Odontogenic cyst

Odontogenic cyst
Odontogenic cyst
Classification and external resources

Odontogenic cyst is a closed sac, having a distinct membrane derived from rests of odontogenic epithelium. It may contain air, fluids, or semi-solid material. Intra-bony cysts are most common in the jaws, because the mandible and maxilla are the only bones with epithelial components. That odontogenic epithelium is critical in normal tooth development. However, epithelial rests may be the origin for the cyst lining later. Not all oral cysts are odontogenic cyst. For example, mucous cyst of the oral mucosa and nasolabial duct cyst are not of odontogenic origin.



Cystic neoplasm

Most cysts in the body are benign (dysfunctional) tumors, the result of plugged ducts or other natural body outlets for secretions. However sometimes these masses are considered neoplasm:

  • Keratocyst
  • Calcifying odotogenic cyst
    • According to the cuurent (2005) classification of the World Health Organization, both (parakeratizied) odontogenic keratocyst and calcifying odotogenic cyst have neoplastic characteristics, thus renamed as Keratocystic odontogenic tumor and Calcifying odotogenic tumor, respectively.
  • Cystic ameloblastoma
  • Long standing dentigerous cyst, odontogenic keratocyst, and residual cyst may have neoplastic potential converting into the locally aggressive ameloblastoma, or the malignant squamous cell carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma.


Treatment ranges from simple enucleation of the cyst to curettage to resection. For example, small radicular cyst may resolved after succsseful endodontic ("root-canal") treatment. Because of high recurrence potential and aggressive behaviour, curettage is recommended for keratocyst. However, the conservative enucleation is the treatmet of choice for most odontogenic cysts. The removed cyst must be evaluated by pathologist to confirm the diagnosis, and to rule out other neoplastic lesions with similar clinial or radiographic featres (e.g., cystic or solid ameloblastoma, central mucoepidermoid carcinoma). There are cysts, e.g. buccal bifurcation cyst with self-resolation nature, in which close observation can be employed unless the cyst is infected and symptomatic.[1]

See also