- Murad III
Murad III His Imperial Majesty Grand Sultan, Commander of the Faithful and Successor of the Prophet of the Lord of the Universe Reign 1574–95 Period Growth of the Ottoman Empire Full Name Murad III Born 4 July 1546 Birthplace Bozdağan or Manisa Died 15/16 January 1595 Place of death Topkapı Palace of Constantinople Predecessor Selim II Successor Mehmed III Royal House House of Osman Dynasty Ottoman Dynasty
Born in Bozdağan or Manisa, Murad III was the eldest son of sultan Selim II (1566–74), and succeeded his father in 1574. Murad began his reign by having his five younger brothers strangled. His authority was undermined by the harem influences, more specifically, those of his mother and later of his favorite wife Safiye Sultan. The power had only been maintained under Selim II by the genius of the all-powerful Grand Vizier Mehmed Sokollu who remained in office until his assassination in October 1579. During his reign the northern borders with the Austro-hungarian empire were defended by the Bosniak kapetan Hasan Predojević. The reign of Murad III was marked by wars with Safavids and Habsburgs and Ottoman economic decline and institutional decay. The Ottomans also faced defeats during battles such as the Battle of Sisak.
Murad took great interest in the arts, particularly miniatures and books. He actively supported the court Society of Miniaturists, commissioning several volumes including the Siyer-i Nebi, the most heavily illustrated biographical work on the life of Muhammad, the Book of Skills, the Book of Festivities and the Book of Victories. He had two large alabaster urns transported from Pergamon and placed on two sides of the nave in the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople and a large wax candle dressed in tin which was donated by him to the Rila monastery in Bulgaria is on display in the monastery museum.
Numerous envoys and letters were exchanged between Elizabeth I and Sultan Murad III. In one correspondence, Murad entertained the notion that Islam and Protestantism had "much more in common than either did with Roman Catholicism, as both rejected the worship of idols", and argued for an alliance between England and the Ottoman Empire. To the dismay of Catholic Europe, England exported tin and lead (for cannon-casting) and ammunitions to the Ottoman Empire, and Elizabeth seriously discussed joint military operations with Murad III during the outbreak of war with Spain in 1585, as Francis Walsingham was lobbying for a direct Ottoman military involvement against the common Spanish enemy. This diplomacy would be continued under Murad's successor Mehmed III, by both the sultan and Safiye Sultan alike.
Orhan Pamuk's historical novel Benim Adım Kırmızı (My Name is Red, 1998) takes place at the court of Murad III, during nine snowy winter days of 1591, which the writer uses in order to convey the tension between East and West.
Murad IIIBorn: 4 July 1546 Died: 15 January 1595[aged 48]
- ^ Marriott, John Arthur. The Eastern Question (Clarendon Press, 1917), 96.
- ^ Pamuk, Orhan. My Name is Red, Alfred A. Knopf, 2010. ISBN 9780307593924
- ^ See A. D. Alderson, The structure of the Ottoman dynasty [Oxford: Clarendon, 1956], Table XXXI et seq., for details.
- ^ The Jamestown project by Karen Ordahl Kupperman
- ^ Kupperman, p.40
- ^ Kupperman, p.41
- ^ The Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol.7, Edited by Hugh Chisholm, (1911), 3; Constantinople, the capital of the Turkish Empire...
- ^ Britannica, Istanbul:When the Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923, the capital was moved to Ankara, and Constantinople was officially renamed Istanbul in 1930.
Regnal titles Preceded by
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
12 December 1574 – 15 January 1595
Sunni Islam titles Preceded by
Caliph of Islam
12 December 1574 – 15 January 1595
Ottoman Sultans / Caliphs Dynasty · Family tree (detailed) · Family tree (simplified) · Line of successionOsman I · Orhan · Murad I · Bayezid I · Interregnum · Mehmed I · Murad II · Mehmed II · Murad II · Mehmed II · Bayezid II · Selim I · Suleiman I · Selim II · Murad III · Mehmed III · Ahmed I · Mustafa I · Osman II · Mustafa I · Murad IV · Ibrahim · Mehmed IV · Suleiman II · Ahmed II · Mustafa II · Ahmed III · Mahmud I · Osman III · Mustafa III · Abdülhamid I · Selim III · Mustafa IV · Mahmud II · Abdülmecid I · Abdülaziz · Murad V · Abdülhamid II · Mehmed V · Mehmed VI · Abdülmecid II (Caliph) Related Templates: Claimants · Valide Sultans
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