- Nuclear power plant
This article is about electricity generation from nuclear power. For the general topic of nuclear power, see Nuclear power.
A nuclear power plant (NPP) is a thermal power station in which the heat source is one or more nuclear reactors. As in a conventional thermal power station the heat is used to generate steam which drives a steam turbine connected to a generator which produces electricity.
Nuclear power plants are base load stations, which are best suited to constant power output.
- For more history, see nuclear reactor, nuclear power and nuclear fission.
Electricity was generated for the first time ever by a nuclear reactor on December 20, 1951 at the EBR-I experimental station near Arco, Idaho in the United States. On June 27, 1954, the world's first nuclear power plant to generate electricity for a power grid started operations at Obninsk, USSR. The world's first commercial scale power station, Calder Hall in England opened in October 17, 1956.
- This section has recently been translated from the German Wikipedia.
The conversion to electrical energy takes place indirectly, as in conventional thermal power plants: The heat is produced by fission in a nuclear reactor (in a coal power plant it would correspond to the boiler) and given to a heat transfer fluid - usually water (for a standard type light water reactor). Directly or indirectly water vapor-steam is produced. The pressurized steam is then usually fed to a multi-stage steam turbine. Steam turbines in Western nuclear power plants are among the largest steam turbines ever. After the steam turbine has expanded and partially condensed the steam, the remaining vapor is condensed in a condenser. The condenser is a heat exchanger which is connected to secondary side such as a river or a cooling tower. The water then pumped back into the nuclear reactor and the cycle begins again. The water-steam cycle corresponds to the Rankine cycle.
Nuclear reactorsMain article: Nuclear reactor
A nuclear reactor is a device to initiate and control a sustained nuclear chain reaction. The most common use of nuclear reactors is for the generation of electric energy and for the propulsion of ships.
The nuclear reactor is the heart of the plant. In its central part, the reactor core's heat is generated by controlled nuclear fission. With this heat, a coolant is heated as it is pumped through the reactor and thereby removes the energy from the reactor. Heat from nuclear fission is used to raise steam, which runs through turbines, which in turn powers either ship's propellers or electrical generators.
Since nuclear fission creates radioactivity, the reactor core is surrounded by a protective shield. This containment absorbs radiation and prevents radioactive material from being released into the environment. In addition, many reactors are equipped with a dome of concrete to protect the reactor against external impacts.
In nuclear power plants, different types of reactors, nuclear fuels, and cooling circuits and moderators are sometimes used.
Steam turbineMain article: Steam turbine
The object of the steam turbine is to convert the heat contained in steam into mechanical energy. The engine house with the steam turbine is usually structurally separated from the main reactor building. It is aligned to prevent debris from the destruction of a turbine in operation from flying towards the reactor.
In the case of a pressurized water reactor, the steam turbine hermetically separated from the nuclear system. To detect a leak in the steam generator and thus the passage of radioactive water at an early stage is the outlet steam of the steam generator mounted an activity meter. In contrast, boiling water reactors and the steam turbine with radioactive water applied and therefore part of the control area of the nuclear power plant.
GeneratorMain article: Electric generator
The generator converts kinetic energy supplied by the turbine into electrical energy. Low-pole AC synchronous generators of high rated power are used.
A cooling system removes heat from the reactor core and transports it to another area of the plant, where the thermal energy can be harnessed to produce electricity or to do other useful work. Typically the hot coolant is used as a heat source for a boiler, and the pressurized steam from that boiler powers one or more steam turbine driven electrical generators.
The reactor coolant pump in the case of the DWR has the task to circulate the coolant between the reactor and steam generators. In western nuclear power plants, the nuclear reactor is fed with four redundant pumps (loops), each separated by Redundancy structurally accommodated in the reactor building. The design of the pump corresponds to a Centrifugal with a one-piece forged body. The throughput is up to 10,000 l / s at a pressure of 175 bar and a maximum allowable temperature of 350 °C13. There is an increase in pressure through the main coolant pump when DWR indicates pressure loss in the reactor, steam generators and piping system. Even after the failure of the main coolant pumps (RESA is the result of) the circulation and thus the heat dissipation is by so-called Natural circulation guaranteed.
In the case of boiling water reactor, the reactor pressure vessel force circulation pumps to avoid core wings attached to their interpretation is approximately equal to those in a PWR. You are responsible for the safety of the plant is not absolutely necessary.
Besides these main coolant pump of a nuclear power plant has usually still have several emergency supplies at different pressure levels, the case of disturbances (see Design basis accident) maintain the cooling of the reactor core.
The pressure in the reactor pressure vessel at an incident, to limit upward, two independent safety valves are available. The pressure relief prevents bursting of pipes or reactor. The valves are in their capacity designed so that they can derive all of the supplied flow rates with little increase in pressure. In the case of the BWR, the steam is directed into the condensate chamber and condenses there. The chambers are on heat exchanger connected to the intermediate cooling circuit.
Should not close the safety valves, are very close again safety shut any, should, if necessary, prevent coolant accident. The non-closing of a safety valve led to a serious accident at Three Mile Island.
The Feedwater pump have the task of the water from the feedwater tank to the vapor pressure in the reactor and the steam generator to bring and promote a water with approximately 2200 kg / s. The power required amounts here to about 20 MW per pump. About the feed water system, the water level in the steam generator and nuclear reactor is controlled.
Emergency power supply
The emergency power supplies of a nuclear power plant are built up by several layers of redundancy, such as diesel generators, gas turbine generators and battery buffers. The battery backup provides uninterrupted coupling of the diesel/gas turbine units to the power supply network. If necessary, the emergency power supply allows the safe shut down of the nuclear reactor. Less important auxiliary systems such as, for example, heat tracing of pipelines are not supplied by these back ups. The majority of the required power is used to supply the feed pumps in order cool reactor and remove the decay heat after shut down.
People in a nuclear power plant
Nuclear power plants typically employ just under a thousand people per reactor (including security guards and engineers associated with the plant but possibly working elsewhere).
- Nuclear engineers
- Reactor operators
- Health physicists
- Emergency response team personnel
- Nuclear Regulatory Commission Resident Inspectors
In the United States and Canada, workers except for management, professional (such as engineers) and security personnel are likely to be members of either the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW) or the Utility Workers Union of America (UWUA).
EconomicsMain article: Economics of new nuclear power plants
The economics of new nuclear power plants is a controversial subject, since there are diverging views on this topic, and multi-billion dollar investments ride on the choice of an energy source. Nuclear power plants typically have high capital costs for building the plant, but low direct fuel costs (with much of the costs of fuel extraction, processing, use and long term storage externalized). Therefore, comparison with other power generation methods is strongly dependent on assumptions about construction timescales and capital financing for nuclear plants. Cost estimates also need to take into account plant decommissioning and nuclear waste storage costs. On the other hand measures to mitigate global warming, such as a carbon tax or carbon emissions trading, may favor the economics of nuclear power.
In recent years there has been a slowdown of electricity demand growth and financing has become more difficult, which has an impact on large projects such as nuclear reactors, with very large upfront costs and long project cycles which carry a large variety of risks. In Eastern Europe, a number of long-established projects are struggling to find finance, notably Belene in Bulgaria and the additional reactors at Cernavoda in Romania, and some potential backers have pulled out. Where cheap gas is available and its future supply relatively secure, this also poses a major problem for nuclear projects.
Analysis of the economics of nuclear power must take into account who bears the risks of future uncertainties. To date all operating nuclear power plants were developed by state-owned or regulated utility monopolies where many of the risks associated with construction costs, operating performance, fuel price, and other factors were borne by consumers rather than suppliers. Many countries have now liberalized the electricity market where these risks, and the risk of cheaper competitors emerging before capital costs are recovered, are borne by plant suppliers and operators rather than consumers, which leads to a significantly different evaluation of the economics of new nuclear power plants.
Following the 2011 Fukushima I nuclear accidents, costs are likely to go up for currently operating and new nuclear power plants, due to increased requirements for on-site spent fuel management and elevated design basis threats.
There are trades to be made between safety, economic and technical properties of different reactor designs for particular applications. Historically these decisions were often made in private by scientists, regulators and engineers, but this may be considered problematic, and since Fukushima, Chernobyl, and Three Mile Island, many involved now consider informed consent and morality should be primary considerations.
Nuclear power plants are some of the most sophisticated and complex energy systems ever designed. Any complex system, no matter how well it is designed and engineered, cannot be deemed failure-proof. Stephanie Cooke has said that:
The reactors themselves were enormously complex machines with an incalculable number of things that could go wrong. When that happened at Three Mile Island in 1979, another fault line in the nuclear world was exposed. One malfunction led to another, and then to a series of others, until the core of the reactor itself began to melt, and even the world's most highly trained nuclear engineers did not know how to respond. The accident revealed serious deficiencies in a system that was meant to protect public health and safety.
A fundamental issue related to complexity is that nuclear power systems have exceedingly long lifetimes. The timeframe involved from the start of construction of a commercial nuclear power station, through to the safe disposal of its last radioactive waste, may be 100 to 150 years.
Failure modes of nuclear power plants
There are concerns that a combination of human and mechanical error at a nuclear facility could result in significant harm to people and the environment:
Operating nuclear reactors contain large amounts of radioactive fission products which, if dispersed, can pose a direct radiation hazard, contaminate soil and vegetation, and be ingested by humans and animals. Human exposure at high enough levels can cause both short-term illness and death and longer-term death by cancer and other diseases.
It is impossible for a commercial nuclear reactor to explode like a nuclear bomb since the fuel is never sufficiently enriched for this to occur.
Nuclear reactors can fail in a variety of ways. Should the instability of the nuclear material generate unexpected behavior, it may result in an uncontrolled power excursion. Normally, the cooling system in a reactor is designed to be able to handle the excess heat this causes; however, should the reactor also experience a loss-of-coolant accident, then the fuel may melt or cause the vessel it is contained in to overheat and melt. This event is called a nuclear meltdown.
After shutting down, for some time the reactor still needs external energy to power its cooling systems. Normally this energy is provided by the power grid to that the plant is connected, or by emergency diesel generators. Failure to provide power for the cooling systems, as happened in Fukushima I, can cause serious accidents.
Nuclear safety rules in the United States "do not adequately weigh the risk of a single event that would knock out electricity from the grid and from emergency generators, as a quake and tsunami recently did in Japan", Nuclear Regulatory Commission officials said in June 2011.
Intentional cause of such failures may be the result of nuclear terrorism.
Vulnerability of nuclear plants to attack
Nuclear reactors become preferred targets during military conflict and, over the past three decades, have been repeatedly attacked during military air strikes, occupations, invasions and campaigns:
- In September 1980, Iran bombed the Al Tuwaitha nuclear complex in Iraq.
- In June 1981, an Israeli air strike completely destroyed Iraq’s Osirak nuclear research facility.
- Between 1984 and 1987, Iraq bombed Iran’s Bushehr nuclear plant six times.
- In Iraq in 1991, the U.S. bombed three nuclear reactors and an enrichment pilot facility.
- In 1991, Iraq launched Scud missiles at Israel’s Dimona nuclear power plant.
- In September 2007, Israel bombed a Syrian reactor under construction.
In the U.S., plants are surrounded by a double row of tall fences which are electronically monitored. The plant grounds are patrolled by a sizeable force of armed guards. The NRC's "Design Basis Threat" criteria for plants is a secret, and so what size of attacking force the plants are able to protect against is unknown. However, to scram (make an emergency shutdown) a plant takes fewer than 5 seconds while unimpeded restart takes hours, severely hampering a terrorist force in a goal to release radioactivity.
Attack from the air is an issue that has been highlighted since the September 11 attacks in the U.S. However, it was in 1972 when three hijackers took control of a domestic passenger flight along the east coast of the U.S. and threatened to crash the plane into a U.S. nuclear weapons plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The plane got as close as 8,000 feet above the site before the hijackers’ demands were met.
The most important barrier against the release of radioactivity in the event of an aircraft strike on a nuclear power plant is the containment building and its missile shield. Current NRC Chairman Dale Klein has said "Nuclear power plants are inherently robust structures that our studies show provide adequate protection in a hypothetical attack by an airplane. The NRC has also taken actions that require nuclear power plant operators to be able to manage large fires or explosions—no matter what has caused them."
In addition, supporters point to large studies carried out by the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute that tested the robustness of both reactor and waste fuel storage and found that they should be able to sustain a terrorist attack comparable to the September 11 terrorist attacks in the U.S. Spent fuel is usually housed inside the plant's "protected zone" or a spent nuclear fuel shipping cask; stealing it for use in a "dirty bomb" is extremely difficult. Exposure to the intense radiation would almost certainly quickly incapacitate or kill anyone who attempts to do so.
In September 2010, analysis of the Stuxnet computer worm suggested that it was designed to sabotage a nuclear power plant. Such a cyber attack would bypass the physical safeguards in place and so the exploit demonstrates an important new vulnerability.
In many countries, plants are often located on the coast, in order to provide a ready source of cooling water for the essential service water system. As a consequence the design needs to take the risk of flooding and tsunamis into account. The World Energy Council (WEC) argues disaster risks are changing and increasing the likelihood of disasters such as earthquakes, cyclones, hurricanes, typhoons, ﬂooding. Climate change and increased temperatures, lower precipitation levels and an increase in the frequency and severity of droughts may lead to fresh water shortages. Seawater is corrosive and so nuclear energy supply is likely to be negatively affected by the fresh water shortage. This generic problem may become increasingly significant over time. Failure to calculate the risk of flooding correctly lead to a Level 2 event on the International Nuclear Event Scale during the 1999 Blayais Nuclear Power Plant flood, while flooding caused by the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami lead to the Fukushima I nuclear accidents.
The design of plants located in seismically active zones also requires the risk of earthquakes and tsunamis to be taken into account. Japan, India, China and the USA are among the countries to have plants in earthquake-prone regions. Damage caused to Japan's Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant during the 2007 Chūetsu offshore earthquake underlined concerns expressed by experts in Japan prior to the Fukushima accidents, who have warned of a genpatsu-shinsai (domino-effect nuclear power plant earthquake disaster).
Nuclear safety systemsMain article: Nuclear safety systems
The three primary objectives of nuclear safety systems as defined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission are to shut down the reactor, maintain it in a shutdown condition, and prevent the release of radioactive material during events and accidents. These objectives are accomplished using a variety of equipment, which is part of different systems, of which each performs specific functions.
ControversyMain article: Nuclear power debate
The nuclear power debate is about the controversy which has surrounded the deployment and use of nuclear fission reactors to generate electricity from nuclear fuel for civilian purposes. The debate about nuclear power peaked during the 1970s and 1980s, when it "reached an intensity unprecedented in the history of technology controversies", in some countries.
Proponents argue that nuclear power is a sustainable energy source which reduces carbon emissions and can increase energy security if its use supplants a dependence on imported fuels. Proponents advance the notion that nuclear power produces virtually no air pollution, in contrast to the chief viable alternative of fossil fuel. Proponents also believe that nuclear power is the only viable course to achieve energy independence for most Western countries. They emphasize that the risks of storing waste are small and can be further reduced by using the latest technology in newer reactors, and the operational safety record in the Western world is excellent when compared to the other major kinds of power plants.
Opponents say that nuclear power poses many threats to people and the environment. These threats include health risks and environmental damage from uranium mining, processing and transport, the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation or sabotage, and the unsolved problem of radioactive nuclear waste. They also contend that reactors themselves are enormously complex machines where many things can and do go wrong, and there have been many serious nuclear accidents. Critics do not believe that these risks can be reduced through new technology. They argue that when all the energy-intensive stages of the nuclear fuel chain are considered, from uranium mining to nuclear decommissioning, nuclear power is not a low-carbon electricity source.
ReprocessingMain article: Nuclear reprocessing
Nuclear reprocessing technology was developed to chemically separate and recover fissionable plutonium from irradiated nuclear fuel. Reprocessing serves multiple purposes, whose relative importance has changed over time. Originally reprocessing was used solely to extract plutonium for producing nuclear weapons. With the commercialization of nuclear power, the reprocessed plutonium was recycled back into MOX nuclear fuel for thermal reactors. The reprocessed uranium, which constitutes the bulk of the spent fuel material, can in principle also be re-used as fuel, but that is only economic when uranium prices are high. Finally, the breeder reactor can employ not only the recycled plutonium and uranium in spent fuel, but all the actinides, closing the nuclear fuel cycle and potentially multiplying the energy extracted from natural uranium by more than 60 times.
Nuclear reprocessing reduces the volume of high-level waste, but by itself does not reduce radioactivity or heat generation and therefore does not eliminate the need for a geological waste repository. Reprocessing has been politically controversial because of the potential to contribute to nuclear proliferation, the potential vulnerability to nuclear terrorism, the political challenges of repository siting (a problem that applies equally to direct disposal of spent fuel), and because of its high cost compared to the once-through fuel cycle. The Obama administration stepped back from President Bush's plans for commercial-scale reprocessing and reverted to a program focused on reprocessing-related scientific research.
The Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage puts in place an international framework for nuclear liability. However states with a majority of the world's nuclear power plants, including the U.S., Russia, China and Japan, are not party to international nuclear liability conventions.
In the U.S., insurance for nuclear or radiological incidents is covered (for facilities licensed through 2025) by the Price-Anderson Nuclear Industries Indemnity Act.
Under the Energy policy of the United Kingdom through its Nuclear Installations Act of 1965, liability is governed for nuclear damage for which a UK nuclear licensee is responsible. The Act requires compensation to be paid for damage up to a limit of £150 million by the liable operator for ten years after the incident. Between ten and thirty years afterwards, the Government meets this obligation. The Government is also liable for additional limited cross-border liability (about £300 million) under international conventions (Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and Brussels Convention supplementary to the Paris Convention).
DecommissioningMain article: Nuclear decommissioning
Nuclear decommissioning is the dismantling of a nuclear power plant and decontamination of the site to a state no longer requiring protection from radiation for the general public. The main difference from the dismantling of other power plants is the presence of radioactive material that requires special precautions.
Generally speaking, nuclear plants were designed for a life of about 30 years. Newer plants are designed for a 40 to 60-year operating life.
Decommissioning involves many administrative and technical actions. It includes all clean-up of radioactivity and progressive demolition of the plant. Once a facility is decommissioned, there should no longer be any danger of a radioactive accident or to any persons visiting it. After a facility has been completely decommissioned it is released from regulatory control, and the licensee of the plant no longer has responsibility for its nuclear safety.
Historic accidentsMain article: Nuclear power accidents by country
The nuclear industry says that new technology and oversight have made nuclear plants much safer, but 57 accidents have occurred since the Chernobyl disaster in 1986. Two thirds of these mishaps occurred in the US. The French Atomic Energy Agency (CEA) has concluded that technical innovation cannot eliminate the risk of human errors in nuclear plant operation.
An interdisciplinary team from MIT have estimated that given the expected growth of nuclear power from 2005–2055, at least four serious nuclear power accidents would be expected in that period.
Flexibility of nuclear power plants
It is often claimed that nuclear stations are inflexible in their output, implying that other forms of energy would be required to meet peak demand. While that is true for the vast majority of reactors, this is no longer true of at least some modern designs.
Nuclear plants are routinely used in load following mode on a large scale in France. Unit A at the German Biblis Nuclear Power Plant is designed to in- and decrease his output 15 % per minute between 40 and 100 % of its nominal power. Boiling water reactors normally have load-following capability, implemented by varying the recirculation water flow.
Future power plants
A number of new designs for nuclear power generation, collectively known as the Generation IV reactors, are the subject of active research and may be used for practical power generation in the future. Many of these new designs specifically attempt to make fission reactors cleaner, safer and/or less of a risk to the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Passively safe plants (such as the ESBWR) are available to be built and other designs that are believed to be nearly fool-proof are being pursued. Fusion reactors, which may be viable in the future, diminish or eliminate many of the risks associated with nuclear fission.
The 1600 MWe European Pressurized Reactor reactor is being built in Olkiluoto, Finland. A joint effort of French AREVA and German Siemens AG, it will be the largest reactor in the world. In December 2006 construction was about 18 months behind schedule so completion was expected 2010-2011.
As of March, 2007, there are seven nuclear power plants under construction in India, and five in China.
Russia has begun building the world’s first floating nuclear power plant. The £100 million vessel, the Lomonosov, is the first of seven plants that Moscow says will bring vital energy resources to remote Russian regions.
By 2025, Southeast Asia nations would have a total of 29 nuclear power plants, Indonesia will have 4 nuclear power plants, Malaysia 4, Thailand 5 and Vietnam 16 from nothing at all in 2011.
In popular culture
- On the fourth season of the television show 24, Habib Marwan (and his associates) attempt to hijack and melt down every nuclear reactor in the United States, but all remain stable except one.
- The 1979 film The China Syndrome features an accident and implied core meltdown at a nuclear power plant.
- In the 2006 film, 10.5: Apocalypse, a moving trench heads toward the 2 largest nuclear reactors in the United States, located in Texas.
- Homer Simpson from the Simpsons works mainly at a nuclear power plant.
- List of nuclear reactors
- Nuclear power by country
- Nuclear Information and Resource Service
- Gerald W. Brown, American whistleblower on passive fire protection/circuit integrity deficiencies in US and Canadian plants
- Nuclear fuel cycle
- Containment building
- Safety engineering
- Nuclear Regulatory Commission of the USA
- Auxiliary feedwater
- Uranium market
- ^ World Nuclear Association, Nuclear Power in Russia, June 2006
- ^ 1956: Queen switches on nuclear power, BBC, 17/10/2005
- ^ "How nuclear power works". HowStuffWorks.com. http://science.howstuffworks.com/nuclear-power3.htm. Retrieved September 25, 2008.
- ^ a b c Kidd, Steve (January 21, 2011). "New reactors—more or less?". Nuclear Engineering International. http://www.neimagazine.com/story.asp?sectioncode=147&storyCode=2058653.
- ^ Ed Crooks (12 September 2010). "Nuclear: New dawn now seems limited to the east". Financial Times. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/ad15fcfe-bc71-11df-a42b-00144feab49a.html. Retrieved 12 September 2010.
- ^ The Future of Nuclear Power. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 2003. ISBN 0-615-12420-8. http://web.mit.edu/nuclearpower/. Retrieved 2006-11-10
- ^ Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2011). "The Future of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle". p. xv. http://web.mit.edu/mitei/research/studies/documents/nuclear-fuel-cycle/The_Nuclear_Fuel_Cycle-all.pdf.
- ^ Pandora's box: A is for Atom - Adam Curtis
- ^ a b Jan Willem Storm van Leeuwen (2008). Nuclear power – the energy balance
- ^ Diaz Maurin, François (26 March, 2011). "Fukushima: Consequences of Systemic Problems in Nuclear Plant Design". Economic & Political Weekly (Mumbai) 46 (13): 10–12. http://epw.in/epw/uploads/articles/15865.pdf.
- ^ Stephanie Cooke (2009). In Mortal Hands: A Cautionary History of the Nuclear Age, Black Inc., p. 280.
- ^ Union of Concerned Scientists: Nuclear safety
- ^ Globalsecurity.org: Nuclear Power Plants: Vulnerability to Terrorist Attack p. 3.
- ^ Safety of Nuclear Power Reactors, World Nuclear Association, http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf06.html
- ^ Matthew Wald (June 15, 2011). "U.S. Reactors Unprepared for Total Power Loss, Report Suggests". New York Times. http://green.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/06/15/u-s-reactors-unprepared-for-total-power-loss-report-suggests/.
- ^ a b Benjamin K. Sovacool (2011). Contesting the Future of Nuclear Power: A Critical Global Assessment of Atomic Energy, World Scientific, p. 192.
- ^ U.S. NRC: "Nuclear Security – Five Years After 9/11". Accessed 23 July 2007
- ^ Threat Assessment: U.S. Nuclear Plants Near Airports May Be at Risk of Airplane Attack, Global Security Newswire, June 11, 2003.
- ^ Newtan, Samuel Upton (2007). Nuclear War 1 and Other Major Nuclear Disasters of the 20th Century, AuthorHouse, p.146.
- ^ "STATEMENT FROM CHAIRMAN DALE KLEIN ON COMMISSION'S AFFIRMATION OF THE FINAL DBT RULE". Nuclear Regulatory Commission. http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/news/2007/07-013.html. Retrieved 2007-04-07.
- ^ "The Nuclear Fuel Cycle". Information and Issue Briefs. World Nuclear Association. 2005. http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf03.html. Retrieved 2006-11-10.
- ^ Lewis Z Koch (2004). "Dirty Bomber? Dirty Justice". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. http://thebulletin.metapress.com/content/96535n2426g5r807/?p=2fd635c1d55845dcafdfe9de61927e72&pi=0. Retrieved 2006-11-10.
- ^ "Was Stuxnet Built to Attack Iran's Nuclear Program". http://www.pcworld.com/businesscenter/article/205827/was_stuxnet_built_to_attack_irans_nuclear_program.html.
- ^ a b c d Dr. Frauke Urban and Dr. Tom Mitchell 2011. Climate change, disasters and electricity generation. London: Overseas Development Institute and Institute of Development Studies
- ^ COMMUNIQUE N°7 - INCIDENT SUR LE SITE DU BLAYAIS ASN, published 1999-12-30, accessed 2011-03-22
- ^ Jason Clenfield (March 17, 2011). "Japan Nuclear Disaster Caps Decades of Faked Reports, Accidents". Bloomberg Businessweek. http://www.businessweek.com/news/2011-03-17/japan-nuclear-disaster-caps-decades-of-faked-reports-accidents.html.
- ^ ABC News. Strong Quake Rocks Northwestern Japan. July 16, 2007.
- ^ Xinhua News. Two die, over 200 injured in strong quake in Japan. July 16, 2007.
- ^ Genpatsu-Shinsai: Catastrophic Multiple Disaster of Earthquake and Quake-induced Nuclear Accident Anticipated in the Japanese Islands (Abstract), Katsuhiko Ishibashi, 23rd. General Assembly of IUGG, 2003, Sapporo, Japan, accessed 2011-03-28
- ^ "Glossary: Safety-related". http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/basic-ref/glossary/safety-related.html. Retrieved 2011-03-20.
- ^ MacKenzie, James J. (December 1977). "Review of The Nuclear Power Controversy] by Arthur W. Murphy". The Quarterly Review of Biology 52 (4): 467–8. doi:10.1086/410301. JSTOR 2823429.
- ^ Walker, J. Samuel (10 January 2006). Three Mile Island: A Nuclear Crisis in Historical Perspective. University of California Press. pp. 10–11. ISBN 9780520246836. http://books.google.com/books?id=tf0AfoynG-EC.
- ^ In February 2010 the nuclear power debate played out on the pages of the New York Times, see A Reasonable Bet on Nuclear Power and Revisiting Nuclear Power: A Debate and A Comeback for Nuclear Power?
- ^ In July 2010 the nuclear power debate again played out on the pages of the New York Times, see We’re Not Ready Nuclear Energy: The Safety Issues
- ^ Kitschelt, Herbert P. (1986). "Political Opportunity and Political Protest: Anti-Nuclear Movements in Four Democracies" (PDF). British Journal of Political Science 16 (1): 57. doi:10.1017/S000712340000380X. http://www.marcuse.org/harold/hmimages/seabrook/861KitscheltAntiNuclear4Democracies.pdf.
- ^ Jim Falk (1982). Global Fission: The Battle Over Nuclear Power, Oxford University Press.
- ^ U.S. Energy Legislation May Be `Renaissance' for Nuclear Power.
- ^ Bernard Cohen. "The Nuclear Energy Option". http://www.phyast.pitt.edu/~blc/book/BOOK.html. Retrieved 2009-12-09.
- ^ "Nuclear Energy is not a New Clear Resource.". Theworldreporter.com. 2010-09-02. http://www.theworldreporter.com/2010/09/nuclear-energy-is-not-green.html.
- ^ Greenpeace International and European Renewable Energy Council (January 2007). Energy Revolution: A Sustainable World Energy Outlook, p. 7.
- ^ Giugni, Marco (2004). Social protest and policy change: ecology, antinuclear, and peace movements in comparative perspective. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 44–. ISBN 9780742518278. http://books.google.com/books?id=Kn6YhNtyVigC&pg=PA44.
- ^ Stephanie Cooke (2009). In Mortal Hands: A Cautionary History of the Nuclear Age, Black Inc., p. 280.
- ^ Sovacool, Benjamin K. (2008). "The costs of failure: A preliminary assessment of major energy accidents, 1907–2007". Energy Policy 36 (5): 1802–20. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2008.01.040.
- ^ Jim Green . Nuclear Weapons and 'Fourth Generation' Reactors Chain Reaction, August 2009, pp. 18-21.
- ^ Kleiner, Kurt (October 2008). "Nuclear energy: assessing the emissions" (PDF). Nature Reports 2: 130–1. http://www.nature.com/climate/2008/0810/pdf/climate.2008.99.pdf. ] ', Vol. , , pp. .
- ^ Mark Diesendorf (2007). Greenhouse Solutions with Sustainable Energy, University of New South Wales Press, p. 252.
- ^ Mark Diesendorf. Is nuclear energy a possible solution to global warming?
- ^ Andrews, A. (2008, March 27). Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing: U.S. Policy. CRS Report For Congress. Retrieved March 25, 2011, from www.fas.org/sgp/crs/nuke/RS22542
- ^ MOX fuel can extend the energy extracted by about 12% and slightly reduces plutonium stocks. Information from the World Nuclear Association about MOX
- ^ "Supply of Uranium". World Nuclear Association. http://world-nuclear.org/info/inf75.html. Retrieved 2010-01-29.
- ^ Harold Feiveson et al (2011). "Managing nuclear spent fuel: Policy lessons from a 10-country study". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. http://www.thebulletin.org/web-edition/features/managing-nuclear-spent-fuel-policy-lessons-10-country-study.
- ^ "Adieu to nuclear recycling". Nature. (9 July 2009) 460, 152. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v460/n7252/full/460152b.html.
- ^ Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, IAEA, 12/11/1977
- ^ Nuclear section of the UK Department of Trade & Industry's website
- ^ Tomoko Yamazaki and Shunichi Ozasa (June 27, 2011). "Fukushima Retiree Leads Anti-Nuclear Shareholders at Tepco Annual Meeting". Bloomberg. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-06-26/fukushima-retiree-to-lead-anti-nuclear-motion.html.
- ^ Mari Saito (May 7, 2011). "Japan anti-nuclear protesters rally after PM call to close plant". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/05/07/us-japan-nuclear-idUSTRE74610J20110507.
- ^ a b Benjamin K. Sovacool (January 2011). "Second Thoughts About Nuclear Power". National University of Singapore. p. 8. http://www.spp.nus.edu.sg/docs/policy-briefs/201101_RSU_PolicyBrief_1-2nd_Thought_Nuclear-Sovacool.pdf.
- ^ admin (2009-10-13). "Nuclear Power Is Flexible - Claverton Energy Group". Claverton-energy.com. http://www.claverton-energy.com/nuclear-power-is-flexible-in-its-output.html. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
- ^ Steve Kidd. Nuclear in France - what did they get right? Nuclear Engineering International, June 22, 2009.
- ^ Robert Gerwin: Kernkraft heute und morgen: Kernforschung und Kerntechnik als Chance unserer Zeit. (english Nuclear power today and tomorrow: Nuclear research as chance of our time) In: Bild d. Wissenschaft. Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1971. ISBN 3421022623.
- ^ "Next-generation Nuclear Technology: The ESBWR" (PDF). American Nuclear Society. http://www.ans.org/pubs/magazines/nn/docs/2006-1-3.pdf. Retrieved September 25, 2008.
- ^ "How to Build a Safer Reactor". TIME.com. 1991-04-29. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,972829,00.html. Retrieved September 25, 2008.
- ^ "Fusion energy: the agony, the ecstasy and alternatives". PhysicsWorld.com. http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/print/1866. Retrieved September 25, 2008.
- ^ Finland nuclear reactor delayed again, Business Week, 4 December 2006
- ^ Areva to take 500 mln eur charge for Finnish reactor delay, Forbes, 5 December 2006
- ^ http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=9125556
- ^ Floating nuclear power stations raise spectre of Chernobyl at sea
- ^ "Indonesia planning to have four nuke power plants by 2025". http://www.antaranews.com/en/news/76867/indonesia-planning-to-have-four-nuke-power-plants-by-2025. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
- IPPNW - International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (Nobel Peace Prize 1985)
- MAPW - Information on Australia's research reactor
- Freeview Video 'Nuclear Power Plants - What's the Problem' A Royal Institution Lecture by John Collier by the Vega Science Trust.
- Non Destructive Testing for Nuclear Power Plants
- Web-based simple nuclear power plant game
- Uranium.Info publishing uranium price since 1968.
- Information about all NPP in the world
- U.S. plants and operators
- SCK.CEN Belgian Nuclear Research Centre in Mol.
- Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage - World Nuclear Association
- Glossary of Nuclear Terms
- Protection against Sabotage of Nuclear Facilities: Using Morphological Analysis in Revising the Design Basis Threat From the Swedish Morphological Society
- Critical Hour: Three Mile Island, The Nuclear Legacy, And National Security Online book by Albert J. Fritsch, Arthur H. Purcell, and Mary Byrd Davis (2005). Updated edition June 2006
- An Interactive VR Panorama of the cooling towers at Temelin Nuclear Power Plant, Czech Republic
- Interactive map with all nuclear power plants US and worldwide (Note: missing many plants)
- Nuclear power stations
- American inventions
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.