East Java

East Java
East Java
Jawa Timur
—  Province  —

Motto: Jer Basuki Mawa Béya (Javanese)
(meaning: Efforts are needed to get success or prosper)
Location of East Java in Indonesia
Coordinates: 7°16′S 112°45′E / 7.267°S 112.75°E / -7.267; 112.75Coordinates: 7°16′S 112°45′E / 7.267°S 112.75°E / -7.267; 112.75
Country Indonesia
Capital Surabaya
 – Governor Soekarwo
 – Total 47,922 km2 (18,502.8 sq mi)
Population (2010)
 – Total 37,476,011
 – Density 782/km2 (2,025.4/sq mi)
 – Ethnic groups Javanese (79%), Madurese (18%), Osing (1%), Chinese (1%)[1]
 – Religion Islam (95.4%), Christianity (3.4%), Buddhism (0.6%), Hinduism (0.5%), Confucianism 0.1%, Kejawen also practised[2]
 – Languages Javanese, Madurese, Indonesian
Time zone WIB (UTC+7)
Website www.jatim.go.id

East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur, Javanese: Jawa Wétan ) is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the eastern part of the island of Java and includes neighboring Madura and islands to its east (the Kangean and Sapudi groups) and to its north (Bawean and the Masalembu Islands. The provincial capital is Surabaya, the second largest city in Indonesia and a major industrial center and port.



According to the 2000 census, East Java has 34 million inhabitants, estimated to increase to 37.4 million in 2010,[3] making it the second most populous Indonesian province after West Java. The inhabitants are predominantly ethnically Javanese. Native minorities include migrants from nearby Madura, and distinct Javanese ethnicities such as the Tengger people in Bromo, the Samin and the Osing people in Banyuwangi. East Java also hosts a significant population of other ethnic groups, such as Chinese, Indians, and Arabs. In addition to the national language, Indonesian, they also speak Javanese. Javanese as spoken in the western East Java is a similar dialect to the one spoken in nearby Central Java, with its hierarchy of high, medium, and low registers. In the eastern cities of Surabaya, Malang, and surrounding areas, a more egalitarian version of Javanese is spoken, with less regard for hierarchy and a richer vocabulary for vulgarity.

Madurese is spoken by around 15 million ethnic Madurese, and is concentrated in Madura Island, Kangean Islands, Masalembu Islands, eastern East Java, and East Java's larger cities.


Hinduism and Buddhism once dominated the island, however, with the arrival of Islam, Hinduism was gradually pushed out in the 14th and 15th century (see the spread of Islam in Indonesia). The last nobles and loyalists of the fallen empire of Majapahit fled from this point to Bali. Islam spread from northern cities in Java where traders from Gujarat, India brought with them Islam. The eastern part of East Java, from Surabaya to Pasuruan, and the cities along the coast, and back to Banyuwangi to Jember, is known as the "horseshoe area" in context with earlier Muslim communities living there.[citation needed]

Pockets of Hinduism remain, and syncretic abangan streams of Islam and Hinduism remain strong (see Hinduism in Java).

Administrative areas

East Java is administratively divided into 29 regencies (or kabupaten), together with 9 cities (or kotamadya) that are independent of the regency in which they sit.

Name Capital Area (km²) Population
2000 Census
2005 estimate
2010 Census
Surabaya City Surabaya 2,599,796 2,611,506 2,765,908
Gresik Regency (includes Bawean Island) Gresik 1,005,445 1,118,841 1,177,201
Lamongan Regency Lamongan 1,181,660 1,187,065 1,179,770
Tuban Regency Tuban 1,051,999 1,063,375 1,117,539
Bojonegoro Regency Bojonegoro 1,165,401 1,228,939 1,209,008
Ngawi Regency Ngawi 813,228 827,728 817,076
Magetan Regency Magetan 615,254 617,492 620,146
Madiun Regency Madiun 639,825 641,596 661,886
Madiun City Madiun 163,956 171,390 170,851
Nganjuk Regency Nganjuk 973,472 989,693 1,016,393
Jombang Regency Jombang 1,126,930 1,222,499 1,201,557
Mojokerto Regency Mojokerto 908,004 969,299 1,023,526
Mojokerto City Mojokerto 108,938 111,860 120,132
Sidoarjo Regency Sidoarjo 1,563,015 1,697,435 1,945,252
Pasuruan Regency Pasuruan 1,366,605 1,398,122 1,510,261
Pasuruan City Pasuruan 168,323 171,136 186,322
Probolinggo Regency Probolinggo 1,004,967 1,021,279 1,095,370
Probolinggo City Probolinggo 191,522 211,142 216,967
Situbondo Regency Situbondo 603,705 605,208 647,500
Bondowoso Regency Bondowoso 688,651 698,504 736,530
Banyuwangi Regency Banyuwangi 1,488,791 1,514,605 1,554,997
Jember Regency Jember 2,187,657 2,261,477 2,346,498
Lumajang Regency Lumajang 965,192 999,525 1,006,563
Malang Regency Kepanjen 2,412,570 2,336,363 2,443,609
Malang City Malang 756,982 790,356 819,708
Batu City Batu (included in Malang Regency) 179,092 189,793
Kediri Regency Kediri 1,408,353 1,429,137 1,498,803
Kediri City Kediri 244,519 248,640 267,435
Blitar Regency Kanigoro 1,064,643 1,065,838 1,116,010
Blitar City Blitar 119,372 126,776 132,018
Tulungagung Regency Tulungagung 929,833 969,461 989,821
Trenggalek Regency Trenggalek 649,883 665,070 674,521
Ponorogo Regency Ponorogo 841,449 869,642 854,878
Pacitan Regency Pacitan 525,758 545,670 540,516
East Java (excluding Madura) Totals 43,508 31,535,693 32,565,761 33,854,365
Bangkalan Regency Bangkalan 1,260 805,048 889,590 907,255
Sampang Regency Sampang 1,152 750,046 835,122 876,950
Pamekasan Regency Pamekasan 733 689,225 762,876 795,526
Sumenep Regency Sumenep 1,147 985,981 1,004,758 1,041,915
Madura Totals 4,292 3,230,300 3,492,346 3,621,646
Total for Province 47,800 34,765,993 36,058,107 37,476,011


East Java's history dates back to the famous ancient kingdoms of Kediri and Singosari, which is now a city near Malang. The Majapahit empire, centered at Trowulan, Mojokerto East Java, is celebrated by Indonesians as the golden age of the archipelago. The Eastern Java region was part of the Mataram Kingdom during its peak.

Farming in East Java in the foothills near Mount Bromo.

Natural resources

  • Chalk (Trenggalek & Gresik the city is also famous of its cement industries)
  • Marble (Tulungagung)
  • Oil (Cepu)
  • Salt (Madura Island)
  • Kaolinite (Blitar)


East Java will build 4 seaports by 2013 in Lamongan, Gresik, Probolinggo and Banyuwangi.[4]


East Java hosts some of the famous universities in Indonesia, both owned by government and private. Three major cities for universities, because they have government's universities, are Surabaya, Malang, and Jember. Among them, Airlangga University and Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember are the most famous, and both are located in Surabaya. See: List of universities in East Java

Another important form of education that is available in most cities in East Java is the pesantren. This kind of education is built and organized by Islamic clerics, and associated with local or national Muslim organizations. Jombang is a famous city for its pesantren.


East Java supports several regional media outlets. Local newspapers with provincial news reach their readers earlier than their competitors from Jakarta. In the spirit of "providing more news from around readers", most newspapers even issue municipal sections which are different among their distribution areas.

  • Jawa Pos Group, one of the major newspaper groups in Indonesia, is based in Surabaya.
  • Surya, is a newspaper based in Surabaya. Surya is now controlled by Kompas, one of the major newspaper groups in Indonesia

National parks

Deer in Baluran National Park
  • Meru Betiri National Park - Between Jember and Banyuwangi districts, this park covers 580 km2 (224 sq mi). Hard to get to, it contains fantastic coastal rainforest and scenery and is home to abundant wildlife.
  • Alas Purwo National Park - This 434 km2 (168 sq mi) park is formed by the Blambangan Peninsula (south eastern Java). Comprising mangrove, savanna, lowland monsoon forests and excellent beaches, the park's name means First Forest in Javanese. Javanese legend says that the earth first emerged from the ocean here.
  • Baluran National Park - This 250 km2 (97 sq mi) national park is located in north east Java, once known as Indonesia's little piece of Africa, the parks formerly extensive savanna has been largely replaced by Acacia.
  • Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park - Located in East Java at the region of Probolinggo and Pasuruan, 70 km (43 mi) from Surabaya the capital city of East Java province. Mount Bromo is one of the great hiking and trekking destinations for overseas tourists. The breathtaking view of Bromo also attracts hundreds of photo enthusiasts to see the views there.

Local economic governance

Based on the survey conducted between August 2010 and January 2011, East Java included 11 of the top 20 cities and regencies of the Local economic governance which measures nine parameters: [5]

  • infrastructure
  • private enterprises development program
  • access to land
  • interaction between local administrations and businesses
  • business licensing
  • local taxes and fees
  • security and business conflict resolution
  • capacity and integrity of regional heads
  • quality of local regulations

The top 5 were:


East Java cuisine tends to be saltier than that of Central Java.

Rujak Cingur, traditional dish from East Java.


External links

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