- Sokollu Mehmed Pasha
Sokollu Mehmed Pasha
Sokolovići, Bosnia Province, Ottoman Empire
(modern Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Died 1579 (aged 73)
Constantinople, Ottoman Empire
Allegiance Ottoman Empire Rank Grand Vizier
Sokollu Mehmed Pasha (Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian: Mehmed-paša Sokolović, Cyrillic: Мехмед-паша Соколовић; born as Bajica or Bajo Nenadić (Бајица Ненадић, Бајо) 1506 - 1579) was a 16th-century Ottoman statesman. Mehmed was taken away at an early age as part of the devshirmeh system of Ottoman collection of young boys to be raised to serve as a janissary.
He rose through the ranks of the Ottoman imperial system, eventually holding positions as commander of the imperial guard (1543–1546), High Admiral of the Fleet (1546–1551), Governor-General of Rumelia (1551–1555), Third Vizier (1555–1561), Second Vizier (1561–1565) and as Grand Vizier (1565–1579) (for a total of 14 years, 3 months, 17 days) under three Sultans: Suleiman the Magnificent, Selim II, and Murad III. He was assassinated in 1579, ending a near 15-year rule as de facto ruler of the Ottoman Empire.
- 1 Biography
- 2 Heritage and legacy
- 3 See also
- 4 References and notes
- 5 External links
Little is known for certain about Mehmed's birth and early life. Turkish chroniclers and historians only took notice of him after he had attained great standing in the Ottoman hierarchy. The facts regarding his youth may further be obscured by popular myths from later ages, making it difficult for historians to separate them. Actually, all three ethnic groups from modern Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bosniaks, Croats and Serbs, celebrate Sokollu Mehmet Paşa as their own, which is supported by both Western and Ottoman sources.
Mehmed was born into an Orthodox family in or near Sokolovići (which under Ottoman rule in Turkish was called Sokol), near modern-day Rudo. Said to have come from a modest shepherd family, Sokollu Mehmed Paşa's name derives from his place of birth (-lu indicates in Turkish from a place, in this case Sokollu or from Sokol). While some other sources suggest that the Sokolović family was descended from feudal Bosnian nobility, this was a common myth regarding various eminent families of the time. Research into the roots of Ottoman Bosnia's aristocratic families seems to discredit this thesis.
Mehmed's birth name was probably Bajica, while his father was named Dimitrije. He had two brothers and a sister, as well as at least one uncle. However, details about his family and relations are disputed on two major counts. One is his relationship to Makarije Sokolović. Traditionally identified as his brother, today some historians consider him to have been either a nephew or distant relative. The second is the matter of Mehmed's uncle. By some accounts, his uncle was a monk at the Mileševa monastery who had his two nephews, Bajica and Makarije (taken to be brothers according to this view), educated there. Other sources suggest that his uncle converted to Islam early.
In 1516, an Ottoman expedition gathering up boys as part of the devshirmeh system reached Sokolovići. According to folklore, Bajica was either simply taken from his father's home or, due to a reputation as a gifted child, specifically chosen by the commanding Yeshilche Mehmed Bey. The story further holds that his uncle unsuccessfully appealed to the authorities, even offering gold for the child's return.
He accepted the name of Mehmed and first in Edirne and then in Constantinople got a thorough Ottoman education as a recruit, first as an apprentice Janissary (in Turkish Acemi Oglan); then in Enderun in Topkapı Palace.
As proclaimed in Baghdad on 13 March 1535, Mehmed was sent to be one of the seven retainers of the Imperial Treasurer Iskender Celebi. On Iskender's death, Mehmed returned to Constantinople. In addition to Turkish, he spoke Serbo-Croatian (Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian), Persian, Arabic, Venetian-Italian and Neo-Latin.
Mehmed in 1541 first became an Imperial Chamberlain and then the head of the Sultan's squires. In these positions he became very close to Sultan Suleiman and learnt from him.
As a soldier, Mehmed excelled at the Battle of Mohács and the first Siege of Vienna. In 1546 the Kapudan Pasha Hayreddin Barbarossa died and Mehmed was appointed his successor. In this capacity he was present at the naval expedition against Trablus (present day Libya). During his five years in this position, Mehmed Paşa greatly strengthened the arsenal of the Naval fleet.
Mehmed became Beylerbey (Governor-General) of Rumelia in 1551, headquartered in Sofia. While he was visiting the area of his birth, his mother recognized him by the birthmark on his face and embraced her child for the first time in more than thirty years.
After the death of John Zápolya, Duke of Erdelj (Transylvania) the King of Hungary and the Habsburg Emperor wanted to annex his lands, and civil war erupted between duchess Isabella (wife of John Zápolya, and daughter of King of Poland) and her supporters under command of Petar Petrovic (predominantly Serbs), and the George Martinuzzi (or Đorđe Utješenović, later created a Cardinal as reward for his accomplishments in this conflict). The Habsburg Emperor sent a condottiero (Bartolomeo Castoldo) and more than 7,000 soldiers (mercenaries) who beat the Serbs under Petar Petrović and killed more than 2,500 of them near Chanad (Csanad). The Sultan ordered Sokollu Mehmed Paşa to move immediately to Hungary. Mehmed assembled an army of 90,000 soldiers and 54 cannons and marched into Hungary. He also summoned the Pashas of Smederevo, Vidin and Nicopolis. When his forces reached Slankamen in Srem, George Martinuzzi begged Mehmed not to attack Transylvania, arguing that it had remained in the possession of the Sultan. Mehmed rejected negotiation proposals, led Ottoman forces into Transylvania and soon captured 16 cities, including Bečej, Bečkerek, Cenad and Linova. Martinuzzi responded by raising a rebellion in Transylvania, mustering one soldier from every household. Mehmed had to fall back and once again laid siege to Temišvar on 14 October with the main part of his army and 50 cannons. Mehmed demanded surrender, but the city's commander (Stevan Loshonci) replied with a recommendation for Mehmed's return to Rumelia.
Mehmed besieged the city until 28 October but could not seize it. Retreating to Belgrade, he initiated peace negotiations with the Monk-Viceroy. Martinuzzi was assassinated on 17 December 1551, and peace talks ended. Sokollu Mehmed Paşa renewed his military campaign in 1552, seizing Temišvar, Hollakö, Bujak, Ságh, Gürmath, the whole of Banat and Szolnak. Mehmed Paşa's forces then joined with those of Ahmet Paşa advancing towards Eger. Mehmed's army assembled on the Hill of Egid but could not take the city itself.
In 1553, Sultan Suleiman declared war on Persia, when the Persian Shah Tahmasp wanted to take advantage of the Sultan's preoccupation with Hungary and started making armed incursions against Ottoman areas. Sokollu Mehmed Paşa was dispatched to spend the winter of 1553/1554 in Tokat to take charge of the war against Persia. In June 1554, Sokollu Mehmed Paşa with the Rumeli (European) levies joined the army of the Sultan in the field near Susehri. He and the Rumeli contingent showed great successes in this campaign of Sultan Suleiman (called the Nakhchevan Campaign by the Turkish historians).
Impressed by Sokollu Mehmed Paşa, the Sultan made him the Third Vizier in 1555 and he was given a place in the Imperial Council. His position as Governor-General of Rumelia was given to a Herzegovinian Janissary aga, Pertev Paşa, Mehmed's companion while they had served under Iskender Chelebi.
Almost immediately Sokollu Mehmed Paşa had to quell a rebellion around Balkans and Salonica. The rebellion was raised by Mustafa Bey, who pretended to be the Sultan's late son Mustafa. Sokollu Mehmed Paşa took 4,000 horsemen and 3,000 janissaries and quelled the rebellion. Mustafa Bey was hanged.
Mehmed's brother, Topuzli-Makarije, was an of the Serb Chilandar on Athos. Makarije Sokolović paid a visit to his brother's palace in Constantinople in 1557. Mehmed discussed with his brother the possibilities of renewing the Serbian Orthodox Church. Later that same year, Mehmed Paşa issued an edict (Ferman) declaring the restoration of the Peć Patriarchate, with Makarije Sokolović as Patriarch Makarije I. The edict also guaranteed the rights and religious freedom of all inhabitants of the Ottoman Empire.
When the former Grand Vizier Ahmet Paşa was deposed and hanged, he was replaced by Rüstem Paşa, who had numerous enemies. One of them was Lala Mustafa who instigated the Sultan's third son, Bayezid, then Beylerbey of Karaman, to raise a rebellion against his brother Selim, who was to inherit the Imperial throne. Sokollu Mehmed mustered an army and went to Konya, where he defeated Bayezid's forces decisively in May 1559. Bayezid fled to Persia. Mehmed Paşa remained in Asia and spent the winter negotiating with the Persian Shah regarding Bayezid's extradition. After long negotiations, the Shah extradited Bayezid and his four sons, who were subsequently executed.
Grand Vizier Rustem Pasha died in 1561. He was succeeded by the Second Vizier, Semiz Ali Paşa. Sokollu Mehmed Paşa in turn became Second Vizier, while Pertev Paşa became Third Vizier.
Sokollu Mehmed Paşa married Sultan Suleiman's granddaughter – Prince Selim II's daughter, Ismihan Sultan (some sources read her name as Esma Han Sultan) on 17 August 1562. Mehmed spent the following years in peace, governing and administrating the realm.
In 1564, Mehmed's nephew, Sokollu Mustafa Bey, became Viceroy of Bosnia.
In June 1565, Grand Vizier Semiz Ali Paşa died. Sultan Suleiman had much confidence in Sokollu Mehmed Paşa and promoted him to this position.
War with the Habsburgs
At the end of 1565 and the beginning of 1566, tensions between the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II and Sultan Suleiman grew. Maximilian wanted the cities previously taken by the Bosniak commander Hasan Predojević restored to him. When negotiations failed, Maximilian declared war. Grand Vizier Sokollu Mehmed Paşa ordered his nephew, Sokollu Mustafa Beg of Bosnia, to advance against Maximilian. Mustafa managed to capture the cities of Krupa and Dvor na Uni. The Sultan immediately declared war against the Holy Roman Empire, and Grand Vizier Mehmed began the preparations for the army's advance. Mehmed went ahead, preparing for the arrival of the Sultan, who was leading the main part of the Ottoman forces. After 50 days, they arrived in Belgrade.
Passing through Zemun, one part of the army crossed Varaždin and struck Egar before proceeding towards Vienna. The Croatian nobleman and general in service of Habsburg Monarchy Nikola Šubić Zrinski (Miklós Zrínyi), a member of the Zrinski noble family, had defeated Sanjak Bey Tirhal Mohammed, executing him and his son, and capturing 17,000 ducats. This incurred the Sultan's wrath, and he dispatched Mehmet's forces to besiege Szigetvár. The Sultan remained in Harsang. Budin's commander Arslan Paşa lost the cities of Palota, Veszprém and Tata. The Sultan sent a platoon of 15 troopers to bring him Arslan Paşa's head, but Arslan had already left his forces three days earlier and was on his way to the Sultan. The Sultan showed Mehmed a letter in which Arslan had insulted Mehmed. On 3 August, Arslan reported to Mehmed's tent with 15 heavily armed horsemen. Sokollu Mehmed criticized Arslan for his conduct, accused him of treason and stripped him of his post, giving it instead to the Bosnian Governor-General, Sokollu Mustafa Bey.
The Sultan arrived with Mehmed's sons, Kurt Bey and Hasan Bey, at Pécs. Finally, the large Ottoman force, numbered from 100,000–300,000 soldiers and 300 cannons, laid siege to Szigetvár. The Battle of Szigetvár was an Ottoman victory, with heavy losses on both sides. Both commanders died during the battle. While Zrinsky was killed in the final charge, Suleiman the Magnificent died in his tent from natural causes, before the Turks achieved victory. According to Robert William Fraser, more than 10,000 large cannon balls where shot into the fortress during the siege.
Sokollu Mehmed Paşa had all witnesses to the Sultan's death executed. He announced that Suleiman was too sick to perform his duties and that he would be healing in Szigetvár, while Mehmed would be acting on his behalf. Mehmed rewarded those involved in the capture of Szigetvár and increased the soldiers' wages. He sent a part of the army to capture Bobovac. The Tartars, however, spread the news of the Sultan's death, and Sokullu Mustafa Bey wrote to Prince Selim about his father's death. Selim marched immediately towards Srem. Upon his arrival in Vukovar, Mehmed Paşa wrote him that it would be best if he went to Belgrade to greet his army for a more formal and effective take-over of the Empire. Selim returned to Belgrade, and Mehmed ordered the army to march towards Belgrade. 40 days after the Sultan's death, in October 1566, the army set out for Belgrade. At the fourth stop on the way to Belgrade, 48 days after Suleiman's death, Mehmed announced the Sultan's death ceremonially, during the traditional reading of the Koran. Mehmed had Suleiman's body embalmed and ordered the army to proceed to meet the new Sultan in Belgrade. After three marches, the Army arrived to Sremska Mitrovica. Mehmed reminded Selim II to send gifts to the Viziers, Pashas and the army, but Selim's advisors convinced the new Sultan not to do so. Sokollu Mehmed Paşa went to Belgrade and swore allegiance to Selim II as his Sultan, and Selim confirmed him as his Grand Vizier.
Expecting a mutiny among the military, Mehmed Paşa had Suleiman's body sent to Constantinople to restore order amongst the janissaries and other officials, who now demanded more compensation for their past efforts. In Belgrade, Sultan Selim II called a council, as even some of his closest officials were openly mocking him. Mehmed Paşa assured him that he would manage everything effectively, and dispatched gifts to the military ranks, rewarding them handsomely to regain their loyalty.
On the 5th day of their stay in Belgrade, the Sultan, Sokollu Mehmed Paşa and the army departed for Constantinople. Before they managed to return to the Empire's capital, a mutiny broke out and the road to the city was blocked. Sokollu Mehmed Paşa and Ahmed Paşa had to bribe their way into the city. Order was restored after Mehmed convinced the Sultan to promise to send handsome gifts and higher wages to the janissaries. The next morning, each janissary was given standard pay of 40 ducats and an additional 20 ducats as an accession bonus. Soon, other branches of the military, spahies and mercenaries, demanded higher wages as well. Mehmed arrested and replaced their agas at once, finally stopping all dissent.
Two years after Selim's accession, on 17 February 1568, Sokollu Mehmed Paşa succeeded in concluding at Edirne a peace treaty with Emperor Maximilian II, whereby the Emperor agreed to pay an annual "honary present" of 30,000 ducats.
Wars with Russia, Venice and the Holy League
Mehmed Paşa had little success against Russia, and the first encounter between the Ottoman Empire and her future northern rival presaged the disaster to come. A plan had been devised at Constantinople for connecting the Volga and Don by a canal, and in the summer of 1569 a large force of janissaries and cavalry was sent to lay siege to Astrakhan and begin the canal works, while an Ottoman fleet besieged Azov. However, a sortie of the garrison of Astrakhan drove back the besiegers. A Russian army of 15,000 men attacked and scattered the workmen and the Tatar force sent for their protection, and the Ottoman fleet was destroyed by a storm. Early in 1570 the ambassadors of Ivan the Terrible concluded at Constantinople a treaty which restored friendly relations between the Sultan and the Tsar.
Selim II was a very weak ruler, and Grand Vizier Sokollu Mehmed Paşa held the real power in the administration, thanks to the reforms of Selim's predecessor, Suleiman the Magnificent. Although the government was weakening, Sokollu Mehmed Paşa managed to expand the borders of the Ottoman Empire greatly. In 1570 he dispatched Sinan Paşa to conquer Arabia. Sinan Paşa solemnly declared the reign of Sultan Selim II in Mecca upon finishing his military campaign in Hejaz and Yemen.
In 1571-1572, on the order Mehmed's wife Ismihan Sultan (or Esma Han Sultan), the famous architect Mimar Sinan built the Sokollu Mehmed Paşa Mosque, which an authoritative guide to Constantinople states to be "The most beautiful of the smaller mosques in Istanbul, a minor masterpiece by Sinan".
During the rule of Sokollu Mehmed Pasha as Grand Vizier, the Ottoman navy and army took Cyprus in 1571 from Venice. The administration of Cyprus was given to Mehmed's old friend, the Arab Ahmed Paşa. The invasion of Cyprus led to the formation of a so-called Holy League, comprising the Pope, Spain with Naples and Sicily, the Republic of Venice, Genoa, Tuscany, and the Maltese Knights. On 7 October 1571, the coalition's fleet under the command of Don Juan of Austria decisively defeated the Ottoman fleet under Müezzinzade Ali Paşa in the Battle of Lepanto.
Sokollu Mehmed Paşa immediately ensured that Piyale Paşa and Uluç Ali Reis, the new Grand Admiral, were provided with all the necessary means and resources to rebuild the Empire's shattered fleet. By July 1572 the Ottoman fleet already numbered 250 fully equipped warships "including eight of the largest capital ships ever seen in the Mediterranean". It is reported in Turkish chronicles that Sokollu Mehmed Pasha had said to the Venetian Ambassador "By conquering Cyprus we have cut off one of your arms; at Inebahti by defeating our navy you have only shaved off our beard. However, you know that a cut-off arm cannot be replaced but shaved-off beard grows thicker." Indeed, the Holy League (1571) ships had to retire to ports and Ottoman naval supremacy in the Mediterranean was restored. The new Ottoman Navy that started a naval expedition in summer of 1573 under Kılıç Ali Pasha found no rivals in the Mediterranean and ravaged the coasts of Sicily and southern Italy and in 1574 it captured Tunis from the Hafsids, who for some time had been supported by Spanish troops, thus restoring Ottoman domination of Western Mediterranean.
On March 3, 1573, Venetian Republic signed a new peace treaty with Ottomans under Mehmed Pasha, thereby bringing the Holy League to an end, accepting the loss of Cyprus and increasing the tribute payments. He also extended for eight more years the peace treaty with the Holy Roman Empire and maintained good relations with France, Poland and Russia. He was preparing for a fresh attack on Venice when the Sultan's death on 12 December 1574 cut short his plans.
Sokollu Mehmed Pasha's wealth reached its peak around 1573. The worth of his personal property (cash, goods, accounts, objects) amounted to 18 million ducats. Mehmed received the standard Grand Vizier's wage of 20 ducats every day. His wealth increased greatly through gifts and taxes of Ottoman officials: anyone who became a Vizier had to pay Mehmed Pasha 50,000-60,000 ducats, and every Governor-General had to pay 15,000-20,000 or even sometimes 30,000-40,000 ducats upon ascending to office. The provincial governor of Egypt at Cairo alone dispatched 100,000 ducats to the Grand Vizier every year.
On 30 August 1574, Grand Vizier Sokollu Mehmed Pasha installed his nephew Antonije Sokolović, then the Metropolitan of Hum, as the new Eastern Orthodox Archbishop of Ochryd. On 23 October the same year, upon Peć Patriarch Makarije's death, Antonije became the new Serbian Orthodox Christian Patriarch of Peć. Antonije died soon, in 1575, and was replaced by yet another one of Mehmed's nephews, Gerasim Sokolović.
When Sultan Selim II died, Sokollu Mehmed Paşa again kept this secret until the Selim's oldest son Murad arrived from Manisa. Mehmed Pasha bowed to the new Sultan, Murad III, and remained Grand Vizier. He now had to cope with the ascendancy of the political influences of Palace women, first with Sultan's mother Nurbanu Sultan and then his wife of Venetian origin, Safiye Sultan. Murad III gradually soured on Mehmed's overwhelming power within the Empire, and Mehmed's influence declined.
Sokollu Mehmed Pasha was involved in the Polish Crown's succession disputes in 1576 and 1577, but this did not reach greater measures.
Sokollu Mehmed Pasha signed numerous treaties of friendship with Venice, Florence, Spain, England and Switzerland. He also managed to force a number of European states to pay tribute. Austria paid 9,000 ducats; Transylvania 3,000; Wallachia 7,000; Moldavia 3,000. Eventually, even Venice had to pay him 4,000 ducats annually. This altogether gave him an annual income of 31,000 ducats in gold.
Sultan Murad III began to limit Sokollu Mehmed Pasha's powers by slowly removing his allies from high offices. Mehmed was known to be opposed to the war with Persia which started in 1578. The state secretary Feridun, Mehmed Paşa's veteran from the siege of Szigetvár, was sent to Belgrade, away from Constantinople. Mehmed's faithful Arab friend, the Governor-General of Cyprus, was lynched by mutinous soldiers. Mehmed's greatest rivals, Hamid Efendi and Piyale Paşa, arranged the execution of the Grand Vizier's protector, Michael Cantakuzines. On 10 October 1578, Sokollu Mustafa Bey, Mehmed Paşa's nephew and Governor-General of Budin, was assassinated. On the anniversary of this day, on 10 October 1579, Sokollu Mehmed Paşa had his servant Hasan Bey read to him about the Battle of Kosovo.
The next day, on 11 October, a mentally unstable dervish demanded to see the Grand Vizier. Sokollu Mehmed Paşa allowed the dervish to enter his quarters, whereupon the dervish took out a knife and stabbed the Grand Vizier. After three hours, Sokollu Mehmed Paşa died. There are some who claim that the assassin was a janissary in disguise in employment of Safiye Sultan, the wife of Murad III. Also, some sources claim that he was a target of Hashshashin agent, as he was opposed to war with Persia where this order was stationed which was not in their interest, although this is a very controversial claim as this order was destroyed by Mongols long time before.
He is buried at his complex, Sokollu Mehmed Paşa Külliyesi at the back of Eyüp Mosque, in Constantinople, at the Sokollu Mehmed Paşa Türbe built by famous architect Mimar Sinan for him c. 1572. His wife Ismihan (or Esma Han) is buried near him and in the little garden of the Türbe are buried the family and descendants of Sokollu Mehmed Paşa. After his death, the religious freedom which he gave to the inhabitants of the Ottoman Empire was re-guaranteed.
Heritage and legacy
Sokollu Mehmed Pasha has left numerous architecturally well known buildings in Constantinople and in Ottoman lands of his day. A few of the most noteworthy can be cited here.
Sokollu Mehmed Paşa Mosque and the complex built at Kadirga district of İstanbul by architect Mimar Sinan is considered to be the most beautiful of the smaller mosques in İstanbul . It is well known for unusually fine ordering of medrese (cells and lecture hall) over the entry stairs; for its lofty elegant interior; the first (but then well-copied) hooded fountain; ogival arches of the arcades; but above all the fine and well deservedly famed Iznik tiles. In İstanbul at Azapkapi district he also has another mosque, also known as the Azapkapi Mosque, built by Sinan in 1577-1578, which is called most important Ottoman monument in Galata. In Eyub district of İstanbul, there is the Sokollu Mehmed Paşa Kulliyesi again built by Sinan c.1572, which is a complex including a medrese, a school and his tomb. On the main highway between the two Ottoman capitals of İstanbul and Edirne, at Luleburgaz there is well-known Sokollu Mehmed Paşa Complex of a caravanserai, bathhouse, mosque, madrasah, a school, market streets and private apartments for Sultan's use (when it became a palace) built in 1549 and extended at 1569, both times by Sinan. He has further complexes built at Havsa, a city on the Istanbul-Edirne highway and in Payas, in southern Turkey near Antakya. Again, built by Sinan and known by the name of Sokollu Mehmed Paşa are the bridges at Alpullu, Luleburgaz and Corlu. There are in Havsa, Yesildirek (İstanbul), Edirne and Luleburgaz public bathhouses that were built by Sinan in the name Sokollu Mehmed Paşa.
His most renowned endowment is an eleven-arched bridge in his home town Višegrad. Building and history of the Višegrad bridge is the topic of the world renowned novel The Bridge on the Drina (Serbo-Croatian: Na Drini ćuprija - На Дрини ћуприја), written by Ivo Andrić, a Yugoslav novelist of Bosnian Serb origins For that novel, Andrić was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature. His life also interested Meša Selimović. There were numerous Serbian, Croatian and Bosnian legends on the bridge's construction. According to one, Mehmed Paşa built the bridge in his son's name. Another is present through Ivo Andrić's "Bridge on the Drina". It tells the tale of Rade the Architect who built the bridge.
In his native village of Sokolovići he has built a mosque, maktab and musafirhana (guest house). His foundations are spread over Edirne, Halep, Medina, Bečkerek, Belgrade and alongside Bosnia, where he is especially remembered for his bridges. Mecca and Constantinople contained numerous mosques alone. Apart from the Višegrad bridge, Arslanagić bridge in Trebinje, Vizier's bridge in Podgorica, the bridge on Žepa and Kozja ćuprija in Sarajevo are attributed to his name. Between Višegrad and Sarajevo, on Glasinac, he built a Road of four paces and a castle. Of the castle, only a drinking-fountain remained – the Mehmed Sokolović's han.
Preceded by Commander of the Imperial Squires
Succeeded by Preceded by
High Admiral of the Fleet
Preceded by Beylerbey (Governor-General) of Rumelia
Preceded by Third Vizier
Succeeded by Preceded by
Semiz Ali Pasha
Semiz Ali Pasha
References and notes
- ^ "Sokolović" means "son of Sokol" and sokol means falcon in several Slavonic languages. "Sokollu" in Turkish means from Sokol, Sokol being a place name.
- ^ a b c d e f g h Imamović, Mustafa (1996). Historija Bošnjaka. Sarajevo: BZK Preporod. ISBN 9958-815-00-1
- ^ a b c d e Kočan, Ismet (Dec. 21, 2005). Mit i stvarnost - Mehmed-paša Sokolović, Večernje Novosti Online.
- ^ a b Samarčić, Radovan (2004). At that time, all people of Bosnia were regarded as Bosniaks! Sokollu Mehmet Paşa (3rd ed.) Istanbul: Aralik. ISBN 975-8823-62-0
- ^ Shelton, Edward (1867). The book of battles: or, Daring deeds by land and sea. London: Houlston and Wright. pp. 82–83. http://books.google.com/books?id=S7oBAAAAQAAJ.
- ^ Turnbull, Stephen R (2003). The Ottoman Empire, 1326–1699. New York (USA): Osprey Publishing Ltd. p. 57. ISBN 0-415-96913-1.
- ^ a b c J.Freely (1998) Istanbul: The Imperial City, Penguin
- ^ Sokollu Mehmet Pasa Mosque 1572 photos
- ^ S.J.Shaw,  History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, pp.178
- ^ Andricećeva prijateljstva, Radovan Popović, page 240
- Bosniak Mehmed Pasha Sokolovic - Article by Prof. Muhamed Filipovic (historian) examining history of Bosniak hero Mehmed-pasa Sokolovic
- "Myth and Reality – Mehmed Pasha Sokolović", Ismet Kočan, feuilleton in Večernje Novosti (in Serbian).
- Photos of Sokollu Mehmet Pasa Mosque at Kadirga, Constantinople
Grand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire Grand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire – Rise (1299–1453)
Hacıkemaleddinoğlu Alaeddin Pasha (1320–1331) · Mahmudoğlu Nizamüddin Ahmed Pasha (1331–1348) · Hacı Pasha (1348–1349) · Sinanüddin Fakih Yusuf Pasha (1349–1364) · Çandarlı Kara Halil Hayreddin Pasha (1364–1387) · Çandarlı Ali Pasha (1387–1406) · Osmancıklı Imamzade Halil Pasha (1406–1413) · Amasyalı Bayezid Pasha (1413–1421) · Çandarlı Ibrahim Pasha (1421–1429) · Osmancıklı Koca Mehmed Nizamüddin Pasha (1429–1439) · Çandarlı Halil Pasha (1439–1453)
Grand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire – Growth (1453–1606)Zagan Pasha (1453–1456) • Veli Mahmud Pasha (1456–1466) • Rum Mehmed Pasha (1466–1469) • Ishak Pasha (1469–1472) • Veli Mahmud Pasha (1472–1474) • Gedik Ahmed Pasha (1474–1477) • Karamani Mehmed Pasha (1477–1481) • Ishak Pasha (1481–1482) • Davud Pasha (1482–1497) • Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha (1497–1498) • Çandarlı Ibrahim Pasha (2nd) (1498–1499) • Mesih Pasha (1499–1501) • Hadim Ali Pasha (1501–1503) • Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha (1503–1506) • Hadim Ali Pasha (1509–1511) • Koca Mustafa Pasha (1511–1512) • Dukakinzade Ahmed Pasha (1512–1515) • Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha (1515–1516) • Hadim Sinan Pasha (1516–1517) • Yunus Pasha (1517) • Piri Mehmed Pasha (1517) • Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha (1523–1536) • Ayas Mehmed Pasha (1536–1539) • Lûtfi Pasha (1539–1541) • Hadim Suleiman Pasha (1541–1544) • Rüstem Pasha (1544–1553) • Kara Ahmed Pasha (1553–1555) • Rüstem Pasha (1555–1561) • Semiz Ali Pasha (1561–1565) • Sokollu Mehmed Pasha (1565–1579) • Şemsi Pasha (1579–1580) • Lala Kara Mustafa Pasha (1580) • Koca Sinan Pasha (1580–1582) • Siyavush Pasha (1582–1584) • Özdemiroğlu Osman Pasha (1584–1585) • Hadim Mesih Pasha (1585–1586) • Siyavush Pasha (1586–1589) • Koca Sinan Pasha (1589–1591) • Ferhad Pasha (1591–1592) • Siyavush Pasha (1592–1593) • Koca Sinan Pasha (1593–1595) • Ferhad Pasha (1595) • Lala Mehmed Pasha (1595) • Koca Sinan Pasha (1595–1596) • Damat Ibrahim Pasha (1596) • Cigalazade Yusuf Sinan Pasha (1596) • Damat Ibrahim Pasha (1596–1597) • Hadim Hasan Pasha (1597–1598) • Cerrah Mehmed Pasha (1598–1599) • Damat Ibrahim Pasha (1599–1601) • Yemişçi Hasan Pasha (1601–1603) • Yavuz Ali Pasha (1603–1604) • Sokolluzade Lala Mehmed Pasha (1604–1606)
Dervish Mehmed Pasha (1606) • Kuyucu Murad Pasha (1606–1611) • Nasuh Pasha (1611–1614) • Kara Mehmed Pasha (1614–1616) • Damat Halil Pasha (1616–1619) • Kara Mehmed Pasha (1619–1619) • Güzelce Ali Pasha (1619–1621) • Ohrili Hüseyin Pasha (1621) • Dilaver Pasha (1621–1622) • Kara Davud Pasha (1622) • Mere Hüseyin Pasha (1622) • Lefkeli Mustafa Pasha (1622) • Gürcü Hadim Mehmed Pasha (1622–1623) • Mere Hüseyin Pasha (1623) • Kemankeş Kara Ali Pasha (1623–1624) • Çerkes Mehmed Pasha (1624–1625) • Filibeli Hafız Ahmed Pasha (1625–1626) • Damat Halil Pasha (1626–1628) • Gazi Ekrem Hüsrev Pasha (1628–1631) • Hafiz Ahmed Pasha (1631–1632) • Topal Recep Pasha (1632) • Tabanıyassı Mehmed Pasha (1632–1637) • Bayram Pasha (1637–1638) • Tayyar Mehmed Pasha (1638) • Kemankeş Mustafa Pasha (1638–1644) • Civankapıcıbaşı Sultanzade Semiz Mehmed Pasha (1644–1645) • Nevesinli Salih Pasha (1645–1647) • Kara Musa Pasha (1647) • Hezarpare Ahmed Pasha (1647–1648) • Mevlevi Mehmed Pasha (1648–1649) • Kara Dev Murad Pasha (1649–1650) • Melek Ahmed Pasha (1650–1651) • Siyavush Pasha (1651) • Gürcü Mehmed Pasha (1651–1652) • Tarhoncu Ahmed Pasha (1652–1653) • Bıyıklı Koca Derviş Mehmed Pasha (1653–1654) • Ipşiri Mustafa Pasha (1654–1655) • Kara Dev Murad Pasha (1655) • Ermeni Süleyman Pasha (1655) • Gazi Hüseyin Pasha (1656) • Zurnazen Mustafa Pasha (1656) • Siyavush Pasha (1656) • Boynuyaralı Mehmed Pasha (1656) • Köprülü Mehmed Pasha (1656–1661) • Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed Pasha (1661–1676) • Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha (1676–1683) ) • Bayburtlu Kara Ibrahim Pasha (1683–1685) • Sarı Süleyman Pasha (1685–1687) • Abaza Siyavuş Pasha (1687–1688) • Ayaşlı İsmail Pasha (1688) • Tekirdağlı Bekri Mustafa Pasha (1688–1689) • Köprülü Fazıl Mustafa Pasha (1689–1691) • Bahadırzade Arabacı Ali Pasha (1691–1692) • Merzifonlu Çalık Hacı Ali Pasha (1692–1693) • Bozoklu (Bıyıklı) Mustafa Pasha (1694) • Sürmeli Ali Pasha (1694–1695) • Elmas Mehmed Pasha (1695–1697) • Köprülü Amcazade Hacı Hüseyin Pasha (1697–1702)
Daltaban Mustafa Pasha (1702–1703) • Rami Mehmed Pasha (1703) • Sührablı Kavanoz Nişancı Ahmed Pasha (1703) • Moralı Damat Hasan Pasha (1703–1704) • Kalaylıkoz Hacı Ahmed Pasha (1704) • Baltaci Mehmed Pasha (1704–1706) • Çorlulu Ali Pasha (1706–1710) • Köprülü Numan Pasha (1710) • Baltaci Mehmed Pasha (1710–1711) • Gürcü Ağa Yusuf Pasha (1711–1712) • Silahdar Süleyman Pasha (1712–1713) • Kel Hoca Ibrahim Pasha (1713) • Silahdar Damat Ali Pasha (1713–1716) • Hacı Halil Pasha (1716–1717) • Tevkii Nişancı Mehmed Pasha (1717–1718) • Nevşehirli Damat Ibrahim Pasha (1718–1730) • Silahdar Damat Mehmed Pasha (1730–1731) • Kabakulak Ibrahim Pasha (1731) • Topal Osman Pasha (1731–1732) • Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha (1732–1735) • Gürcü Ismail Pasha (1735–1736) • Silahdar Seyyid Mehmed Pasha (1736–1737) • Muhsinzade Abdullah Pasha (1737) • Yeğen Mehmed Pasha (1737–1739) • Hacı İvazzade Mehmed Pasha (1739–1740) • Nişancı Ahmed Pasha (1740–1742) • Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha (1742–1743) • Seyyid Hasan Pasha (1743–1746) • Tiryaki Hacı Mehmed Pasha (1746–1747) • Boynueğri Seyyid Abdullah Pasha (1747–1750) • Divitdar Mehmed Emin Pasha (1750–1752) • Çorlulu Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha (1752–1755) • Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha (1755) • Naili Abdullah Pasha (1755) • Silahdar Bıyıklı Ali Pasha (1755) • Yirmisekizzade Mehmed Said Pasha (1755–1756) • Çorlulu Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha (1756–1757) • Koca Ragıp Pasha (1757–1763) • Tevkii Hamza Hamid Pasha (1763) • Çorlulu Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha (1763–1765) • Muhsinzade Mehmed Pasha (1765–1768) • Silahdar Hamza Mahir Pasha (1768) • Yağlıkçızade Nişancı Hacı Mehmed Emin Pasha (1768–1769) • Moldovancı Ali Pasha (1769) • Ivazzade Halil Pasha (1769–1770) • Silahdar Mehmed Pasha (1770–1771) • Muhsinzade Mehmed Pasha (1771–1774) • Safranbolulu Izzet Mehmed Pasha (1774–1775) • Moralı Derviş Mehmed Pasha (1775–1777) • Darendeli Cebecizade Mehmed Pasha (1777–1778) • Kalafat Mehmed Pasha (1778–1779) • Silahdar Karavezir Seyyid Mehmed Pasha (1779–1781) • Safranbolulu Izzet Mehmed Pasha (1781–1782) • Yeğen Hacı Mehmed Pasha (1782) • Halil Hamid Pasha (1782–1785) • Hazinedar Şahin Ali Pasha (1785–1786) • Koca Yusuf Pasha (1786–1789) • Kethüda Meyyit Hasan Pasha (1789) • Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha (1789–1790) • Çelebizade Şerif Hasan Pasha (1790–1791) • Koca Yusuf Pasha (1791–1792)Damad Melek Mehmed Pasha (1792–1794) • Izzet Mehmed Pasha (1794–1798) • Kör Yusuf Ziyaüddin Pasha (1798–1805) • Hafiz Ismail Pasha (1805–1806) • Ibrahim Hilmi Pasha (1806–1807) • Çelebi Mustafa Pasha (1807–1808) • Alemdar Mustafa Pasha (1808) • Çavuşbaşı Memiş Pasha (1808–1809) • Kör Yusuf Ziyaüddin Pasha (1809–1811) • Laz Aziz Ahmed Pasha (1811–1812) • Hursid Pasha (1812–1815) • Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (1815–1818) • Dervish Mehmed Pasha (1818–1820) • Seyyid Ali Pasha (1820–1821) • Benderli Ali Pasha (1821) • Hacı Salih Pasha (1821–1822) • Deli Abdullah Pasha (1822–1823) • Silahdar Ali Pasha (1823) • Mehmed Said Galip Pasha (1823–1824) • Mehmed Selim Pasha (1824–1828) • Darendeli Mehmed Pasha (1828–1829) • Reşid Mehmed Pasha (1829–1833) • Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (1833–1839) • Husrev Pasha (1839–1840) • Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (1840–1841) • Darendeli Mehmed Pasha (1841–1842) • Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (1842–1846) • Mustafa Reshid Pasha (1846–1848) • Ibrahim Sarim Pasha (1848) • Mustafa Reshid Pasha (1848–1852) • Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (1852) • Mustafa Reshid Pasha (1852) • Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (1852) • Damad Mehmed Ali Pasha (1852–1853) • Mustafa Naili Pasha (1853–1854) • Kıbrıslı Mehmed Emin Pasha (1854) • Mustafa Reshid Pasha (1854–1855) • Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (1855–1856) • Mustafa Reshid Pasha (1856–1857) • Mustafa Naili Pasha (1857) • Mustafa Reshid Pasha (1857–1858) • Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (1858–1859) • Kıbrıslı Mehmed Emin Pasha (1859) • Mehmed Rushdi Pasha (1859–1860) • Kıbrıslı Mehmed Emin Pasha (1860–1861) • Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (1861) • Mehmed Fuad Pasha (1861–1866) • Yusuf Kamil Pasha (1863) • Mehmed Fuad Pasha (1863–1866) • Mehmed Rushdi Pasha (1866–1867) • Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (1866–1871) • Mahmud Nedim Pasha (1871–1872) • Midhat Pasha (1872) • Mehmed Rushdi Pasha (1872–1873) • Ahmed Esad Pasha (1873) • Şirvanlızade Mehmed Rüşdi Pasha (1873–1874) • Hüseyin Avni Pasha (1874–1875) • Ahmed Esad Pasha (1875) • Mahmud Nedim Pasha (1875–1876) • Mehmed Rushdi Pasha (1876–1876) • Midhat Pasha (1876–1877) • Ibrahim Edhem Pasha (1877–1878) • Ahmed Hamdi Pasha (1878) • Ahmed Vefik Pasha (1878) • Mehmed Sadık Pasha (1878) • Mehmed Rushdi Pasha (1878) • Saffet Pasha (1878) • Hayreddin Pasha (1878–1879) • Ahmed Arifi Pasha (1879) • Mehmed Said Pasha (1879–1880) • Kadri Pasha (1880) • Mehmed Said Pasha (1880–1882) • Abdurrahman Nureddin Pasha (1882) • Mehmed Said Pasha (1882) • Ahmed Vefik Pasha (1882) • Mehmed Said Pasha (1882–1885) • Kâmil Pasha (1885–1891) • Ahmed Cevat Pasha(1891–1895) • Mehmed Said Pasha (1895) • Kâmil Pasha (1895) • Halil Rifat Pasha (1895–1901) • Mehmed Said Pasha (1901–1903) • Mehmed Ferid Pasha (1903–1908) • Mehmed Said Pasha (1908) • Kâmil Pasha (1908–1909) • • Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha (1909) • Ahmed Tevfik Pasha (1909) • Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha (1909–1910) • Ibrahim Hakki Pasha (1910–1911) • Mehmed Said Pasha (1911–1912) • Gazi Ahmed Muhtar Pasha (1912) • Kâmil Pasha (1912–1913) • Mahmud Shevket Pasha (1913) • Said Halim Pasha (1913–1917) • Mehmed Talat Pasha (1917–1918) • Ahmed Izzet Pasha (1918) • Ahmed Tevfik Pasha (1918–1919) • Damad Ferid Pasha (1919) • Ali Riza Pasha (1919–1920) • Salih Hulusi Pasha (1920) • Damad Ferid Pasha (1920) • Ahmed Tevfik Pasha (1920–1922)
Seamen of the Ottoman Empire Kapudan PashasZagan Pasha · Veli Mahmud Pasha · Gedik Ahmed Pasha · Mesih Pasha · Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha · Süleyman Pasha · Barbaros Hayreddin Pasha · Sokollu Mehmed Pasha · Sinan Pasha · Piyale Pasha · Müezzinzade Ali Pasha · Kılıç Ali Pasha · Cigalazade Yusuf Sinan Pasha · Kemankeş Mustafa Pasha · Gazi Hüseyin Pasha · Kara Musa Pasha · Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha · Mezzo Morto Hüseyin Pasha · Baltaci Mehmed Pasha · Koca Bekir Pasha · Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha · Koca Mehmet Husrev Pasha Other important seamenKemal Reis · Piri Reis · Aydın Reis · Turgut Reis · Kurtoğlu Muslihiddin Reis · Salih Reis · Seydi Ali Reis · Murat Reis · Kurtoğlu Hızır ReisCategories:
- 1506 births
- 1579 deaths
- 16th-century Ottoman grand viziers
- Converts to Islam from Eastern Orthodoxy
- Ottoman people of Serbian descent
- Bosnia and Herzegovina soldiers
- Bosniak history
- History of Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Bosnian nobility
- Serbian Muslims
- Serbian soldiers
- Ottoman Serbia
- Ottoman Slavs
- Suleiman the Magnificent
- Grand viziers of Süleyman I
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