The "IAST|Mahābhārata" (
Devanāgarī: _sa. महाभारत) is one of the two major Sanskritepics of ancient India, the other being the "IAST| Rāmāyaṇa". The epic is part of the Hindu "itihāsa", the word in itself literally means "history", and forms an important part of Hindu mythology.
It is of immense importance to the culture in the
Indian subcontinent, and is a major text of Hinduism. Its discussion of human goals (" artha" or purpose, " kāma" or pleasure, " dharma" or duty, and " moksha" or liberation) takes place in a long-standing tradition, attempting to explain the relationship of the individual to society and the world (the nature of the 'Self') and the workings of karma.
The title may be translated as "the great tale of the
BhārataDynasty", according to the "Mahābhārata"'s own testimony extended from a shorter version simply called "Bhārata" of 24,000 verses. ["bhārata" means the progeny of " Bharata", the mythical legendary king who is claimed to have founded the " Bhāratavarsha" Empire.]
Traditionally, Hindus ascribe the authorship of the "Mahābhārata" to
Vyasa. Its philological study has a long history of attempts to unravel its historical growth and composition layers. Its earliest layers probably date back to the late Vedic period(ca. 8th c. BC) and it probably reached its final form by the time the Gupta period began (ca. 4th c. AD). [Van Buitenen; The Mahabharata - 1; The Book of the Beginning. Introduction (Authorship and Date)]
With more than 74,000 verses, long prose passages, and about 1.8 million words in total, the "Mahābhārata" is one of the longest epic poems in the world. It is roughly ten times the size of the "
Iliad" and " Odyssey" combined, and about four times the size of the " Ramayana". [The only epics claimed to be longer are the Tibetan " Epic of King Gesar" and the Kyrgyz " Epic of Manas".Fact|date=February 2007] Including the "IAST| Harivaṃśa", the "Mahabharata" has a total length of more than 90,000 verses.
Besides its epic narrative of the
Kurukshetra Warand the fates of the Kauravas and the Pandavas, the "Mahabharata" contains much philosophical and devotional material, such as the Shrimad Bhagavad Gita(6.25-42), or a discussion of the four "goals of life" or " purusharthas" (12.161). The latter are enumerated as " dharma" (righteousness), " artha" (wealth), "kama" (pleasure), and " moksha" (liberation). The "Mahabharata" claims all-inclusiveness at the beginning of its first "parva" ("book"): "What is found here, may be found elsewhere. What is not found here, will not be found elsewhere."Among the principal works and stories that are a part of the "Mahabharata" are the following (often considered isolated as works in their own right):
Bhagavad Gitain book 6 (Bhishmaparva): Krishna advises and teaches Arjunawhen he is ridden with doubt.
Damayantior Nala and Damayanti in book 3 (Aranyakaparva), a love story.
* An abbreviated version of the
Ramayana, in book 3 (Aranyakaparva)
Rishyasringa, the horned boy and rishi, in book 3 (Aranyakaparva)
Textual history and structure
The epic is traditionally ascribed to
Vyasa, who is also one of the major dynastic characters within the epic. The first section of the "Mahabharata" states that it was Ganeshawho, at the request of Vyasa, wrote down the text to Vyasa's dictation. Ganesha is said to have agreed to write it only on condition that Vyasa never pause in his recitation. Vyasa agreed, providing that Ganesha took the time to understand what was said before writing it down. The epic employs the story within a storystructure, otherwise known as frametales, popular in many Indian religious and secular works.
It is recited to the King
Janamejayawho is the great-grandson of Arjuna, by Vaisampayana, a disciple of Vyasa. The recitation of Vaisampayana to Janamejaya is then recited again by a professional story teller named Ugrasrava Sauti, many years later, to an assemblage of sages.
It is usually thought that the full length of the "Mahabharata" has accreted over a long period. The "Mahabharata" itself (1.1.61) distinguishes a core portion of 24,000 verses, the "Bharata" proper, as opposed to additional secondary material, while the "Ashvalayana Grhyasutra" (3.4.4) makes a similar distinction. According to the "Adi-parva" of the "Mahabharata" (
shlokas 81, 101-102), the text was originally 8,800 verses when it was composed by Vyasaand was known as the "Jaya" (Victory), which later became 24,000 verses in the "Bharata" recited by Vaisampayana, and finally over 90,000 verses in the "Mahabharata" recited by Ugrasrava Sauti. [SP Gupta and KS Ramachandran (1976), p.3-4]
As with the field of
Homeric studies, research on the "Mahabharata" has put an enormous effort into recognizing and dating various layers within the text. The state of the text has struck early 20th century Indologists as "chaotic" or "unordered". [ Oldenberg (1922) stipulated that the supposed original poem once carried an immense "tragic force", but dismissed the full text as a "horrible chaos." The judgement of other early 20th century Indologists was even more condemning, Winternitz ("Geschichte der indischen Literatur" 1909) opted that "only unpoetical theologists and clumsy scribes" could have lumped the various parts of disparate origin into an unordered whole.]
The earliest known references to the "Mahabharata" and its core "Bharata" date back to the "
Ashtadhyayi" ( sutra6.2.38) of Pāṇini(fl. 4th century BC), and in the "Ashvalayana Grhyasutra" (3.4.4). This may suggest that the core 24,000 verses, known as the "Bharata", as well as an early version of the extended "Mahabharata", were composed by the 4th century BC. Parts of the "Jaya" 's original 8,800 verses possibly may date back as far as the 9th-8th century BC.Brockington (1998, p. 26)]
The Greek writer
Dio Chrysostom(ca. 40- 120) reported, "it is said that Homer's poetry is sung even in India, where they have translated it into their own speech and tongue. The result is that...the people of India...are not unacquainted with the sufferings of Priam, the laments and wailings of Andromacheand Hecuba, and the valor of both Achillesand Hector: so remarkable has been the spell of one man's poetry!" [Dio Chrysostom, [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Dio_Chrysostom/Discourses/53*.html#6 53.6‑7] , trans. H. Lamar Crosby, Loeb Classical Library, 1946, vol. 4, p. 363.] Despite the passage's evident face-value meaning—that the " Iliad" had been translated into Sanskrit—some scholars have supposed that the report reflects the existence of a "Mahabharata" at this date, whose episodes Dio or his sources syncretistically identify with the story of the "Iliad". Christian Lassen, in his "Indische Alterthumskunde", supposed that the reference is ultimately to Dhritarashtra's sorrows, the laments of Gandhari and Draupadi, and the valor of Arjuna and Suyodhana or Karna. [Cited approvingly in Max Duncker, "The History of Antiquity" (trans. Evelyn Abbott, London 1880), vol. 4, [http://books.google.com/books?id=gIkBAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA81 p. 81] .] This interpretation, endorsed in such standard references as Albrecht Weber's "History of Indian Literature", has often been repeated without specific reference to what Dio's text says. [For example, John Campbell Oman, "The Great Indian Epics" (London 1895), [http://books.google.com/books?id=Fy0OAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA215 p. 215] .]
Later, the copper-plate inscription of the
MaharajaSharvanatha (533-534) from Khoh ( SatnaDistrict, Madhya Pradesh) describes the "Mahabharata" as a "collection of 100,000 verses" ("shatasahasri samhita"). The redactionof this large body of text was carried out after formal principles, emphasizing the numbers 18 [18 books, 18 chapters of the Bhagavadgita and the Narayaniya each, corresponding to the 18 days of the battle and the 18 armies (Mbh. 5.152.23)] and 12. The addition of the latest parts may be dated by the absence of the "Anushasana-parva" from "MS Spitzer", the oldest surviving Sanskrit philosophical manuscript dated to the first century, that contains among other things a list of the books in the "Mahabharata". From this evidence, it is likely that the redaction into 18 books took place in the first century. An alternative division into 20 parvas appears to have co-existed for some time. The division into 100 sub-parvas (mentioned in Mbh. 1.2.70) is older, and most parvas are named after one of their constituent sub-parvas. The " Harivamsa" consists of the final two of the 100 sub-parvas, and was considered an appendix ("khila") to the "Mahabharata" proper by the redactors of the 18 parvas.
The 18 parvas
The division into 18 parvas is as follows:
The Adi-parva includes the snake sacrifice ("sarpasattra") of Janamejaya, explaining its motivation, detailing why all snakes in existence were intended to be destroyed, and why in spite of this, there are still snakes in existence. This sarpasattra material was often considered an independent tale added to a version of the "Mahabharata" by "thematic attraction" (Minkowski 1991), and considered to have particularly close connection to Vedic (
Brahmana) literature, in particular the Panchavimsha Brahmanawhich describes the Sarpasattra as originally performed by snakes, among which are snakes named Dhrtarashtra and Janamejaya, two main characters of the "Mahabharata"'s sarpasattra, and Takshaka, the name of a snake also in the "Mahabharata". The Shatapatha Brahmanagives an account of an Ashvamedhaperformed by Janamejaya Parikshita.
According to what one character says at Mbh. 1.1.50, there were three versions of the epic, beginning with "Manu" (1.1.27), "Astika" (1.3, sub-parva 5) or "Vasu" (1.57), respectively. These versions would correspond to the addition of one and then another 'frame' settings of dialogues. The "Vasu" version would omit the frame settings and begin with the account of the birth of Vyasa. The Astika version would add the Sarpasattra and Ashvamedha material from Brahmanical literature, introduce the name "Mahabharata", and identify Vyasa as the work's author. The redactors of these additions were probably Pancharatrin scholars who according to Oberlies (1998) likely retained control over the text until its final redaction. Mention of the Huna in the "Bhishma-parva" however appears to imply that this parva may have been edited around the 4th century.
The historicity of the
Kurukshetra Waris unclear. Inasmuch as it does have a historical precedent, it would best fit into the context of Iron Age Indiaof the 9th century BCor so. [ In discussing the dating question, historian A. L. Basham says: "According to the most popular later tradition the Mahabharata War took place in 3102 B.C., which in the light of all evidence, is quite impossible. More reasonable is another tradition, placing it in the 15th century B.C., but this is also several centuries too early in the light of our archaeological knowledge. Probably the war took place around the beginning of the 9th century B.C.; such a date seems to fit well with the scanty archaeological remains of the period, and there is some evidence in the Brahmana literature itself to show that it cannot have been much earlier." Basham, p. 40, citing HC Raychaudhuri, "Political History of Ancient India", pp.27ff.]
Regardless of the historicity of the Kurukshetra War in particular, the general setting of the epic certainly does have a historical precedent in Iron Age (Vedic) India, where the Kuru kingdom was the center of political power during roughly 1200 to 800 BC. [M Witzel, "Early Sanskritization: Origin and Development of the Kuru state", EJVS vol.1 no.4 (1995); also in B. Kölver (ed.), "Recht, Staat und Verwaltung im klassischen Indien. The state, the Law, and Administration in Classical India", München, R. Oldenbourg, 1997, p.27-52] A dynastic conflict of the period could have been the inspiration for the "Jaya", the core on which the Mahabharata corpus was built, with a climactic battle eventually coming to be viewed as an epochal event.
Pauranic literature presents genealogical lists associated with the Mahabharata narrative. The evidence of the Puranas is of two kinds. Of the first kind, there is the direct statement that there were 1015 (or 1050) years between the birth of Parikshita (Arjuna's grandson) and the accession of Mahapadma Nanda, commonly dated to 382 B.C., which would yield an estimate of about 1400 B.C. for the Bharata battle. [AD Pusalker, "History and Culture of the Indian People", Vol I, Chapter XIV, p.273] However, this would imply improbably long reigns on average for the kings listed in the genealogies. [FE Pargiter, "Ancient Indian Historical Tradition", p.180. He shows estimates of the average as 47, 50, 31 and 35 for various versions of the lists.] Of the second kind are analyses of parallel genealogies in the Puranas between the times of Adhisimakrishna (Parikshita's great-grandson) and Mahapadma Nanda. Pargiter accordingly estimated 26 generations by averaging 10 different dynastic lists and, assuming 18 years for the average duration of a reign, arrived at an estimate of 850 B.C. for Adhisimakrishna, and thus approximately 950 B.C. for the Bharata battle. [Pargiter, "op.cit." p.180-182]
B. B. Lalused the same approach with a more conservative assumption of the average reign to estimate a date of 836 B.C., and correlated this with archaeological evidence from Painted Grey Waresites, the association being strong between PGW artifacts and places mentioned in the epic. [B. B. Lal, "Mahabharata and Archaeology" in Gupta and Ramachandran (1976), p.57-58]
Attempts to date the events using methods of
archaeoastronomyhave produced, depending on which passages are chosen and how they are interpreted, estimates ranging from the late 4th to the mid 2nd millennium B.C. [Gupta and Ramachandran (1976), p.246, who summarize as follows: "Astronomical calculations favor 15th century B.C. as the date of the war while the Puranic data place it in the 10th/9th century B.C. Archaeological evidence points towards the latter." (p.254)] The late 4th millennium date has a precedent in the calculation of the Kaliyuga epoch, based on planetary conjunctions, by Aryabhata(6th century). His date of February 18th 3102 B.C. has become widespread in Indian tradition (for example, the Aihole inscription of Pulikeshi II, dated to Saka 556 = 634 A.D., claims that 3735 years have elapsed since the Bharata battle. [Gupta and Ramachandran (1976), p.55; AD Pusalker, HCIP, Vol I, p.272] )Another traditional school of astronomers and historians, represented by Vriddha-Garga, Varahamihira(author of the "Brhatsamhita") and Kalhana(author of the " Rajatarangini"), place the Bharata war 653 years after the Kaliyuga epoch, corresponding to 2449 B.C. [AD Pusalker, "op.cit." p.272]
The core story of the work is that of a dynastic struggle for the throne of
Hastinapura, the kingdom ruled by the Kuru clan. The two collateral branches of the family that participate in the struggle are the Kauravaand the Pandava. Although the Kaurava is the senior branch of the family, Duryodhana, the eldest Kaurava, is younger than Yudhisthira, the eldest Pandava. Both Duryodhana and Yudhisthira claim to the first in line to inherit the throne.
The struggle culminates in the great battle of Kurukshetra, in which the
Pandavasare ultimately victorious. The battle produces complex conflicts of kinship and friendship, instances of family loyalty and duty taking precedence over what is right, as well as the converse.
The "Mahabharata" itself ends with the death of
Krishna, and the subsequent end of his dynasty, and ascent of the Pandava brothers to heaven. It also marks the beginning of the Hindu age of Kali ( Kali Yuga), the fourth and final age of mankind, where the great values and noble ideas have crumbled, and man is heading toward the complete dissolution of right action, morality and virtue.
The Older generations
Shantanu, the king of Hastinapurahas a short-lived marriage with the goddess Ganga and has a son, Devavrata (later to be called Bhishma), who becomes the heir apparent.
Many years later, when the king goes hunting, he sees
Satyavati, the daughter of a fisherman and asks her father for her hand. Her father refuses to consent to the marriage unless Shantanu promises to make any future son of Satyavati the king upon his death. To solve the king's dilemma, Devavrata agrees not to take the throne. As the fisherman is not sure about the prince's children honouring the promise, Devavrata also takes a vow of lifelong celibacy to guarantee his father's promise.Shantanu has two sons by Satyavati, Chitrangadaand Vichitravirya. Upon Shantanu's death, Chitrangada becomes king. He lived a very short uneventful life and dies. Vichitravirya, the younger son, rules Hastinapura. In order to arrange the marriage of the young Vichitravirya, Bhishma goes to Kāśīfor a swayamvaraof the three princesses Amba, Ambika and Ambalika. He abducts them on account of his strength, rather than their will. Ambika and Ambalika consent to be married to Vichtravirya. Amba informs Bhishma she wished to marry Shalvaraj (king of Shalva) whom Bhishma defeated at their swayamvar. Bhishma lets her leave but Shalvaraj refuses to marry her, smarthing at his humiliation under Bhishma. Amba then returns to marry Vichtravirya but he refuses. Finally, she asks Bhishma to marry her but he proclaims he cannot marry her because of his vow of celibacy. Amba then becomes enraged and becomes Bhishma's bitter enemy, holding him responsible for her plight.
The Pandava and Kaurava princes
When Vichitravirya dies young without any heirs, Satyavati asks her first son
Vyasato father children on the widows. The first queen Ambika shuts her eyes during sexual intercourse and her son Dhritarashtrais born blind. Ambalika turns pale and bloodless, and her son Panduis born pale (the term Pandu may also mean 'jaundiced' [http://webapps.uni-koeln.de/tamil/] ). Vyasa fathers a third son Vidura, by a serving maid who does not fear him and he turns to be intelligent.
Gandhari, a princess from Gandhara, who blindfolds herself when she finds she has been married to a blind man. Pandu takes the throne because of Dhritarashtra's blindness. Pandu marries twice, to Kuntiand Madri. Pandu is however cursed by sage Kindamathat if he engages in a sexual act, he will die. He then retires to the forest along with his two wives, and his brother rules thereafter, despite his blindness.
Pandu's older queen Kunti however, asks the gods
Dharma, Vayu, and Indrafor sons, by using a boon granted by Durvasa. She gives birth to three sons Yudhishtira, Bhima, and Arjunathrough these gods. Kunti shares her boon with the younger queen Madri, who bears the twins Nakulaand Sahadevathrough the Ashwini twins. However Pandu and Madri, indulge in sex and Pandu dies. Madri dies on his funeral pyre out of remorse. Kunti raises the five brothers, who are from then usually referred to as the Pandavabrothers.
Dhritarashtra has a hundred sons through
Gandhari, all born after the birth of Yudhishtira. These are the Kauravabrothers, the eldest being Duryodhana, and the second Dushasana. The rivalry and enmity between them and the Pandava brothers, from their youth and into manhood leads to the Kurushetra war.
IAST|Lākṣagṛha (The House of Lac)
Duryodhana plots to get rid of the Pandavas. He has a palace built of flammable materials (mostly Lac), and arranges for them to stay there, with the intention of setting it alight. However, the Pandavas are warned by their uncle, Vidura, who sends them a miner to dig a tunnel. They are able to escape to safety and go into hiding, but after leaving others behind, whose bodies are mistaken for them. The Pandavas and Kunti go into hiding.
Marriage to Draupadi
During the course of their hiding the Pandavas learn of a
swayamvarawhich is taking place for the hand of the Pāñcālaprincess Draupadī. The Pandavas enter the competition in disguise as Brahmins. The task is to string a mighty steel bow and shoot a target on the ceiling, which is the eye of a moving artificial fish, while looking at its reflection in oil below. Most of the princes fail, many being unable to lift the bow. Arjuna succeeds however. The Pandavas return home and inform their mother that Arjuna has won a competition and to look at what they have brought back. Without looking, Kunti asks them to share whatever it is Arjuna has won among themselves. Thus Draupadi ends up being the wife of all five brothers.
After the wedding, the Pandava brothers are invited back to Hastinapura. The Kuru family elders and relatives negotiate and broker a split of the kingdom, with the Pandavas obtaining a new territory. Yudhishtira has a new capital built for this territory at
Indraprastha. Neither the Pandava nor Kaurava sides are happy with the arrangement however.
Shortly after this, Arjuna kidnaps and then marries Krishna's sister,
Subhadra. Yudhishtira wishes to establish his position as king; he seeks Krishna's advice. Krishna advises him, and after due preparation and the elimination of some opposition, Yudhishthira carries out the "rājasūya yagna" ceremony; he is thus recognised as pre-eminent among kings.
The Pandavas have a new palace built for them, by Maya the Danava. They invite their Kaurava cousins to Indraprastha. Duryodhana walks round the palace, and mistakes a glossy floor for water, and will not step in. After being told of his error, he then sees a pond, and assumes it is not water and falls in. Draupadi laughs at him, and he is humiliated.
The dice game
Shakuni, Duryodhana's uncle, now arranges a dice game, playing against Yudhishtira with loaded dice. Yudhishtira loses all his wealth, then his kingdom. He then even gambles his brothers, himself, and finally his wife into servitude. The jubilant Kauravas insult the Pandavas in their helpless state and even try to disrobe Draupadi in front of the entire court, but her honour is saved by Krishna who miraculously creates lengths of cloth to replace the ones being removed.
Dhritarashtra, Bhishma, and the other elders are aghast at the situation, but Duryodhana is adamant that there is no place for two crown princes in Hastinapura. Against his wishes Dhritarashtra orders for another dice game. The Pandavas are required to go into exile for 13 years, and for the 13th year must remain hidden. If discovered by the Kauravas, they will be forced into exile for another 12 years.
Exile and return
The Pandavas spend twelve years in exile; many adventures occur during this time. They also prepare alliances for a possible future conflict. They spend their final year in disguise in the court of
Virata, and are discovered at or after the end of the year.
At the end of their exile, they try to negotiate a return to Indraprastha. However, this fails, as Duryodhana objects that they were discovered while in hiding, and that no return of their kingdom was agreed. War becomes inevitable.
The battle at Kurukshetra
The two sides summon vast armies to their help, and line up at
Kurukshetrafor a war. The Kingdoms of Panchala, Dwaraka, Kasi, Kekaya, Magadha, Matsya, Chedi, Pandyaand the Yadus of Mathuraand some other clans like the Parama Kambojaswere allied with the Pandavas. The allies of the Kauravas included the kings of Pragjyotisha, Anga, Kekaya, Sindhudesa (including Sindhus, Sauviras and Sivis), Mahishmati, Avantiin Madhyadesa, Madra, Gandhara, Bahlikas, Kambojasand many others. Prior to war being declared, Balarama, had expressed his unhappiness at the developing conflict, and left to go on pilgrimage, thus he does not take part in the battle itself. Krishna takes part in a non-combatant role, as charioteer for Arjuna.
Before the battle, Arjuna, seeing himself facing great-uncle
Bhishmaand his teacher Dronaon the other side, has doubts about the battle and he fails to lift his Gandiva bow. Krishna wakes him up to his call of duty in the famous Bhagavad Gitasection of the epic.
Though initially sticking to chivalrous notions of warfare, both sides soon adopt dishonourable tactics. At the end of the 18-day battle, only the Pandavas, Satyaki, Kripa, Ashwathama, Kritavarma and Krishna survive.
The end of the Pandavas
After "seeing" the carnage,
Gandhariwho had lost all her sons, curses Krishna to be a witness to a similar annihilation of his family, for though divine and capable of stopping the war, he had not done so. Krishna accepts the curse, which bears fruit 36 years later.
The Pandavas who had ruled their kingdom meanwhile, decide to renounce everything. Clad in skins and rags they retire to the
Himalayaand climb towards heaven in their bodily form. A stray dog travels with them. One by one the brothers and Draupadi fall on their way. As each one stumbles, Yudhishitra gives the rest the reason for their fall (Draupadi was partial to Arjuna, Nakula and Sahadeva were vain and proud of their looks, Bhima and Arjuna were proud of their strength and archery skills, respectively). Only the virtuous Yudhisthira who had tried everything to prevent the carnage and the dog remain. The dog reveals himself to be the god Yama (also known as Yama Dharmaraja), and then takes him to the underworld where he sees his siblings and wife. After explaining the nature of the test, Dharma takes Yudhishtira back to heaven and explains that it was necessary to expose him to the underworld for the one lie he had said during his entire life. Dharma then assures him that his siblings and wife would join him in heaven after they had been exposed to the underworld for measures of time according to their vices.
Parikshitarules after them and dies bitten by a snake. His furious son, Janamejaya, decides to perform a snake sacrifice (" sarpasttra") in order to destroy the snakes. It is at this sacrifice that the tale of his ancestors is narrated to him.
Versions, translations, and derivative works
Many regional versions of the work developed over time, mostly differing only in minor details, or with verses or subsidiary stories being added. These include some versions from outside the Indian subcontinent, such as the
Kakawin Bharatayuddhafrom Java.
Between 1919 and 1966, scholars at the
Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune, compared the various manuscripts of the epic from India and abroad and produced the "Critical Edition" of the "Mahabharata", on 13,000 pages in 19 volumes, followed by the Harivamsha in another two volumes and six index volumes. This is the text that is usually used in current "Mahabharata" studies for reference. [ [http://www.virtualpune.com/html/channel/edu/institutes/html/bhandark.shtml Bhandarkar Institute, Pune] —Virtual Pune] This work is sometimes called the 'Pune' or 'Poona' edition of the Mahabharata.
Hindipoet, also hailed as "Rashtrakavi" Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar'has written epic-poetry on various themes of Mahabharata like "Kurukshetra", "Rashmirathi" and many others which are known for their elegance and musical rhythm.
The Kannada novelist
S.L. Bhyrappawrote a novel in Kannada (now translated to most Indian languages and English) titled "Parva", giving a new interpretation to the story of Mahabharata. He tried to understand the social and ethical practices in these regions and correlate them with the story of Mahabharata.
In the late 1980s, the "Mahabharata" TV series imdb title|id=0158417|title=Mahabharat (1988-1990 TV series)] was televised and shown on India's national television (
Doordarshan). The series was written by Dr. Rahi Masoom Rezaand directed by B. R. Chopra and his son Ravi Chopra. The concept was by Pt. Narendra Sharma.
Many film versions of the epic exist, dating from 1920.. [imdb title|id=0154815|title=Mahabharat (1920 film)]
In the West, a well known presentation of the epic is
Peter Brook's nine hour play premiered in Avignonin 1985 and its five hour movie version "The Mahabharata" (1989). [imdb title|id=0097810|title=The Mahabharata (1989 mini-series)]
Among literary reinterpretations of the Mahabharata the most famous is arguably
Sashi Tharoor's major work entitled " The Great Indian Novel", an involved literary, philosophical, and political novel which superimposes the major moments of post-Independence Indiain the 20th century onto the driving events of the Mahabharata epic. An acclaimed book, "The Great Indian Novel" also contemporized well-known characters of the epic into equally well-known politicians of the modern era (e.g. Indira Gandhias the villainous Duryodhana).
Mahabharata was also reinterpreted by
Shyam Benegalin Kalyug. Kalyug is a modern-day replaying of the Mahabharata, with the Pandava industrial family being locked in a titanic battle with their Kaurava rivals. But the times are different from the original Mahabharat's, and external forces impinge on feudal values causing disconcerting results. [ [http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/fr/2003/01/17/stories/2003011700990100.htm What makes Shyam special...] ]
Western interpretations of the Mahabharata include William Buck's "Mahabharata" and Elizabeth Seeger's "Five Sons of King Pandu".
A poetic translation of the full epic into English, done by the poet
P. Lalis complete, and in 2005 began being published by Writers Workshop, Calcutta. The P. Lal translation is a non-rhyming verse-by-verse rendering, and is the only edition in any language to include all slokas in all recensions of the work (not just those in the "Critical Edition"). The completion of the publishing project is scheduled for 2008. Fifteen of the eighteen volumes are now available::Vol 1: Adi Parva, 1232 pages, 2005, ISBN 81-8157-370-6:Vol 2: Sabha Parva, 520 pages, 2005, ISBN 81-8157-382-X:Vol 3: Vana Parva, 1580 pages, 2005, ISBN 81-8157-448-6:Vol 4: Virata Parva, 400 pages, 2006, ISBN 81-8157-382-X:Vol 5: Udyoga Parva, 970 pages, 2006, ISBN 81-8157-530-X:Vol 6: Bhishma Parva, 920 pages, 2006, ISBN 81-8157-548-2:Vol 7: Drona Parva, 1522 pages, 2007, ISBN 81-8157-640-3:Vol 8: Karna Parva, 1025 pages, 2008, ISBN 978-81-8157-711-5:Vol 10: Sauptika Parva, 173 pages, 2008, ISBN 978-81-8157-723-8:Vol 11: Stri Parva, 173 pages, 2008, ISBN 978-81-8157-729-0:Vol 14: Asvamedhika Parva, 424 pages, 2008, ISBN 978-81-8157-731-3:Vol 15: Asramavasuka Parva, 157 pages, 2007, ISBN 81-8157-606-3:Vol 16: Mausala Parva, 60 pages, 2006, ISBN 81-8157-550-4:Vol 17: Mahaprasthana Parva, 30 pages, 2006 ISBN 81-8157-552-0:Vol 18: Svargarohana Parva, 80 pages, 2006 ISBN 81-8157-554-7
Clay Sanskrit Library version
A project to translate the full epic into English prose, translated by various hands, began to appear in 2005 from the
Clay Sanskrit Library, published by New York UniversityPress. The translation is based not on the "Critical Edition" but on the version known to the commentator Nīlakaṇṭha. Currently available are portions of books 2-4 and 7-9.
Maha·bhárata II: The Great Hall: 588 pp, Paul Wilmot, 2006, ISBN 978-0-8147-9406-7
Maha·bhárata III: The Forest (volume four of four): 374 pp, William J. Johnson, 2005, ISBN 978-0-8147-4278-5
Maha·bhárata IV: Viráta: 516 pp, Kathleen Garbutt, 2007, ISBN 978-0-8147-3183-3
Maha·bhárata V: Preparations for War (volume one of two): 450 pp, Kathleen Garbutt, 2008, ISBN 978-0-8147-3191-8
Maha·bhárata V: Preparations for War (volume two of two): forthcoming
Maha·bhárata VI: Bhishma (volume one of two): forthcoming
Maha·bhárata VII: Drona (volume one of four): 473 pp, Vaughan Pilikian, 2006, ISBN 978-0-8147-6723-8
Maha·bhárata VIII: Karna (volume one of two): 604 pp, Adam Bowles, 2007, ISBN 978-0-8147-9981-9
Maha·bhárata VIII: Karna (volume two of two): 450 pp, Adam Bowles, 2008, ISBN 978-0-8147-9995-6
Maha·bhárata IX: Shalya (volume one of two): 371 pp, Justin Meiland, 2005, ISBN 978-0-8147-5706-2
Maha·bhárata IX: Shalya (volume two of two): 470 pp, Justin Meiland, 2007, ISBN 978-0-8147-5737-6
Another English prose translation of the full epic, based on the "Critical Edition", is also in progress, published by
University Of ChicagoPress, initiated by Chicago Indologist J. A. B. van Buitenen (books 1-5) and, following a 20-year hiatus caused by the death of van Buitenen, is being continued by D. Gitomer of DePaul University (book 6), J. L. Fitzgerald of The University of Tennessee (books 11-13) and W. Doniger of the University of Chicago (books 14-18)::Vol. 1: Parva 1, 545 pages, 1980, ISBN 0-226-84663-6:Vol. 2: Parvas 2-3, 871 pages, 1981, ISBN 0-226-84664-4:Vol. 3: Parvas 4-5, 582 pages, 1983, ISBN 0-226-84665-2:Vol. 4: Parva 6 (forthcoming):Vol. 7: Parva 11, first half of parva 12, 848 pages, 2003, ISBN 0-226-25250-7:Vol. 8: Second half of Parva 12 (forthcoming)
Until these three projects are available in full, the only available complete English translations remain the Victorian prose versions by
Kisari Mohan Ganguli, [Several editions of the Kisari Mohan Gangulitranslation of the Mahabharata incorrectly cite Pratap Chandra Royas translator and this error has been perpetuated into secondary citations. See the publishers preface to the current Munshiram Manoharlal edition for an explanation.] published between 1883 and 1896 (Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers) and by M. N. Dutt (Motilal Banarsidass Publishers). Most critics consider the translation by Ganguli to be faithful to the original text. The complete text of Ganguli's translation is available online (see External Links).
This is a Kawi version that is found on the Indonesian island of Bali and was translated by Dr.
I. Gusti Putu Phalgunadi. Of the eighteen parvas, only eight Kawi manuscripts remain.:Vol 1: Adi Parva - The First Book, 305 pages, 1990, ISBN 81-85179-50-6:Vol 2: Virataparva - The Fourth Book, 197 pages, 1992, ISBN 81-85689-05-9:Vol 3: Udyogaparva, 345 pages, 1994, ISBN 81-85689-96-2:Vol 4: Bhishmaparva, 283 pages, 1995, ISBN 81-86471-05-7:Vol 5: Asramavasaparva, Mosalaparva, Prasthanikaparva, Svargarohanaparva, 161 pages, 1997, ISBN 81-86471-11-1
*"Nal'i Damajanti", Op.47 (1903),
Operain three acts by Anton Arenskij to a libretto by Modest Čajkovskij after the Russian translation of the Mahabharata by Vasilij Žukovskijs. First performance OldStyleDate|22 January|1904|9 January in Moscow.
Kuru family tree
Key to Symbols
*Male: "blue border"
*Female: "red border"
Pandavas: "green box"
Kauravas: "red box"
Santanuwas a king of the Kuru dynasty or kingdom, and was some generations removed from any ancestor called Kuru. His marriage to Gangapreceded his marriage to Satyavati.
Panduand Dhritarashtrawere fathered by Vyasaafter Vichitravirya's death. Dhritarashtra, Pandu and Vidura were the sons of Vyasa with Ambika, Ambalika and a maid servant respectively.
Karnawas born to Kuntithrough her invocation of Surya, before her marriage to Pandu.
Pandavas were acknowledged sons of Pandubut were begotten by Kunti's invocation of various deities. In particular:
Yamaor Dharma(Dharmadeva), for Yudhishtira
Vayu, for Bhima
Indraor Varunafor Arjuna
** The twins,
Nakulaand Sahadevawere born to Madrithrough her invocation of the The Ashvins
Duryodhanaand his siblings were born at the same time, and they were of the same generation as their Pandavacousins.
The birth order of siblings is correctly shown in the family tree (from left to right), except for
Vyasaand Bhishmawhose birth order is not described, and Vichitravirya who was born after them. The fact that Ambikaand Ambalikaare sisters is not shown in the family tree. The birth of Duryodhana took place after the birth of Karna and Yudhishtira, but before the birth of the remaining Pandava brothers.
Some siblings of the characters shown here have been left out for clarity; these include
Chitrangada, the eldest brother of Vichitravirya. Vidura, half-brother to Dhritarashtra and Pandu. The family tree continues through the descendants Arjuna, and these have also not been shown here.
Kingdoms of Ancient India
*Chaturvedi Badrinath, "The Mahabharata : An Inquiry in the Human Condition", New Delhi, Orient Longman (2006)
*cite book |series= |last=Basham |first=A. L. |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=The Wonder That Was India: A Survey of the Culture of the Indian Sub-Continent Before The Coming of the Muslims|year=1954 |publisher=Grove Press |location=New York |isbn=
*J. Brockington, "The Sanskrit Epics", Leiden (1998).
*Alf Hildebeitel, "The Ritual of Battle, Krishna in the Mahabharata", SUNY Press, New York 1990.
*E. W. Hopkins, "The Great Epic of India", New York (1901).
*cite book |series= |last=Keay |first=John |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=India: A History |year=2000 |publisher=Grove Press |location= |isbn=0-8021-3797-0
*H. Oldenberg, "Zur Geschichte der Altindischen Prosa", Berlin (1917)
*Jyotirmayananda Swami, "Mysticism of the Mahabharata", Yoga Research Foundation, Miami 1993.
*Paule Lerner, "Astrological Key in Mahabharata", David White (trans.) Motilal Banarsidass, New Delhi 1988.
*Ruth Cecily Katz, "Arjuna in the Mahabharata", University of South Carolina Press, Columbia 1989.
*R.V.Bhasin, "Mahabharata" published by National Publications, India, 2007.
*cite book |last=Majumdar |first=R. C. (general editor)|authorlink=R. C. Majumdar |coauthors= |title=
The History and Culture of the Indian People: (Volume 1) The Vedic Age |year=1951 |publisher=George Allen & Unwin Ltd. |location=London|isbn=
*Krishna Chaitanya (K.K. Nair), "The Mahabharata, A Literary Study", Clarion Books, New Delhi 1985.
*Th. Oberlies, 'Ritual an und unter der Oberfläche des Mahabharata', in: "Neue Methoden der Epenforschung" (ed. H. L. C. Tristram), Freiburg (1998).
*H. Oldenberg, "Das Mahabharata", Göttingen (1922).
*M. Mehta, "The problem of the double introduction to the Mahabharata",
JAOS93 (1973), 547-550.
*C. Z. Minkowski, "Janamehayas "Sattra" and Ritual Structure", JAOS 109 (1989), 410-420.
*C. Z. Minkowski, 'Snakes, "Sattras" and the Mahabharata', in: "Essays on the Mahabharata", ed. A. Sharma, Leiden (1991), 384-400.
*Bruce M. Sullivan, "Seer of the Fifth Veda, Krsna Dvaipayana Vyasa in the Mahabharata", Motilal Banarsidass, New Delhi 1999.
*Nicholas Sutton, "Religious Doctrines in the Mahabharata", Motilal Banarsidass, New Delhi 2000.
*N. B. Utgikar, "The mention of the Mahabharata in the Ashvalayana Grhya Sutra", Proceedings and Transactions of the All-India Oriental Conference, Poona (1919), vol. 2, Poona (1922), 46-61.
*M. Witzel, "Epics, Khilas and Puranas: Continuities and Ruptures", Proceedings of the Third Dubrovnik International Conference on the Sanskrit Epics and Puranas, ed. P. Koskiallio, Zagreb (2005), 21-80.
* Gupta, S.P. and K.S. Ramachandran (ed.), "Mahabharata: myth and reality". Agam Prakashan, New Delhi 1976.
* Pargiter, F.E., "Ancient Indian Historical Tradition", London 1922. Repr. Motilal Banarsidass 1997.
* Majumdar, R.C. and A.D. Pusalker (ed.), "The History and Culture of the Indian People", Vol I. "The Vedic Age", Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan 1951.
;Original text online sa icon
* [http://www.mahabharataonline.com MahabharataOnline.com - Mahabharata Translations, Simple narrations, Stories and Scriptures]
* [http://tiger.bun.kyoto-u.ac.jp/mtokunag/skt_texts/Mahaabhaarata/ etext] [http://tiger.bun.kyoto-u.ac.jp/mtokunag/skt_texts/mbh-metr/ (metrical)] , entered by Muneo Tokunaga
* [http://www.sub.uni-goettingen.de/ebene_1/fiindolo/gret_utf.htm#MBh GRETIL etext] (Muneo Tokunaga)
* [http://www.sub.uni-goettingen.de/ebene_1/fiindolo/gretil/1_sanskr/2_epic/mbh/sas/mahabharata.htm Mahābhārata online]
* [http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/mbs/index.htm] (parallel in
Devanāgarīand transliterated) at [http://www.sacred-texts.com/ The Internet Sacred Text Archive]
* [http://www.claysanskritlibrary.org Clay Sanskrit Library] publishes classical Indian literature, including the Mahabharata and Ramayana, with facing-page text and translation. Also offers searchable corpus and downloadable materials.;Abridged Versions
* [http://www.epics.in/ Epics.in - An abridged,online version of the mahabharata comprising of ten chapters.]
* [http://web.utk.edu/~jftzgrld/MBh1Biblio.html#Poona Reading Suggestions] J. F. Fitzgerald, University of Tennessee
* [http://mahabharata-resources.org Mahabharata Resources Page at its new home] Resources on Mahabharata
* [http://www.devashard.com Mahabharata based graphic novel]
;Kisari Mohan Ganguli translation en icon
* [http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/maha/index.htm at sacred-texts.com]
* [http://www.bharatadesam.com/spiritual/mahabharata/index.php at bharatadesam.com]
;Articles on the Mahabharata
* [http://www.ece.lsu.edu/kak/MahabharataII.pdf Mahabharata and Sindhu- Sarasvathi tradition, a paper by Subhash kak (pdf)]
* [http://www.boloji.com/hinduism/145.htm Ramayana and Mahabharata in Indonesia] - discusses the Indonesian versions
A Throw of Dice( Prapancha Pash) is a 1929 silent film by Franz Osten.
* 1989 movie directed by
* 1980 movie directed by
Shyam Benegal. The movie is loosely based on the story of the Mahabharata and reinterprets the struggle for the kingdom in an industrial age, with two family factions fighting for the control of an industrial conglomerate.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.