1000 AD. The center of Champa was relocated south to Vijaya in modern Binh Dinh.
Several Chinese accounts record Cham arriving on Hainan, from 986, when the Cham capital fell in 982, several Cham fled to Hainan during the Song dynasty. After the 982 fall, of the capital Indrapura to Vietnam, some Cham fled to Guangzhou in addition to Hainan. They became ancestors of the modern day Utsuls on Hainan, who are Muslims and still speak a Cham language.
While declaring himself an independent ruler to his own people, the Vietnamese leader Dinh Bo Linh requested only officially the status of his domain as neifu from the Chinese, which was not an independent state but of an autonomous suboordinate region of China. After this, Champa also demanded this status, to be officially part of China, sending large amounts of tribute to the Chinese. When Vietnam sent Cham prisoners to China, the Chinese sent them back to Champa.
Sack of Vijaya by the Việt
Conflict between Champa and Đại Việt did not end, however, with the abandonment of Indrapura. Champa suffered further Viet attacks in 1021 and 1026 AD. In 1044 AD, a catastrophic battle resulted in the death of the Cham King Sa Dau and the sack of Vijaya by the Đại Việt under Lý Thái Tông. The invaders captured elephants and musicians and even the Cham queen Mi E, who preserved her honor by throwing herself into the waves as her captors attempted to transport her to their country. 30,000 Cham were killed. Champa began to pay tribute to the Viet kings, including a white rhino sent in 1065. In 1068 AD, however, the King of Vijaya Rudravarman (Che Cu) attacked Đại Việt in order to reverse the setbacks of 1044. Again the Cham were defeated, and again the Đại Việt captured and burned Vijaya. These events were repeated in 1069, when the Viet general Ly Thuong Kiet took a fleet to Champa and occupied Vijaya. Rudravarman and 50,000 others were taken into captivity, eventually purchasing his freedom in exchange for three northern districts of his realm. Taking advantage of the debacle, a leader in southern Champa rebelled and established an independent kingdom. The northern kings were not able to reunite the country until 1084.
Khmer invasions of northern Champa
In 1074 AD, King Harivarman IV took the throne, restoring the temples at Mỹ Sơn and ushering in a period of relative prosperity. Harivarman made peace with the Đại Việt, but provoked war with the Khmer of Angkor. In 1080, a Khmer army attacked Vijaya and other centers in northern Champa. Temples and monasteries were sacked; cultural treasures were carried off. After much misery, Cham troops under King Harivarman were able to defeat the invaders and restored the capital and temples.
Around 1080 AD, a new dynasty from the Korat Plateau in modern Thailand occupied the throne of Angkor in Cambodia. Soon enough, the kings of the new dynasty embarked on a program of empire-building. Rebuffed in their attempts to conquer Đại Việt in the 1130s, they turned their attention to Champa. In 1145 AD, a Khmer army under King Suryavarman II, the founder of Angkor Wat, occupied Vijaya and destroyed the temples at Mỹ Sơn. The Khmer king then proceeded to attempt the conquest of all of northern Champa. In 1149 AD, however, the ruler of the southern principality of Panduranga, King Jaya Harivarman, defeated the invaders and had himself consecrated king of kings in Vijaya. He spent the rest of his reign putting down rebellions in Amaravati and Panduranga.
Sack of Angkor by the Cham
In 1167 AD, King Jaya Indravarman IV ascended to the throne in Champa. An inscription characterized him as brave, well-versed in weapons, and knowledgeable of philosophy, Mahayana theories and the Dharmasutra. After securing peace with the Đại Việt in 1170, Jaya Indravarman invaded Cambodia with inconclusive results. In 1177, however, his troops launched a surprise attack against the Khmer capital of Yasodharapura from warships piloted up the Mekong River to the great lake Tonlé Sap in Cambodia. The invaders sacked the capital, killed the Khmer king, and made off with much booty.
Conquest of Vijaya by the Khmer
The Khmer were rallied by a new king, Jayavarman VII, who drove the Cham from Cambodia in 1181 AD. When Jaya Indravarman IV launched another attack against Cambodia in 1190, Jayavarman VII appointed a Cham prince named Vidyanandana to lead the Khmer army. Vidyanandana defeated the invaders and proceeded to occupy Vijaya and to capture Jaya Indravarman, whom he sent back to Angkor as a prisoner.
Following the conquest of Vijaya, the Khmer king installed his own brother-in-law, Prince In, as a puppet king in Champa. Civil war broke out, however, between several factions. In the end, Prince In prevailed, but declared his independence from Cambodia. Khmer troops attempted unsuccessfully to regain control over Champa throughout the 1190s. In 1203 AD, finally, Jayavarman VII's generals took Vijaya, and Champa effectively became a province of Angkor, not to regain its independence until 1220. Thereafter, Vijaya went into a period of gradual decline that lasted for more than two centuries. This period ended in a total defeat at the hands of the Đại Việt, and was briefly interrupted by a period of astounding military success under the warrior king Chế Bồng Nga.
Invasion of the Mongols
In 1283 AD, Mongol troops of the Yuan Dynasty under General Sogetu (Sodu) invaded Champa and occupied Vijaya. In the 1270s, Kublai Khan had established his capital and dynasty at Beijing and had toppled the southern Chinese Song Dynasty. By 1280, he would turn his attention to the Cham and Viet kingdoms located in the territory of modern Vietnam. A series of Mongol assaults on Đại Việt were, however, unsuccessful, resulting in severe setbacks such as the Battle of Bạch Đằng. Similarly, the invasion of Champa had little lasting effect. Rather than engage the invaders directly, the Cham king and his troops retreated from the coast to the mountains and fought as guerrillas. Two years later, the Mongols left of their own accord. Sogetu was soon killed in another botched invasion of Đại Việt. However, the Champa accepted the Mongol suzerainty 3 years later.
In 1307 AD, the Cham King Jaya Simhavarman III (Che Man), the founder of the still extant temple of Po Klaung Garai in Panduranga, ceded two northern districts to the Đại Việt in exchange for the hand in marriage of a Viet princess. Not long after the nuptials, the king died, and the princess returned to her northern home in order to avoid a Cham custom that would have required her to join her husband in death. However, the lands that Che Man had rashly ceded were not returned. In order to regain these lands, and encouraged by the decline of Đại Việt in the course of the 14th century, the troops of Champa began to make regular incursions into the territory of their neighbor to the north.
Chế Bồng Nga - the Red King
The last strong king of the Cham was Chế Bồng Nga or Che Bunga, who ruled from 1360 until 1390. In Vietnamese stories he is called The Red King. Chế Bồng Nga apparently managed to unite the Cham lands under his rule and by 1372 he was strong enough to attack and almost conquer Đại Việt from the sea.
Cham forces sacked Thăng Long, the capital city of Đại Việt located at the site of modern Hanoi, in 1372 and then again in 1377. A last attack in 1388 was checked by the Vietnamese General Hồ Quý Ly, future founder of the Hồ Dynasty. Chế Bồng Nga died two years later in 1390. This was the last serious offensive by the Cham against Đại Việt, but it helped spell the end of the Trần Dynasty, which had forged its reputation in the wars against the Mongols a century earlier, but which now revealed itself as weak and ineffective in the face of the Cham invasions.
Defeat and destruction of Vijaya by the Đại Việt
During the reign of the Ming Hongwu Emperor in China, Champa sent tribute to Ming dynasty to garner Chinese help in the wars with Vietnam. Emperor Hongwu was dead set against military actions in the region of Southeast Asia, he merely rebuked the Vietnamese for their offensive
In 1446, the Đại Việt under the leadership of Trịnh Khả launched an invasion of Champa. The attack was successful and Vijaya fell to the invaders. A year later, however, a counter-attack drove the Viet from the city.
In 1470, the Đại Việt, led by the great emperor Lê Thánh Tông, again invaded Champa. Lê Thánh Tông was an extraordinary administrator and leader. The Đại Việt army was very powerful and well organized. By contrast the Cham were disorganized and weak. Vijaya was captured after four days of fighting on 21 March 1471. The Cham king Tra-Toan (Pau Kubah) was captured and died not long thereafter, though he sent his son Syah Pau Ling to Aceh and began a new dynasty there, and another son Syah Indera Berman to Melaka. According to linguistic study Acehnese people of northern Sumatra and Cham are related through the Aceh–Chamic languages. At least 60,000 Cham people were killed and 30,000 were taken as slaves by the Vietnamese army. The capital of Vijaya was obliterated. As a result of the victory, Lê Thánh Tông annexed the principalities of Amaravati and Vijaya. This defeat caused the first major Cham emigration, particularly to Cambodia and Malacca. Those who emigrated to Hainan would become known as the Utsul.
Later history of Champa
What remained of historical Champa was the southern principality of Panduranga. Under the protection of Dai-Viet, it preserved some of its independence. This was the starting point of the modern Cham Lords in the principality of Panduranga (Phan Rang, Phan Ri and Phan Thiết).
When the Ming dynasty in China fell, Chinese refugees fled south and extensively settled on Cham lands and in Cambodia. Most of these Chinese were young men, and they took Cham women as wives. Their children identified more with Chinese culture. This migration occurred in the 17th and 18th centuries.
In 1692, the Cham Lord Po Sot rebelled against Nguyễn Phúc Trăn who ruled southern Vietnam. The revolt was at first unsuccessful and the aftermath was exacerbated by an outbreak of plague in Panduranga. However, a Cham aristocrat Oknha Dat obtained the help of the general A Ban, a Lauw[clarification needed]<!- (Orang Laut? Overseas Chinese?)-> leader. They were defeated by the Nguyễn forces of Lord Nguyễn Phúc Chu, under General Nguyễn Hữu Cảnh in 1695. After defeated, the new king Po Saktiray Da Patih (younger brother of Po Sot) signed a peace treaty with Nguyễn Phuc Chu. As a result of the treaty, the Cham lords were called Trấn Vương (local lord) of Thuận Thành (Panduranga) by the Nguyễn Lords, and they were closely supervised by Nguyễn officials.
Although the Cham lords had authority over the Cham people, the Panduranga archives supplied some evidence of their limited authority over Vietnamese settlers. The Cham lords often played the role of the judge for Kinh-Cham conflict cases.
17 years later, in 1712, the Nguyễn Lord Nguyễn Phúc Chu made a new treaty called "the treaty with 5 articles" (Ngũ điều Nghị định) with the Cham Lord Po Saktiray Da Patih and clarified the right (included the trial right of the Cham lords and Cham people) and the obligation of the Cham Lords and the Nguyễn Lords. This new treaty was kept until 1832 by the Cham Lords, Nguyễn Lords, Tây Sơn Lords and Nguyễn Emperors.
As a result of the war between the Tây Sơn, under Nguyễn Nhạc, and Nguyễn Ánh, in 1786, the Cham Lord Chei Krei Brei and his court fled to Cambodia. The assumption behind this flight is that they supported the Nguyễn Lords and the Tây Sơn Lords seemed to have won the war. From then on, the Cham Lords' title was downgraded to prefect.
In 1796, during the last years of the Tây Sơn, Tuen Phaow, a noble from Makah (Kelantan), headed a major revolt against the new Cham leaders (Po Ladhwan Paghuh, Po Chơng Chơn and Po Klan Thu) and claimed Kelantan's support but the revolt was defeated. The Cham leaders regained their special rights once Nguyễn Ánh (the Emperor Gia Long) regained control over Vietnam in 1802. But even the limited Cham rule in Panduranga officially came to an end in 1832, when the Emperor Minh Mạng annexed the area.
Hinduism and Buddhism
Before the conquest of Champa by the Dai Viet emperor Lê Thánh Tông in 1471, the dominant religion of the Cham people was Hinduism, and the culture was heavily influenced by that of India. The Hinduism of Champa was overwhelmingly Shaivist, that is, focussed on the worship of Shiva, and it was liberally combined with elements of local religious cults such as the worship of the Earth goddess Yan Po Nagar. The main symbols of Cham Shaivism were the linga, the mukhalinga, the jatalinga, the segmented linga, and the kosa.
- A linga (or lingam) is a phallic post that serves as a representation of Shiva. Cham kings frequently erected and dedicated stone lingas as the central religious images in royal temples. The name a Cham king would give to such a linga would be a composite of the king's own name and suffix "-esvara", which stands for Shiva.
- A mukhalinga is a linga upon which has been painted or carved an image of Shiva as a human being or a human face.
- A jatalinga is a linga upon which has been engraved a stylized representation of Shiva's chignon hairstyle.
- A segmented linga is a linga post divided into three sections in order to represents the three aspects of the Hindu godhead or trimurti: the lowest section, square in shape, represents Brahma; the middle section, octogonal in shape, represents Vishnu, and the top section, circular in shape, represents Shiva.
- A kosa is a cylindrical basket of precious metal used to cover a linga. The donation of a kosa to the decoration of a linga was a distinguishing characteristic of Cham Shaivism. Cham kings gave names to special kosas in much the way that they gave names to the lingas themselves.
The predominance of Hinduism in Cham religion was interrupted for a time in the 9th and 10th centuries, when a dynasty at Indrapura (Dong Duong in Quang Nam Province of modern Vietnam) adopted Mahayana Buddhism as its faith. The Buddhist art of Dong Duong has received special acclaim for its originality.
In the 10th centuries and following, Hinduism again became the predominant religion of Champa. Some of the sites which have yielded important works of religious art and architecture from this period are, aside from Mỹ Sơn, Khuong My, Trà Kiệu, Chanh Lo, and Thap Mam.
Islam started making headway among the Cham after the 10th century, but it was only after the 1471 invasion that this influence picked up speed. By the 17th century the Royal families of Cham Lords also began to turn to Islam and this eventually triggerred the major shift in religious orientation of the Cham so that by the time of their final annexation by the Vietnamese, the majority of the Cham people had converted to Islam. Most Cham are now Muslims, though significant minorities of Hindus and Mahayana Buddhists exist.
Indonesian 15th century records indicate the influence of Princess Darawati, a Cham, in influencing her husband Kertawijaya, Majapahit's seventh ruler, similarly to Parameshwara of Malacca, to convert the Majapahit royal family to Islam. The Islamic tomb of Putri Champa (Princess of Champa) can be found in Trowulan, East Java, the site of Majapahit imperial capital. In 15th to 17th century, Muslim Cham maintain a cordial relationship with Aceh Sultanate through dynastic marriage. This sultanate was located on the northern tip of Sumatra and was an active promotor of Islamic faith in Indonesian archipelago. According to linguistic studies Acehnese people and Cham are related as both were belongs to the same Aceh–Chamic language family.
In contrast to Dai Viet, Champa's economy was not based on agriculture. As seafaring people, the Cham were highly mobile and established a network of trade including not only the major ports at Hoi An, Thi Nai but also extending into the mountainous hinterland. Maritime trade was facilitated by a network of wells that provided fresh water to Cham and foreign ships along the coast of Champa and the islands of Cu Lao Cham and Ly Son. While Kenneth R. Hall suggests that Champa was not able to rely on taxes on trade for continuous revenue, but instead financed their rule by raiding neighbouring countries, Hardy argues that the country's prosperity was above all based on commerce.
The vast majority of Champa's export products came from the mountainous hinterland, sourced from as far as Attapeu in southern Laos. They included gold and silver, slaves, animal and animal products, and precious woods. By far the most important export product was eaglewood. It was the only product mentioned in Marco Polo's brief account and similarly impressed the Arab trader Sulayman several centuries earlier. Most of it was probably taken from the Aquilaria crassna tree, just as most of the eaglewood in Vietnam today.
The most significant site for Cham temple architecture is at Mỹ Sơn near the town of Hội An. The large complex at Mỹ Sơn was heavily damaged by United States bombing during the Vietnam War. The site is currently being restored with donations from a number of countries and NGO's. As of 2004, the clearing of land mines and UXO's had not been completed.
Many historic Cham towers still remain standing at other sites in Central Vietnam, including the following:
Some of the network of wells that was used to provide fresh water to Cham and foreign ships still remains. Cham wells are recognisable by their square shape. They are still in use and provide fresh water even during times of drought.
The largest collection of Cham sculpture may be found in the Da Nang Museum of Cham Sculpture (formerly known as "Musée Henri Parmentier") in the coastal city of Da Nang. The museum was established in 1915 by French scholars, and is regarded as one of the most beautiful in Southeast Asia. Other museums with collections of Cham art include the following:
- Museum of Fine Arts, Hanoi
- Museum of History, Hanoi
- Museum of Fine Arts, Saigon
- Museum of History, Saigon
- Musée Guimet, Paris
- History of Vietnam
- Cham people
- Art of Champa
- Aceh–Chamic languages
- List of monarchs of Champa
- Kingdom of Champasak in the south of Laos
- Kampong Cham Province in east Cambodia
- Jean Boisselier, La statuaire du Champa, Paris: École Française d'Extrême-Orient, 1963
- David P. Chandler, A History of Cambodia, Boulder: Westview Press, 1992
- Emmanuel Guillon Cham Art, London: Thames & Hudson Ltd, 2001 ISBN 0-500-97593-0
- Hardy, Andrew (2009): "Eaglewood and the Economic History of Champa and Central Vietnam" in Hardy, Andrew et al.: Champa and the Archeology of My Son (Vietnam). NUS Press, Singapore
- Jean-François Hubert The Art of Champa, Parkstone Press, 2005 ISBN 1-85995-975-X
- Lê Thành Khôi, Histoire du Vietnam des origines à 1858, Paris: Sudestasie, 1981
- Georges Maspero, Le royaume de Champa, Paris: Van Ouest, 1928. This work, perhaps the most thorough in the use of primary sources to reconstruct the history of Champa, has been translated into English by Walter E.J. Tips under the title, The Champa Kingdom: The History of an Extinct Vietnamese Culture, Bangkok: White Lotus Press, 2002.
- Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Champa: Ancient Towers, Hanoi: Thế Giới Publishers, 2006
- Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Mỹ Sơn Relics, Hanoi: Thế Giới Publishers, 2005
- Scott Rutherford, Insight Guide - Vietnam (ed.), 2006 ISBN 981-234-984-7
- D. R. Sardesai, Vietnam, Trials and Tribulations of a Nation Long Beach Publications, 1988 ISBN 0-941910-04-0
- Michael Vickery, "Champa Revised" ARI Working Paper, No. 37, 2005, www.nus.ari.edu.sg/pub/wps.htm.
- Geoff Wade, "Champa in the Song hui-yao" ARI Working Paper, No. 53, 2005, www.nus.ari.edu.sg/pub/wps.htm
- ^ Rutherford, Insight Guide - Vietnam, pg. 256.
- ^ Vickery, "Champa Revised", p.4 ff.
- ^ Maspero, Le royaume de Champa, represented the thesis that Champa was politically unified. Vickery, "Champa Revised", challenges that thesis.
- ^ Stacy Taus-Bolstad (2003). Vietnam in Pictures. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 20. ISBN 0822546787. http://books.google.com/books?id=3U014Ik_cvAC&pg=PA20&dq=the+independent+kingdom+of+cham+emerged+in+central+vietnam#v=onepage&q=the%20independent%20kingdom%20of%20cham%20emerged%20in%20central%20vietnam&f=false. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- ^ "From Ancient Cham to Modern Dialects"
- ^ Oscar Chapuis (1995). A history of Vietnam: from Hong Bang to Tu Duc. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 39. ISBN 0313296227. http://books.google.com/books?id=Jskyi00bspcC&pg=PA39&dq=lin+yi+cham+tradition+lady+po+nagar+cham+nation+china+champa#v=onepage&q=lin%20yi%20cham%20tradition%20lady%20po%20nagar%20cham%20nation%20china%20champa&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- ^ J. Hackin, Paul Louis Couchoud (2005). Asiatic Mythology 1932. Kessinger Publishing. p. 225. ISBN 1417976950. http://books.google.com/books?id=0ECwJUcn1_UC&pg=PA225&dq=po+nagar+When+she+was+old+enough+to+marry,+she+told+her+adoptive+parents+that+she+must+leave+them+and+go+to+China#v=onepage&q=po%20nagar%20When%20she%20was%20old%20enough%20to%20marry%2C%20she%20told%20her%20adoptive%20parents%20that%20she%20must%20leave%20them%20and%20go%20to%20China&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- ^ J. Hackin, Paul Louis Couchoud (2005). Asiatic Mythology 1932. Kessinger Publishing. p. 226. ISBN 1417976950. http://books.google.com/books?id=0ECwJUcn1_UC&pg=PA226&dq=po+nagar+emperors+son#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- ^ Schultz, George F.. "The sandalwood maiden". http://www.vietspring.org/legend/sandalwood.html. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- ^ Lê Thành Khôi, Histoire du Vietnam, p.103.
- ^ Lê Thành Khôi, Histoire du Vietnam, p.105.
- ^ Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Mỹ Sơn Relics, p.181.
- ^ http://toyoshi.lit.nagoya-u.ac.jp/maruha/kanseki/jinshu097.html
- ^ Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Champa, p.31.
- ^ Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Champa, p.38-39; Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Mỹ Sơn Relics, p.55ff.
- ^ Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Mỹ Sơn Relics, p.56ff.
- ^ Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Mỹ Sơn Relics, p.60ff.
- ^ Stacy Taus-Bolstad (2003). Vietnam in Pictures. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 21. ISBN 0822546787. http://books.google.com/books?id=3U014Ik_cvAC&pg=PA20&dq=the+independent+kingdom+of+cham+emerged+in+central+vietnam#v=onepage&q=the%20independent%20kingdom%20of%20cham%20emerged%20in%20central%20vietnam&f=false. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- ^ Ngô Vãn Doanh, Mỹ Sơn Relics, p.62ff.; Lê Thành Khôi, Histoire du Vietnam, p.107-108.
- ^ Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Mỹ Sơn Relics, p.63.
- ^ http://toyoshi.lit.nagoya-u.ac.jp/maruha/kanseki/suishu082.html
- ^ Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Mỹ Sơn Relics, p.66.
- ^ Jean Boisselier, La statuaire du Champa, p.87.
- ^ Lê Thành Khôi, Histoire du Vietnam, p.109.
- ^ Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Champa, p.49.
- ^ Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Mỹ Sơn Relics, p.66 ff.; p.183 ff. An English translation of the inscription is at pp.197ff.
- ^ Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Mỹ Sơn Relics, p.210.
- ^ a b Maspero, The Champa Kingdom, p.47.
- ^ Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Mỹ Sơn Relics, p.72.
- ^ Jean Boisselier, La statuaire du Champa, p.90f.
- ^ Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Mỹ Sơn Relics, p.72ff., p.184.
- ^ Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Champa, p.32; Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Mỹ Sơn Relics, p.71ff.
- ^ Derek Heng (2009). Sino-Malay Trade and Diplomacy from the Tenth Through the Fourteenth Century. Ohio University Press. p. 133. ISBN 089680271X. http://books.google.com/books?id=cLE_ToRyuLsC&pg=PA133&dq=southeast+asian+ports+intermarriage+daoyi+zhilue+champa+chinese+traders+local+women+cham+ports#v=onepage&q=southeast%20asian%20ports%20intermarriage%20daoyi%20zhilue%20champa%20chinese%20traders%20local%20women%20cham%20ports&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- ^ Robert S. Wicks (1992). Money, markets, and trade in early Southeast Asia: the development of indigenous monetary systems to AD 1400. SEAP Publications. p. 215. ISBN 0877277109. http://books.google.com/books?id=Qs1q9VEoEkoC&pg=PA215&dq=chinese+merchant+champa+wang+yuanmao+quanzhou+man+king+barbarian+daughters#v=onepage&q=chinese%20merchant%20champa%20wang%20yuanmao%20quanzhou%20man%20king%20barbarian%20daughters&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- ^ Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Mỹ Sơn Relics, p.73.
- ^ Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Mỹ Sơn Relics, p.75.
- ^ Lê Thành Khôi, Histoire du Vietnam, p.122, 141.
- ^ Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Champa, p.34; Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Mỹ Sơn Relics, p.75-76.
- ^ Anthony Grant, Paul Sidwell, Australian National University. Pacific Linguistics (2005). Chamic and beyond: studies in mainland Austronesian languages. Pacific Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. p. 247. ISBN 0858835614. http://books.google.com/books?id=WH0OAAAAYAAJ&q=This+fall+of+the+capital+in+982+accounts+for+the+refugees+mentioned+in+the+Chinese+dynastic+records+of+986+(History+of+the+Song+Dynasty+(960-1279),+which+records+in+986+the+arrival+of+some+Cham+in+Hainan+from&dq=This+fall+of+the+capital+in+982+accounts+for+the+refugees+mentioned+in+the+Chinese+dynastic+records+of+986+(History+of+the+Song+Dynasty+(960-1279),+which+records+in+986+the+arrival+of+some+Cham+in+Hainan+from. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
- ^ Leonard Y. Andaya (2008). Leaves of the same tree: trade and ethnicity in the Straits of Melaka. University of Hawaii Press. p. 45. ISBN 0824831896. http://books.google.com/books?id=w7AqZR1ZUZgC&pg=PA45&dq=cham+hainan#v=onepage&q=cham%20hainan&f=false. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
- ^ Brantly Womack (2006). China and Vietnam: the politics of asymmetry. Cambridge University Press. p. 113. ISBN 0521618347. http://books.google.com/books?id=GaZvX2BzeegC&pg=PA113&dq=vietnam+invade+champa#v=onepage&q=vietnam%20invade%20champa&f=false. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- ^ Andrew Hardy, Mauro Cucarzi, Patrizia Zolese (2009). Champa and the archaeology of Mỹ Sơn (Vietnam). NUS Press. p. 65. ISBN 9971694514. http://books.google.com/books?id=fj8l8v_yP5oC&pg=PA65&dq=vietnam+destroy+champa#v=onepage&q=vietnam%20destroy%20champa&f=false. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- ^ Nguyen Thu (2009). Dai-Viet Kingdom of the South. Trafford Publishing. p. 6. ISBN 1425186459. http://books.google.com/books?id=k60GydeUT0IC&pg=PA6&dq=vietnam+destroy+champa#v=onepage&q=vietnam%20destroy%20champa&f=false. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- ^ Ngọc Huy Nguỹên, Văn Tài Tạ, Văn Liêm Tr̀ân, Vietnam (1987). The Lê Code: law in traditional Vietnam : a comparative Sino-Vietnamese legal study with historical-juridical analysis and annotations, Volume 1. Ohio University Press. p. 33. ISBN 0821406302. http://books.google.com/books?id=NHG7AAAAIAAJ&q=the+Cham+kingdom+established+relations+with+the+Sung,+bought+horses+from+them,+and+reorganized+the+Cham&dq=the+Cham+kingdom+established+relations+with+the+Sung,+bought+horses+from+them,+and+reorganized+the+Cham. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- ^ Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Mỹ Sơn Relics, p.77; Lê Thành Khôi, Histoire du Vietnam, p.163ff.
- ^ Jean Boisselier, La statuaire du Champa, p.312.
- ^ Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Mỹ Sơn Relics, p.78, 188; Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Champa, p.33. An English translation of inscriptions at Mỹ Sơn commemorating the King's exploits is at pp.218ff.
- ^ Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Champa, p.35; Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Mỹ Sơn Relics, p.84.
- ^ Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Mỹ Sơn Relics, p.87.
- ^ Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Mỹ Sơn Relics, p.89, 188; Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Champa, p.36.
- ^ Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Mỹ Sơn Relics, p.89ff., 189.
- ^ Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Champa, p.36.
- ^ Denis Twitchett, Herbert Franke (1994). The Cambridge history of China: Alien regimes and border states, 907-1368. Cambridge University Press. p. 435. ISBN 0521243319. http://books.google.com/books?id=iN9Tdfdap5MC&pg=PA435&dq=A+few+Sung+loyalists+escaped+to+Champa+where+they+planned+to+recover+their+strength+and+to+mount+a+challenge+to+Mongolian+domination+of+China#v=onepage&q=A%20few%20Sung%20loyalists%20escaped%20to%20Champa%20where%20they%20planned%20to%20recover%20their%20strength%20and%20to%20mount%20a%20challenge%20to%20Mongolian%20domination%20of%20China&f=false. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
- ^ Lê Thành Khôi, Histoire du Vietnam, p.184.
- ^ Lê Thành Khôi, Histoire du Vietnam, p.193-194.
- ^ Sardesai, Vietnam, Trials and Tribulations of a Nation, pp.33-34.
- ^ Edward L. Dreyer (1982). Early Ming China: a political history, 1355-1435. Stanford University Press. p. 117. ISBN 0804711054. http://books.google.com/books?id=yzWsAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA116&dq=champa+tribute+china#v=onepage&q=warfare%20vietnam%20champa%20sent%20tribute%20to%20ming%20hope%20assistance%20against%20vietnam%20opposed%20to%20military&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- ^ Lê Thành Khôi, Histoire du Vietnam, p.243.
- ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica, inc (2003). The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, Volume 8. Encyclopaedia Britannica. p. 669. ISBN 0852299613. http://books.google.com/books?id=FP7iAAAAMAAJ&q=Much+of+the+settlement+of+Cham+and+Cambodian+lands,+however,+was+done+by+Chinese+refugees+fleeing+the+collapse+of+the+Ming+dynasty.+The+Chinese+were+actively+courted+by+the+Nguyen,+who+were+in+desperate+need+of+manpower+in+order+to&dq=Much+of+the+settlement+of+Cham+and+Cambodian+lands,+however,+was+done+by+Chinese+refugees+fleeing+the+collapse+of+the+Ming+dynasty.+The+Chinese+were+actively+courted+by+the+Nguyen,+who+were+in+desperate+need+of+manpower+in+order+to. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- ^ Barbara Watson Andaya (2006). The flaming womb: repositioning women in early modern Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press. p. 146. ISBN 0824829557. http://books.google.com/books?id=tClCMl7hswQC&pg=PA146&dq=southern+vietnam+thousands+of+young+chinese+males+brides+cham+communities#v=onepage&q=southern%20vietnam%20thousands%20of%20young%20chinese%20males%20brides%20cham%20communities&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- ^ Hubert, The Art of Champa, p.31.
- ^ Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Mỹ Sơn Relics, p.68ff.
- ^ Ngô Vǎn Doanh, Mỹ Sơn Relics, p.69.
- ^ Hardy 2009, 110-11
- ^ a b Hardy 2009, 111
- ^ Hardy 2009, 113
- ^ Hardy 2009, 114
- ^ Hardy 2009, 111-12
- ^ a b Hardy 2009, 116
- Proceedings of the Seminar on Champa, "Research on Champa and its Evolution"
- Website of the Asia Research Institute, including the working paper "Champa Revised" by Michael Vickery, and the draft translation "Champa in the Song hui-yao" by Geoff Wade
- Vietnam-Champa Relations and the Malay-Islam Regional Network in the 17th—19th Centuries
- The Survivors of a Lost Civilisation
- Cham Muslims: A look at Cambodia's Muslim minority
- The Cham Muslims of Indo-China
- Photos of Cham art exhibited in Vietnamese museums
- Plumeria flowers - Champa Flowers - La fleur de frangipaniers – Hoa Sứ, Hoa đại, Hoa Champa
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