Quang Binh Province

Quang Binh Province

"For the district in Ha Giang Province, see Quang Binh (district).Infobox province of Vietnam
Name = Quảng Bình
Meaning = Serenity

Council Chair = Lương Ngọc Bính
Committee Chair = Phan Lâm Phương
Capital = Đồng Hới
Region = North Central Coast
Area = 8,051.8
Population = 831,600
Population year = 2004
Population density = 103.3
Ethnicities = Vietnamese, Bru – Vân Kiều, Chứt, Tày
Calling code = 52
ISO code = VN-24
Website = www.quangbinh.gov.vn

Quang Binh (in Vietnamese: "Quảng Bình"; audio|Quang Binh.ogg|pronunciation; Hán Tự: , formerly Tiên Bình under the reign of Lê Trung Hưng of Lê Dynasty, this province was renamed Quảng Bình in 1604) is a province in the North Central Coast of Vietnam. [http://www.vietnamtourism.com/e_pages/country/province.asp?mt=8452&uid=1253 Quang Binh] ]

The province is bordered by Laotian province of Khammouan on the west, South China Sea on the east, Hà Tĩnh province on the north and Quảng Trị province on the south.

For a long time in history, this region belonged to Văn Lang and then kingdom of Champa and then a conflicted territory between Viet the Great and Champa, it was officially annexed into Dai Viet by Ly Thuong Kiet, a general of Lý Dynasty (under the reign of Lý king Lý Thánh Tông). The site of the present Quang Binh was battlefields between Champa and Vietnam until the Vietnamese territory was expanded farther south in the following dysnaties. Quang Binh emerged its importance since Nguyễn Hoàng, a prince of Nguyễn Lords was sent by king to the south. He developed his manor and turned it into a strong state Dang Trong, a rival of de facto Trịnh-controled Dang Ngoai. Quang Binh under Nguyễn Lords became an important front to defence Dang Trong from Dang Ngoai’s attack. Under the French rule, this province was part of An Nam. During the Vietnam War, this province was part of communisted-controled Democratic Republic of Vietnam or North Vietnam, only 20 km from the DMZ. This province was severely devastated by bombing by U.S. B-52s.

This province is home to the World Heritage Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park. The province is also home to several famous Vietnamese persons, including general Vo Nguyen Giap, the family of former South Vietnamese president Ngo Dinh Diem, poet Han Mac Tu, and writer Bao Ninh.


Location and area

Coordinates 16°55’ to 18°05’ North and 105°37’ to 107°00’ East. It borders Hà Tĩnh Province on the north with the Ngang mountain pass as the natural frontier, borders Quảng Trị Province by the south, borders Laos by the west, and faces the South China Sea on the east. The narrowest part from east (seaside) to west (Laotian border) is just 40 km. The provincial topography is characterized by a general slope, higher in the west and lower in the east, with hilly and mountainous areas accounting for 85% of the total area. The Annamite Range is the natural border between Quang Binh Province and Laos with peaks ranging from 1,000 to 1,500 m, the summit of which is peak Phi Co Pi with the height of 2,017 m. In the east of the province are lower hills and then several narrow plains and river deltas. The seaside sand dunes belt is a natural dam to protect the land from the ocean tides.

The provincial land area is 8,037.9 km² and divided as follows:
*Inhabited land: 41.45 km²
*Agriculture: 1635.46 km²
*Forest: 4912.62 km²
*Specific usage: 199.36 km²
*Unused: 26.01 km²Sand area accounts for 5.9% of the land, and alluvial soil accounts for only 2.8% of the land. The province's east coastline is 116.04 km long and the western borderline with Laos is 201.81 km long. The province owns 4866.88 km² of forests, of which 4478.37 km² is natural jungle, and 388.54 km² is reforestation (including 175.97 km² of pines). [Statistics extracted from Official report by Quang Binh People's Committee on the provincial official website (in Vietnamese language) at [http://www.quangbinh.gov.vn] ]

The province is loacted at the coordinates:
*The northernmost point: 180 5'12" N
*The southernmost point: 170 5'02" N
*The westernmost point: 106 59'37" E
*The westternmost point: 105 36'55" EThe coasline is 116.04km on the east, the borderline with Laos is 201.87 km on the west. cite news |first= |last= |authorlink= |coauthors= |title= Tổng quan Quảng Bình|url= http://www.vnn.vn/province/quangbinh/tongquan.html |work=Quang Binh Provincial Government |publisher=quangbinhgov|date= | accessdate=2008-02-27]

Rivers and sea

There are five major rivers in this province, as follows:
#Gianh River (this historic river used to be the border splitting Vietnam into two countries during the Trịnh-Nguyễn War)
#Ron River
#Nhat Le River (the confluence of Kien Giang River and Long Dai River)
#Ly Hoa River
#Dinh River.
#Kien Giang River in Le Thuy District
#Son River in Phong Nha-Ke BangMost of the rivers originate in the Truong Son Range and empty into South China Sea. River and stream density is 1.1 km/km². There are 160 natural and man-made lakes with total water deposit of 234.3 million cubic meter of fresh water. [ [http://www.quangbinh.gov.vn/html/en/Home/KinhTe/GiaoThongVanTai Rivers in Quang Binh Province on Official Website of Quang Binh government] ] Quảng Bình Province’s sea area includes continental shelf and special economic area up to 20,000 km². Off the sea, there lays Hon La islet, Hòn Gió islet, Hòn Nồm islet, Hòn Cỏ islet, Hòn Chùa islets with the total fishery capacity of 100,000 metric tonnes. Hon La bay is a 4-square-km marine bay with the depth up to 15 m and a surrounding land of 4 km² suitable to develop sea deep-water port and industrial park.


Many mount summits concentrate in Phong Nha-Ke Bang area with over 1,000 metres height. Noteworthy peaks are the Peak Co Rilata with ta height of 1,128 m and the Peak Co Preu with a height of 1,213 m. [http://www.unep-wcmc.org/sites/wh/Phong_nha.html United Nations Environment Programme, World Conservation Monitoring Centre] ]

Mounts in karstic area of the park rise at typical height of above 800 m constitute a continuous range along Laotian-Vietnamese borderline, of which notable summits above 1000 m are: Phu Tạo (1174m), Co Unet (1150m), Phu Canh (1095m), Phu Mun (1078m), Phu Tu En (1078m), Phu On Chinh (1068m), Phu Dung (1064m), Phu Tu Ôc (1053m), Phu Long (1015m), Phu Ôc (1015m), Phu Dong (1002m). Inserting into these summits are 800-1000 m high summits of Phu Sinh (965m), Phu Co Tri (949m), Phu On Boi (933m), Phu Tu (956m), Phu Toan (905m), Phu Phong (902m), núi Ma Ma (835m).


There are four separate seasons here: in spring (from February to April), it is warm with slight rains, humid and the temperature around 18 to 25 degrees Celsius. In the summer (from May to July), it is hot, dry with little downpours, the temperature may reach up to 35 to 36 degrees Celsius. In the fall, it is rainy, cool with temperature around 22 to 28 degrees Celsius. In the winter, it's humid, slight rain with temperature about 12 to 16 degrees Celsius. Annual average precipitation is around 2,000-2,300 mm. Heaviest rainy season is from September to November. From April to August is the dry season. The hottest months are June-August.



Quang Binh Province is endowned with biodiversity, especially typical of Annamites eco-region, especially in Phong Nha-Ke Bang area. According to the results of initial surveys, the primary tropical forest in Phong Nha - Ke Bang 140 families, 427 genera, and 751 species of vascular plants, of which 36 species are endangered and listed in the Vietnam's Red Data Book.

The most commont tree species in this park are "Hopea sp.", "Sumbaviopsis albicans", "Garcinia fragraeoides", "Burretionendron hsienmu", "Chukrasia tabularis", "Photinia aroboreum" and "Dysospyros saletti". Seedlings can only grow in holes and cracks in the limestone where soil has accumulated, so in general regeneration after disturbance is slow.

The forest type in this national park is dominated by evergreen tree species with scattered deciduous trees such as "Dipterocarpus kerri", "Anogeissus acuminate", "Pometia pinnata" and "Lagerstroemia calyculata".

In Phong Nha-Ke Bang park, the dominant plant families are the Lauraceae, Fagacaeae, Theaceae and Rosaceae, with some scattered gymnosperms such as "Podocarpus imbricatus", "Podocarpus neriifolius", and "Nageia fleuryi". [http://www.eoearth.org/article/Phong_Nha-Ke_Bang_National_Park,_Vietnam The Encyclopedia Earth] ] [http://www.cpv.org.vn/details.asp?topic=32&subtopic=226&id=BT460561268 Official website of Communist Party of Vietnam] ]

In this national park, there exists a 5000-ha forest of "Calocedrus macrolepis" on limestione ("Calocedrus rupestris") mounts with about 2,500 trees, 600 per hectare. This is the largest forest of this tree in Vietnam. Most of these trees here are 500-600 years old. These trees are listed in group 2A (rare, precious and limited exploitation) of the official letter 3399/VPCP-NN dated 21 June 2002, an amendment to the Decree 48 by the Government of Vietnam.Cite web|url=http://web.thanhnien.com.vn/Khoahoc/2005/9/6/121442.tno|title=Những phát hiện chấn động về Phong Nha - Kẻ Bàng|work=Thanh Niên|date=June 6, 2005|accessdate=2008-02-05]

Biologists have discovered three rare orchid species.http://www.thiennhien.net/news/153/ARTICLE/2243/2007-06-16.html] Orchids found here include: "Paphiopedilum malipoense", "Paphiopedilum dianthum", "Paphiopedilum concolor". In 1996 IUCN classified these orchid species in danger of extinction in the near future.Cite web|url=http://web.thanhnien.com.vn/Khoahoc/2005/9/6/121442.tno|title=Những phát hiện chấn động về Phong Nha - Kẻ Bàng|work=Thanh Niên|date=6 September, 2005|accessdate=2008-02-05]

Endemic species in Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park is composed of: "Burretiodendron hsienmu", "Cryptocarya lenticellata","Deutrizanthus tonkinensis", "Eberhardtia tonkinensis", "Heritiera macrophylla", "Hopea sp.", "Illicium parviflorum", "Litsea baviensis", "Madhuca pasquieri", "Michelia faveolata", "Pelthophorum tonkinensis", "Semecarpus annamensis", "Sindora tonkinensis".


The forest in Quang Binh in general and in Phong Nha-Ke Bang is home to 98 families, 256 genera and 381 species of vertebrates. Sixty-six animal species are listed in the Vietnam's Red Data Book and 23 other species in the World Red Book of Endangered Species.

In 2005, a new species of gecko ("Lygosoma boehmeiwas") was discovered here by a group of Vietnamese biologists together with biologists working for the park, Cologne Zoo in Germany and the Saint Petersburg Wild Zoology Institute in Russia.cite web| title=New Lizards Species Found|url=http://www.reptiles.swelluk.com/reptile-news/new-lizard-species-september2007.html |publisher=reptiles.swelluk|date=2007-09| accessdate=2008-02-22]

The Gaur and one species of eel have been discovered in this park. Ten new species not seen ever in Vietnam were discovered by scientists in this national park.cite web| title=New species found in Vietnam|url=http://www.practicalfishkeeping.co.uk/pfk/pages/item.php?news=199|publisher=practicalfishkeeping|date=2004-02-19| accessdate=2008-02-22]

Phong Nha-Ke Bang is home to significant populations of primates in Vietnam, with ten species and sub-speces. These include the globally vulnerable Pig-tailed Macaque, Assamese Macaque, Stump-tailed Macaque and White-cheeked Crested Gibbon ("Nomascus leucogenys" and "Nomascus leucogenys siki"). The Park is probably home to the largest population of Francois' Langur in Vietnam, including two different forms of the species. The area is highly significant for its population of Hatinh Langur and Black Langur. Ten bat species listed in the IUCN List of Threatened Species have been recorded in this park.

Of the 59 recorded reptile and amphibian species, 18 are listed in Vietnam's Red Data Book and 6 are listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. The 72 fish species include 4 species endemic to the area, including "Chela quangbinhensis". The Phong Nha-Ke Bang park is home to over 200 bird species, inclusive of several rare birds such as: Chestnut-necklaced Partridge, Red-collared Woodpecker, Brown Hornbill, Sooty Babbler and Short-tailed Scimitar-babbler. [http://birdlifeindochina.org/birdwatch/phongnhakebang.html Bird Life Indochina, Birding Center in Vietnam] ] There is good evidence for the Vietnamese Pheasant ("Lophura hatinhensis") and Imperial Pheasant ("Lophura imperialis") species at Phong Nha - Kẻ Bàng area.

An initiative survey conducted by Russian and Vietnamese scientists from Vietnam-Russia Tropical Centre (funded by WWF) recorded 259 butterfly species of 11 families. Almost all major butterfly taxa in Vietnam can be found in Phong Nha - Ke Bang National Park.

Administrative divisions

The province is divided into six "huyện" (districts) and one city (Đồng Hới)
*Bố Trạch
*Lệ Thủy
*Minh Hóa
*Quảng Ninh
*Quảng Trạch
*Tuyên Hóa

The districts are further divided into 154 communes ("xã") and these communes are divided into villages ("lang" or "thon").Like administrative system of Vietnam, the leader of each administrative unit is the secretary of the local Communist Party Cell. Each administrative unit includes a people's council, who elects a people's committee to execute its daily affairs.

Culture and Education

The province is home to Quang Binh University, a newly-established university from the Normal College of Quang Binh. This university has faculties of business administration, normal faculty, informatics faculty. [cite web|url=http://www.quangbinhuni.edu.vn/eindex.asp|title=website of Quang Binh University|publisher=Quang Binh University|accessdate=2008-03-06]

There are several high schools and primary schools in counties. Inhabitants here regards education as family tradition and the most important means to make ends meet and to eliminate poverty.Quang Binh province is the land of rich culture and famous people. There is an archaeological site of Bau Tro, Phu Luu ancient bronze drums in the time of Dong Son’s culture. There are also many historical relics such as Quang Binh Quan, Luy Thay, Rao Sen, Nha Ngo Citadel, parapet and outer walls of Trinh - Nguyen, famous places during the wars such as Cu Nam, Canh Duong, Cha Lo, Xuan Son sky gate, Long Dai, Ho Chi Minh Trail ... In the past time, there were many Quang Binh people of great education, gaining top position in examinations, many cultural and academic villages such as "Bat Danh Huong" (eight famous villages): "Son - Ha - Canh - Tho - Van - Vo - Co - Kim" to be praised from generation to generation. Many celebrities such as Duong Van An, Nguyen Huu Canh, Nguyen Ham Ninh, Hoang Ke Viem,... and famous historical figure, General Vo Nguyen Giap were originated from Quang Binh. There are many festivals and typical traditional villages.

Quảng Bình is also home to many types of "hò", foklore singings like Hò khoan Lệ Thủy, Hò Quảng Trạch. [cite web|url=http://www.danang.gov.vn/home/view.asp?id=70&id_tin=8959|title=Ho khoan Le Thuy|publisher=Danang Government|date=2005-06-03|accessdate=2008-03-06]

On July 3, 2007, an earthen pot of ancient coins weighing 20 kg was found buried at 500 cm underground in a paddy field and later sold for US$12.5 per kilo. This site is located in Tran Xa village, Ham Ninh commune, Quang Ninh district. The coins were of Tang Dynasty period. [cite web|url=http://english.vietnamnet.vn/lifestyle/2007/07/717893/|title=More Tang Dynasty objects discovered in Quang Binh|date=2007|accessdate=2008-03-06]

Compared to other provinces in areas surrounding Ha Noi and Ho Chi Minh City and Da Nang, Quang Binh is the poorer province. Therefore, more and more young and educated here find their ways to the big cities and more industrialized provinces.

In each comme ("xã", a rural sudivision of district) , there is a clinic and there is a hospital in every county, in Dong Hoi city, there are more. The Dong Hoi Hospital, which was donated by Cuba, was built in the 1980s. [Cite web|title=Cuba and Vietnam are brothers in a family|url=http://embacuba.cubaminrex.cu/Default.aspx?tabid=4602|publisher=Embajada de Cuba en Vietnam|accessdate=2008-03-06]


The provincial GDP per capita is one of the lowest of Vietnam (around US$ 400, compared to Vietnam's average GDP per capita of US$ 700). Industries base on mainly construction material production (ciment, tiles, building rock, brick) thanks to its abundance in limestone and white clay deposits. The province has two industrial parks, one in Dong Hoi city and the other in Hon La bay. Sea food processing, bio-fertilizer and aluminum production are also important to this provincial economy. Over 80% of the population live on agricultural production. In recent years, tourism has been emerged as the significant contribution to Quang Binh largely thanks to Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park (World Heritage site) and several white fine sand beaches. Trade conducted with Laos through Cha Lo gate by National Road 12. In 2005, this province's export value is just 30 million US$ or 1% of Vietnam's export revenue. In 2006, the province contributed 608 billion VND (US$ 38 million) to the state budge (of the total US$15.68 billion) or 0.024% only [Official fiscal report by the Ministry of Finance of Vietnam in 2006, [http://www.mof.gov.vn/Default.aspx?tabid=3957&ItemID=29539] ] The province agriculture is comprehensively developed with the direction of production of commodities. Crops and cultivation calendar have been gradually arranged in a more appropriate manner. The food production has been continuously increased reaching 200,000 tons in the year 2000. Industrial trees are well developed, especially long term trees. The total area of industrial trees is 14,105ha, of which the area of rubber is 6,400 ha providing 2,000 tons of dried resin. Cattle and husbandry keep growing. The average agriculture growth rate is 5.7% during the period 1996 - 2000.

In the recent years, forestry production of Quang Binh Province has been changed in terms of structure from mainly exploiting to protecting, developing forest for forest resource conservation. The value of forestry and afforestration has increased 87.3%, in particular from 1996 to 2000 the growth rate was 65.3%. The annual afforestration area is around 4,000 ha. Up to date 38,851 ha of forest has been planted.

Fishery sector has continuously developed and become a key economic sector of the province. At present the province has around 3,200 fishing boats with power of over 67,000CV. In the year 2000, the output of sea products is estimated at 17,104 tons, of which about 1,600 tons is from raising. The province has 3 shrimp nursery stations, 8 fish nursery stations supplying 5 - 7 mil. tiger baby shrimps, 40 - 45mil. baby fish and 4 - 5 mil. fingerlings annually. At present the province has 2 factories of processing frozen sea products and 4 factories of processing dried products for exportation. The services of fishing sector such as making and repairing ships, purchasing, processing sea products and providing technical assistance and infrastructure for fishing are continuously developed. Hower, the development of fishery sector in recent years is not so high as the potentials could provide.

As of February 2008, the province licensed 59 investment project with total capital of $500 million. [http://www.vneconomy.com.vn/eng/?param=article&catid=07&id=a604892b852290 Quang Binh registers 500 million USD in projects] ]

Landscapes and attractions

Quang Binh has several tourist attraction sites that could be turned into tourism development. [cite web|url=http://www.asemconnectvietnam.gov.vn/Localgovernment/Local.aspx?ProvinceId=36&Langid=2&MenuID=12&Type=1|title=Quang Binh|publisher=Asemconnectvietnam|date=2007-06-09|accessdate=2008-03-06]

*Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park: This park features a karst region of more than 200,000 km² if Hin Namno region in Laos bordering this park is combined. Phong Nha-Ke Bang is a protected area, a national park and was listed in UNESCO's world heritage in 2003. Phong Nha-Ke bang is located in the Bố Trạch and Minh Hóa districts, in north-central Vietnam, about 50 km northwest of Dong Hoi, 42 km east of South China Sea from its borderline point. Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park is situated in a limestone zone of 200,000 hectare in Vietnamese territory and borders another limestone of 200,000 hectare of Hin Namno in Laotian territory. The core zone of this national park covers 85,754 hectares and a buffer zone of 195,400 ha.Cite web|title=Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park |url=http://www.unep-wcmc.org/sites/wh/Phong_nha.html |publisher=United Nations Environment Programme| year=2003 |month=March |accessdate=2008-02-21] The park was created to protect one of the world's two largest karst regions with 300 caves and grottoes and also protects the ecosystem of limestone forest of the Annamite Range region in north central coast of Vietnam.cite web|url=http://whc.unesco.org/archive/advisory_body_evaluation/951rev.pdf|title=World Heritage Nomination, IUCN Technical Evaluation; Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park, p. 53, 54, 55|work=IUCN|date=|accessdate=2008-02-28|format=PDF] cite web| title=Di sản thiên nhiên thế giới - Vườn quốc gia Phong Nha - Kẻ Bàng (Quảng Bình) |url=http://www.idm.gov.vn/Nguon_luc/Xuat_ban/Anpham/Phongnha/T189.htm|publisher=Vietnam Geological and Mineral Resources Department|date=2006-07-23| accessdate=2008-02-26] Phong Nha-Ke Bang area is noted for its cave and grotto systems as it is composed of 300 caves and grottoes with a total length of about 70 km, of which only 20 have been surveyed by Vietnamese and British scientists; 17 of these are in located in the Phong Nha area and three in the Ke Bang area. Phong Nha holds several world cave records, as it has the longest underground river, as well as the largest caverns and passageways.Following UNESCO listing of this park, the number of visitors to this province changed significantly. [ [http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-640863/Hidden-treasures-Quang-Binh-has.html Hidden treasures: Quang Binh has seen some remarkable changes in recent months, with UNESCO granting World Natural Heritage Status to the province's famous Phong Nha-Ke Bang cave complex. Van Anh visited the windswept, mountainous province to see what authorities planned for the area's new-found fame.] ]
*Da Nhay and Ly Hoa Beaches, Nhat Le Beach: these two beaches feature white and fine sands, clean water, and are among one of the most attractive beaches in Vietnam
*Bang Spa: a hotspring area in Le Thuy district with resort and health care services. The temperature of the watwer at the jet hole can reach up to 105 degree Celsius.
*Ho Chi Minh Trail battlefield, where there are many important sites along the trail during Vietnam War. [ [http://www.vietnamtourism.com/e_pages/service/tourpro.asp?mm=c Tours on offer] ]


There are two parallel national roads cross the province: The National Road 1A (runs from Lang Son Province to Ca Mau Province along the coastline of the country) and Ho Chi Minh Highway (runs from North-Western part of Vietnam to Ca Mau along the mountainous part, nearly coinciding Ho Chi Minh Trail). The Road 12 connects this province with Khammouan Province of Laos. The Hanoi-Saigon Railway crosses Quang Binh Province in the hill area with Dong Hoi Railway Station as a main station. Dong Hoi Airport is located in Dong Hoi city, initially due to be opened at the end of 2007 with scheduled flights to and from Ho Chi Minh City's Tan Son Nhat International Airport and Ha Noi's Noi Bai International Airport upon completion. [cite web|title=Construction begins on new Quang Binh airport|url=http://vietnamnews.vnanet.vn/2004-08/31/Stories/16.htm|publisher=Vietnam News|date=2004-09-01|accessdate=2008-02-27]

The construction schedule of the airport was late due to lack of capital from the government. It was scheduled to be completed in February 2008, but the deadline was extended again. cite news |first=T |last=T |authorlink= |coauthors= |title= Sân bay Đồng Hới sẽ được đưa vào khai thác trong dịp Tết Nguyên đán 2008
url= http://www.giaothongvantai.com.vn/Desktop.aspx/News/tin-tuc-su-kien/San_bay_Dong_Hoi_se_duoc_dua_vao_khai_thac_trong_dip_Tet_Nguyen_dan_2008/ |work=Ministry of Transport (Vietnam) |publisher= |date= October 21, 2007 | accessdate=2008-02-27
] According to the latest revised schedule, this airport will be completed and opened in 3rd quarter of 2008. cite news |first=Thanh |last=Chau|authorlink= |coauthors= |title= Cần đẩy nhanh tiến độ xây dựng sân bay Ðồng Hới|url=http://www.baoxaydung.com.vn/Main.aspx?MNU=1115&Style=1&ChiTiet=4646 |work=Ministry of Construction (Vietnam) |publisher= |date= January 16, 2008 | accessdate=2008-02-27] The airport was officially inaugurated on 18 May 2008 with first filght from Hanoi's Noi Bai International Airport. As of July 2008, the only airliner operating here is Vietnam Airlines with the only destination of Hanoi. There will be more air links between this airport and other airports in Vietnam soon. The airport has a designed capacity of 300 passengers per peak hour 500,000 passengers per annum. [citeweb|url=http://www.cpv.org.vn/english/tourism/details.asp?topic=178&subtopic=315&ID=BT2050837768|title=Dong Hoi airport put into use|publisher=CPV|date=2008-05-19] [citeweb|url=http://www.vnanet.vn/Home/EN/tabid/119/itemid/249772/Default.aspx|title=Dong Hoi airport put into use|publisher=Vietnam News|date=2008-05-19]

Hon La Port, a deep-water port is being built (as of March 2008) with a designed capacity of 10-12 million metric tons of cargo annully, capable to handle vessels up to 10,000 ton and will serve domestic and international cargo vessels [cite web|url=http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-3069037/Hon-La-Port-to-be.html|title=Hon La Port to be linked with mainland (Shipping News in brief)|publisher=Ecnext|date=2003-06-09|accessdate=2008-03-06] [cite web|url=http://vietnamnews.vnagency.com.vn/showarticle.php?num=05SOC280108|title=President Triet tours provinces|publisher=Vietnamnews|date=2008-01-28|accessdate=2008-03-06]


The provincial population is 807,787 (2000). There are 24 ethnic groups live here, predominantly Kinh race, Vân Kiều race and Chứt race. Other minorities are in very small quantity with 100 persons each. All of 23 minority ethnic groups live in mountainous areas. The provincial population is unevenly distributed, with more than 90% live in around 10% of the provincial land while just 10% live in 90% mountainous and sand areas.88.5% inhabitants lives in rural areas, 11.5% lives in urban areas. Labour force accounted for 47.08% of the population (380,306) in 2000. 72% labour works in rural sectors (agriculture and syvicuture), 10.9% works in urban area (industrial, service and commercial sectors). There are 10,720 university graduates and postgraduates (4,676 college graduates and 6042 university graduates) in 2000. Of the blue-collar workers, only 35,000 have passed appropriate training courses.


Archaeological excavation in this area proved that human living in what is now Quang Binh province in Stone Age period. Many artifacts such as ceramic vases, stone tools, china was unearthed in Quang Binh. [cite web|url=http://ejournal.anu.edu.au/index.php/bippa/article/viewFile/87/78 Da But Culture|title= Evidence for Culture Development in Vietnam during the Middle Holocene|accessdate=2008-03-05]

In 1926, a French female archaeologist, Madeleine Colani discovered and excavated many artifacts in caves and grottoes in west mountainous areas of Quang Binh. She concluded that there existed the Hòa Bình Culture in this region. Through C14 dating test, the artifacts here dated back to 10,509 (plus or minus 950) ago. Quang Binh, Nuoc non huyen dieu, Van Nghe Publishing Housr, 2000, p.14, 15, 16, 17]

From Quy Dat township (Tuyen Hoa) to southwest about 150 m, the Hum grotto contains many stone tools and animal stones belonged to an ancient human community.In side Khai grotto near Quy Dat township, the similar artifacts were also found. Especially, there are several ceramic of Dong Son Culture.

Besides, artifacts of Stone Age period were also unearthed in some grottoes in Quang Binh region. Owners of these artifacts lived in the caves and grottoes and hunted for their foods.

Under Hung kings, when Van Lang nation founded Văn Lang tribal coalition, Quảng Bình belonged to Việt Thường group. Under Lê Trung Hưng, this province was named Tiên Bình. The central and the south Vietnam (from Ngang mount pass to Binh Thuan Province was long Champa Kingdom. The wars between Champa kingdom and Dai Viet before then had happened very regularly, most of the wars logded by Champa kingdom who was then stronger than Dai Viet (Viet the great). Quang Binh was a conflicted territory between Champa and Dai Viet in hundreds of years and became Đại Việt's territory in 1306 after the political marriage of the Trần Dynasty princess Huyen Tran, to Champa king, Jaya Sinhavarman III (Vietnamese: Chế Mân). Princess Huyen Trần was king Trần Nhân Tông's daughter and king Trần Anh Tông's younger sister. Political matches made to acquire land was a traditional practice by Champa kings. Thanks to this marriage, Đại Việt acquired lands (as dowry) of what is now Quảng Bình province, Quảng Trị Province, and Thừa Thiên–Huế Province (then known respectively as Chau O and Chau Ri or Chau Ly). [ [http://library.thinkquest.org/25734/h/history10.html Tran Dynasty] ] [Cite web|title=Kingdom of Champa|url=http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Article/549713|publisher=ancientworld|accessdate=2008-03-06] During Trinh-Nguyen family war in 17th century, Gianh River in Quang Binh Province was made the frontier between Dang Trong (South Vietnam) and Dang Ngoai (North Vietnam). Dong Hoi city was built as a fortress to protect Nguyen's family Dang Trong from Dang Ngoai's attacks. ["Việt sử xứ Đàng Trong (Cochinchinese history) by Phan Khoang ] In 1604 the provincial name was changed to Quảng Bình. Lord Nguyễn Phúc Khoát divided Quảng Bình into 3 counties (dinh): dinh Bố Chính (formerly dinh Ngói), dinh Mười (or dinh Lưu Đồn), and dinh Quảng Bình (or dinh Trạm). [Châu Ô Tạp lục by Lê Quy Don]

The province was established in 1831, with the part of phủ Quảng Ninh, then added phủ Quảng Trạch. Under French colony (French Indochina, Quang Binh was situated in Annam of French Indochina and Dong Hoi airbase in Quang Binh was used by French army to attack Viet Minh in north-central Vietnam and Laotian Pathet army in north and south Laos. In 1954, the Geneva Accord was signed by France and Vietnam and invilved parties. According to which, Vietnam is temporarily divided into 2 part with Parallel 17 as frontier. The North Vietnam was under communist control while the South Vietnam was in anti-communist and French collaborators control and a universal election would be held in 1956 to unify the country. However, in the South, Ngo Dinh Diem held a referendum determined the form of government of the State of Vietnam, the nation that was to become the Republic of Vietnam and founded pro-American the Republic of Vietnam. cite book|title=Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War|first=Spencer C.|last=Tucker|year=2000|publisher=ABC-CLIO|pages=366|isbn=1-57607-040-0] Quang Binh belonged to the North Vietnam, just 50 km north of Seventeenth parallel. During Vietnam War, Quang Binh was the most severely destroyed province by US B 52 bombardments due to its location near to Seventeenth parallel and the important part of Ho Chi Minh Trail. [ [http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/chicagotribune/access/580550522.html?dids=580550522:580550522&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:AI&date=Feb+08%2C+1965&author=&pub=Chicago+Tribune&desc=U.+S.+Hits+Dong+Hoi+Again%2C+Russ+Say&pqatl=google U. S. Hits Dong Hoi Again, Russ Say] ] [ [http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F60617FF3C54137A93CAA9178AD85F478785F9 B-52's Raid Supply Routes South of the 20th Parallel; U. S. Planes, by Mistake, Bomb Base at Da Nang and Wound 10 Emergency Program Ordered Loss of A-7 Reported 2 Cambodian Villages Periled] ] . In 1976 Quảng Bình, Quảng Trị Province, Thừa Thiên Province Province were merged into Bình Trị Thiên Province, in 1990 Binh Tri Thien Province was split into three provinces as they were before. [Cite web|title=Provinces of Vietnam|url=http://www.statoids.com/uvn.html|pulisher=statoids|accessdate=2008-03-06]


External links

* [http://www.quangbinh.gov.vn/ Quang Binh province People's Committee]
* [http://www.threeland.com/dmz_quangtri_binh.htmDemilitarized Zone (DMZ)]

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