- North Germanic languages
North Germanic Scandinavian Geographic
Northern Europe Linguistic classification: Indo-European
- North Germanic
Proto-language: Proto-Norse Subdivisions: ISO 639-5: gmq
North Germanic languages
Continental Scandinavian languages:DanishNorwegianSwedish
Insular Scandinavian languages:FaroeseIcelandic
The North Germanic languages or Scandinavian languages, the languages of Scandinavians, make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages. The language group is sometimes referred to as the Nordic languages, a direct translation of the most common term used among Danish, Swedish and Norwegian scholars and laypeople. In Scandinavia, Scandinavian languages is also used as a term referring specifically to the mutually intelligible languages of the three Scandinavian countries, and is thus used in a more narrow sense as a subset of the Nordic languages. The term Scandinavian arose in the 18th century, as a result of the early linguistic and cultural Scandinavist movement, referring to the peoples, cultures and languages of the three Scandinavian countries and stressing their common heritage.
The term "North Germanic languages" is used in genetic linguistics, while the term "Scandinavian languages" appears in studies of the modern standard languages and the dialect continuum of Scandinavia.
Approximately 20 million people in the Nordic countries have a Scandinavian language as their mother tongue, including a Swedish minority in Finland. Languages belonging to the North Germanic language tree are, to some extent, spoken on Greenland and by emigrant groups mainly in North America and Australia.
- 1 History
- 2 Number of speakers
- 3 Classification
- 4 Family tree
- 5 Other languages in Scandinavia
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
Origins and characteristics
The Germanic languages are traditionally divided into three groups: West, East and North Germanic. Their exact relation is difficult to determine from the sparse evidence of runic inscriptions, and they remained mutually intelligible to some degree during the Migration Period, so that some individual varieties are difficult to classify. Dialects with the features assigned to the northern group formed from Proto-Germanic in the late Pre-Roman Iron Age.
From around the year 200 AD, speakers of the North Germanic branch became distinguishable from the other Germanic language speakers. The early development of this language branch is attested through Runic inscriptions.
- The retraction of Proto-Germanic ē (/ɛː/, also written ǣ) to ā.
- Proto-Germanic *jēraN ("year") > North/West Germanic *jāraN > North Germanic *āra > Old Norse ár, and > West Germanic *jāra > Old High German jār, Old English ġēar /jæːɑr/. Compare Gothic jēr.
- The raising of /ɔː/ to /oː/ (and word-finally to /uː/). The original vowel remained when nasalised *ōN /ɔ̃ː/ and when before /z/, and was then later lowered to /ɑː/.
- Proto-Germanic *gebō ("gift", /ˈɣeβɔː/) > North/West Germanic *gebu > North Germanic *gjavu > (by u-umlaut) *gjǫvu > Old Norse gjǫf, and > West Germanic *gebu > Old English giefu. In Gothic, the result was a low vowel instead: giba.
- Proto-Germanic *tungōN ("tongue", /ˈtuŋgɔ̃ː/) > late North/West Germanic *tungā > *tunga > Old Norse tunga, Old High German zunga, Old English tunge (unstressed a > e). Compare Gothic tuggō.
- Proto-Germanic *gebōz ("of a gift", /ˈɣeβɔːz/) > late North/West Germanic *gebāz > North Germanic *gjavaz > Old Norse gjafar, and > West Germanic *geba > Old High German geba, Old English giefe (unstressed a > e). Compare Gothic gibōs.
- The development of i-umlaut.
- The rhotacism of /z/ to /r/, with presumably a rhotic fricative of some kind as an earlier stage.
- This change probably affected West Germanic much earlier and then spread from there to North Germanic, but failed to reach East Germanic which had already split off by that time. This is confirmed by an intermediate stage ʀ, clearly attested in late runic East Norse at a time when West Germanic had long merged the sound with /r/.
- The development of the demonstrative pronoun ancestral to English this.
Some have argued that after East Germanic broke off from the group, the remaining Germanic languages, the Northwest Germanic languages, divided into four main dialects: North Germanic, and the three groups conventionally called "West Germanic", namely
- North Sea Germanic (Ingvaeonic, ancestral to Anglo-Frisian and Low German)
- Weser-Rhine Germanic (Istvaeonic, ancestral to Low Franconian)
- Elbe Germanic (Irminonic, ancestral to High German)
Under this view, the properties that the West Germanic languages have in common separate from the North Germanic languages are not inherited from a "Proto-West-Germanic" language, but rather spread by language contact among the Germanic languages spoken in central Europe, not reaching those spoken in Scandinavia.
Unique North Germanic features
Some innovations are not found in West and East Germanic such as:
- Sharpening of geminate /jj/ and /ww/ according to Holtzmann's law
- Occurred also in East Germanic, but with a different outcome.
- Proto-Germanic *twajjôN ("of two") > Old Norse tveggja, Gothic twaddjē, but > Old High German zweiio
- Word-final devoicing of stops.
- Proto-Germanic *band ("I/he bound") > *bant > Old West Norse batt, Old East Norse bant, but Old English band
- Loss of medial /h/ with compensatory lengthening of the preceding vowel and the following consonant, if present.
- Proto-Germanic *nahtuN ("night", accusative) > *nāttu > (by u-umlaut) *nǭttu > Old Norse nótt
- /ɑi̯/ > /ɑː/ before /r/ (but not /z/)
- Proto-Germanic *sairaz ("sore") > *sāraz > *sārz > Old Norse sárr, but > *seira > Old High German sēr.
- With original /z/ Proto-Germanic *gaizaz > *geizz > Old Norse geirr.
- General loss of word-final /n/, following the loss of word-final short vowels (which are still present in the earliest runic inscriptions).
- Proto-Germanic *bindanaN > *bindan > Old Norse binda, but > Old English bindan.
- This also affected stressed syllables: Proto-Germanic *in > Old Norse í
- Vowel breaking of /e/ to /jɑ/ except after w, j or l (see "gift" above).
- The diphthong /eu/ was also affected (also l), shifting to /jɒu/ at an early stage. This dipththong is preserved in Old Gutnish and survives in Modern Gutnish. In other Norse dialects, the /j/-onset and length remained, but the dipthong simplified resulting in variously /juː/ or /joː/.
- This affected only stressed syllables. The word *ek ("I"), which could occur both stressed and unstressed, appears varyingly as ek (unstressed, with no breaking) and jak (stressed, with breaking) throughout Old Norse.
- Loss of initial /j/ (see "year" above), and also of /w/ before a round vowel.
- Proto-Germanic *wulfaz > early North Germanic wulfaz > late ulfz > Old Norse ulfr
- The development of u-umlaut, which rounded stressed vowels when /u/ or /w/ followed in the next syllable. This followed vowel breaking, with ja /jɑ/ being u-umlauted to jǫ /jɒ/.
After the Proto-Norse and Old Norse periods, the North Germanic languages developed into an East Scandinavian branch, consisting of Danish and Swedish; and a West Scandinavian branch, consisting of Norwegian, Faroese and Icelandic. Norwegian settlers brought Old West Norse to Iceland and the Faroe islands around 800 AD. Of the modern Scandinavian languages, written Icelandic is closest to this ancient language. An additional language, known as Norn, developed on Orkney and Shetland after Vikings had settled there around 800 AD, but this language became extinct around 1700.
In medieval times, speakers of all the Scandinavian languages could understand one another to a significant degree and it was often referred to as a single language, called the "Danish tongue" until the 13th century by some in Sweden and Iceland. In the 16th century, many Danes and Swedes still referred to North Germanic as a single language, which is stated in the introduction to the first Danish translation of the Bible and in Olaus Magnus' A Description of the Northern Peoples. Dialectal variation between west and east in Old Norse however was certainly present during the Middle Ages and three dialects had emerged: Old West Norse, Old East Norse and Old Gutnish. Old Icelandic was essentially identical to Old Norwegian, and together they formed the Old West Norse dialect of Old Norse and were also spoken in settlements in the Faroe Islands, Ireland, Scotland, the Isle of Man, and Norwegian settlements in Normandy. The Old East Norse dialect was spoken in Denmark, Sweden, settlements in Russia, England, and Danish settlements in Normandy. The Old Gutnish dialect was spoken in Gotland and in various settlements in the East.
Yet, by 1600, another classification of the North Germanic language branches had arisen from a syntactic point of view, dividing them into an insular group (Icelandic and Faroese) and a continental group (Danish, Norwegian and Swedish). The division between Insular Scandinavian (önordiska/ønordisk/øynordisk) and Continental Scandinavian (Skandinavisk) is based on mutual intelligibility between the two groups and developed due to different influences, particularly the political union of Denmark and Norway (1536-1814) which lead to significant Danish influence on central and eastern Norwegian dialects (Bokmal or Dano-Norwegian).
Number of speakers
Language Speakers Notes Swedish 10,000,000 300,000 Swedish-speaking Finns Danish 6,000,000 Norwegian 5,000,000 approx. 85-90 % prefer Bokmål, 10-15 % Nynorsk Icelandic 320,000 Faroese 70,000 Jamtlandic 45,000 Elfdalian 3,000
In historical linguistics, the North Germanic family tree is divided into two main branches, West Scandinavian languages (Norwegian, Faroese and Icelandic) and East Scandinavian languages (Danish and Swedish), along with various dialects and varieties. The two branches are derived from the western and eastern dialect group of Old Norse, respectively. There was also an Old Gutnish branch spoken on the island of Gotland. The East Scandinavian languages (and modern Norwegian, through Danish) were heavily influenced by Middle Low German during the period of Hanseatic expansion.
Currently, English loanwords are influencing the languages. A 2005 survey of words used by speakers of the Scandinavian languages showed that the number of English loanwords used in the languages has doubled during the last 30 years and is now 1.2%. Icelandic has imported fewer English words than the other Scandinavian languages, despite the fact that it is the country that uses English most.
Another way of classifying the languages—focusing on mutual intelligibility rather than the tree of life-model—posits Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish as Continental Scandinavian, and Faroese and Icelandic as Insular Scandinavian. Because of the long political union between Norway and Denmark, Traditional Standard Norwegian (Riksmål and Bokmål) share most of the Danish vocabulary and grammar, and was virtually identical to written Danish until the spelling reform of 1907. (For this reason, Riksmål and Bokmål is sometimes considered[by whom?] East Scandinavian, and Nynorsk West Scandinavian via the West-East division shown above.) However, Danish has developed a greater distance between the spoken and written versions of the language, so the differences between spoken Norwegian and Danish are somewhat more significant than the difference between the written. In writing, Danish is relatively close to the other Continental Scandinavian languages, but the sound developments of spoken Danish include reduction and assimilation of consonants and vowels, as well as the prosodic feature called stød in Danish (lit. "push; thrust"), developments which have not occurred in the other languages. However, Scandinavians are widely expected to understand the other spoken Scandinavian languages. Some people may have some difficulties, particularly older people who speak a dialect, but most people can understand the standard languages, as they appear in radio and television, of the other Scandinavian countries.
The lowest degree of intelligibility is between spoken Danish and Swedish. The relationships between the three languages Danish, Norwegian and Swedish may be summarised as per the following diagram; Norwegian is sometimes humorously described as "Danish spoken with a Swedish pronunciation" (or Danish as "Norwegian spoken with a German [or French] pronunciation"):
- See also Germanic languages#Vocabulary comparison.
The mutual intelligibility between the Continental Scandinavian languages is asymmetrical. Various studies have shown Norwegian-speakers to be the best in Scandinavia at understanding other languages within the language group. According to a study undertaken during 2002–2005 and funded by the Nordic Cultural Fund, Swedish-speakers in Stockholm and Danish-speakers in Copenhagen have the greatest difficulty in understanding other Nordic languages. The study, which focused mainly on native speakers under the age of 25, showed that the lowest ability to comprehend another language is demonstrated by youth in Stockholm in regard to Danish, producing the lowest ability score in the survey. The greatest variation in results between participants within the same country was also demonstrated by the Swedish-speakers in the study. Participants from Malmö, located in the southernmost Swedish province of Scania, demonstrated a better understanding of Danish than Swedish-speakers to the north. Access to Danish television and radio, direct trains to Copenhagen over the Oresund Bridge and a larger number of cross-border commuters in the Oresund Region contribute to a better knowledge of spoken Danish and a better knowledge of the unique Danish words among the region's inhabitants. According to the study, youth in this region were able to understand the Danish language better than the Norwegian language. But they still could not understand Danish as well as the Norwegians could, demonstrating once again the relative distance of Swedish from Danish; and youth in Copenhagen had a very poor command of Swedish, showing that the Oresund connection was mostly one-way.
The results from the study of how well native youth in different Scandinavian cities did when tested on their knowledge of the other Continental Scandinavian languages are summarized in table format, reproduced below. The maximum score was 10.0:
Average Århus, Denmark 3.74 4.68 4.21 Copenhagen, Denmark 3.60 4.13 3.87 Malmö, Sweden 5.08 4.97 5.02 Stockholm, Sweden 3.46 5.56 4.51 Bergen, Norway 7.50 6.15 6.32 Oslo, Norway 6.57 7.12 6.85
Icelandic and Faroese speakers (of the Insular Scandinavian languages group) are even better than the Norwegians at comprehending two or more languages within the Continental Scandinavian languages group, scoring high in both Danish (which they study at school) and Norwegian and having the highest score on a Scandinavian language other than the mother tongue, as well as the highest average score. When speakers of Faroese and Icelandic were tested on how well they understood the three Continental Scandinavian languages, the test results were as follows (maximum score 10.0):
Average Faroe Islands 8.28 5.75 7.00 7.01 Iceland 5.36 3.34 3.40 4.19
The Scandinavian languages (in the narrow sense, i.e., the languages of Scandinavia) are often cited as proof of the aphorism "A language is a dialect with an army and navy". The differences in dialects within the countries of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark can often be greater than the differences across the borders, but the political independence of these countries leads continental Scandinavian to be classified into Norwegian, Swedish, and Danish in the popular mind as well as among most linguists. This is also because of the strong influence of the standard languages, particularly in Denmark and Sweden. Even if the language policy of Norway has been more tolerant of rural dialectal variation in formal language, the prestige dialect often referred to as "Eastern Urban Norwegian", spoken mainly in and around the Oslo region, can be considered to be quite normative. The formation of Nynorsk out of western Norwegian dialects after Norway became independent of Denmark in 1814 added to making linguistic divisions match the political ones.
The Nordic Council has on several occasions referred to the (Germanic) languages spoken in Scandinavia as "Scandinavian language" (singular); for instance, the official newsletter of the Nordic Council is written in "Scandinavian language".
All North Germanic languages are descended from Old Norse. Divisions between subfamilies of North Germanic are rarely precisely defined: Most form continuous clines, with adjacent dialects being mutually intelligible and the most separated ones not.
- West Scandinavian
- East Scandinavian
Beside the two official written norms of Norwegian, there exist two established unofficial norms: Riksmål, similar to, but more conservative than Bokmål, which is used to various extents by numerous people, especially in the cities and Høgnorsk "High-Norwegian", similar to Nynorsk, used by a very small minority.
Jamtlandic shares many characteristics with both Trøndersk and with Norrländska mål. Due to this ambiguous position, it is contested whether Jamtlandic belongs to the West Norse or the East Norse language group.
Älvdalsmål "Älvdalen Speech", generally considered a Sveamål dialect, today has an official orthography and is, because of a lack of mutual intelligibility with Swedish, considered as a separate language by many linguists.
Traveller Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish are varieties of their respective language with Romani vocabulary, or Para-Romani, known as the Scando-Romani languages. They are spoken by Norwegian and Swedish Travellers.
Sami languages form an unrelated group that has coexisted with the North Germanic language group in Scandinavia since prehistory. Sami, like Finnish, is part of the group of the Uralic languages. In inter-Nordic contexts, texts are today often presented in three versions: Finnish, Icelandic, and one of the three languages Danish, Norwegian and Swedish. During centuries of interaction, Finnish and Sami have imported many more loanwords from North Germanic languages than vice versa.
The North-Germanic languages are majority languages in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, while Finnish is spoken by the majority in Finland. Another language in the Nordic countries is Greenlandic, the official languages of Greenland.
- Differences between Norwegian Bokmål and Standard Danish
- Scanian dialects
- North Germanic tribes
- ^ Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Language Family Trees Indo-European, Germanic, North. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International
- ^ Scandinavian Dialect Syntax. Network for Scandinavian Dialect Syntax. Retrieved 11 November 2007.
- ^ a b c Torp, Arne (2004). Nordiske sprog i fortid og nutid. Sproglighed og sprogforskelle, sprogfamilier og sprogslægtskab. Moderne nordiske sprog. In Nordens sprog – med rødder og fødder. Nord 2004:010, ISBN 9289310413, Nordic Council of Ministers' Secretariat, Copenhagen 2004. (In Danish).
- ^ a b c Holmberg, Anders and Christer Platzack (2005). "The Scandinavian languages". In The Comparative Syntax Handbook, eds Guglielmo Cinque and Richard S. Kayne. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Excerpt at Durham University.
- ^ Hawkins, John A. (1987). "Germanic languages". In Bernard Comrie. The World's Major Languages. Oxford University Press. pp. 68–76. ISBN 0-19-520521-9.
- ^ But see Cercignani, Fausto, Indo-European ē in Germanic, in «Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung», 86/1, 1972, pp. 104–110.
- ^ Kuhn, Hans (1955–56). "Zur Gliederung der germanischen Sprachen". Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum und deutsche Literatur 86: 1–47.
- ^ Bandle, Oskar (ed.)(2005). The Nordic Languages: An International Handbook of the History of the North Germanic Languages. Walter de Gruyter, 2005, ISBN 311017149X.
- ^ a b Lund, Jørn. Language. Published online by Royal Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Version 1-November 2003. Retrieved 13 November 2007.
- ^ Lindström, F. & Lindström, H. (2006). Svitjods undergång och Sveriges födelse. Albert Bonniers Förlag. ISBN 9100118737 p.259
- ^ A. J. Johnson Company, Johnson's universal cyclopedia: a new edition, pgs. 336, 337, 338; 1895 D. Appleton and company & A. J. Johnson company
- ^ Article Nordiska språk, section Historia, subsection Omkring 800–1100, in Nationalencyklopedin (1994).
- ^ Jónsson, Jóhannes Gísli and Thórhallur Eythórsson (2004). "Variation in subject case marking in Insular Scandinavian". Nordic Journal of Linguistics (2005), 28: 223–245 Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 9 November 2007.
- ^ Heine, Bernd and Tania Kuteva (2006). The Changing Languages of Europe. Oxford University Press, 2006, ISBN 0199297347.
- ^ a b "Urban misunderstandings". In Norden this week – Monday 01.17.2005.The Nordic Council and the Nordic Council of Ministers. Retrieved 13 November 2007.
- ^ a b c Delsing, Lars-Olof and Katarina Lundin Åkesson (2005). Håller språket ihop Norden? En forskningsrapport om ungdomars förståelse av danska, svenska och norska. Available in pdf format. Numbers are from Figure 4:11. "Grannspråksförståelse bland infödda skandinaver fördelade på ort", p.65 and Figure 4:6. "Sammanlagt resultat på grannspråksundersökningen fördelat på område", p.58.
- ^ Maurud, Ø (1976). Nabospråksforståelse i Skandinavia. En undersøkelse om gjensidig forståelse av tale- og skriftspråk i Danmark, Norge og Sverige. Nordisk utredningsserie 13. Nordiska rådet, Stockholm.
- ^ http://www.norden.org/en/analys-norden/special-issues/september-2010-elections-in-sweden-pure-power-game
- ^ Dalen, Arnold (2005). Jemtsk og trøndersk – to nære slektningar. Språkrådet, Norway. (In Norwegian). Retrieved 13 November 2007.
- ^ Sapir, Yair (2004). Elfdalian, the Vernacular of Övdaln. Conference paper, 18–19 juni 2004. Available in pdf format at Uppsala University online archive.
- ^ LLOW – Traveller Danish
- ^ Sammallahti, Pekka, 1990. "The Sámi Language: Past and Present". In Arctic Languages: An Awakening. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Paris. ISBN 92-3-102661-5, p. 440: "the arrival of a Uralic population and language in Samiland [...] means that there has been a period of at least 5000 years of uninterrupted linguistic and cultural development in Samiland. [...] It is also possible, however, that the earlier inhabitants of the area also spoke a Uralic language: we do not know of any linguistic groups in the area other than the Uralic and Indo-Europeans (represented by the present Scandinavian languages)."
- ^ Inez Svonni Fjällström (2006). "A language with deep roots".Sápmi: Language history, 14 November 2006. Samiskt Informationscentrum Sametinget: "The Scandinavian languages are Northern Germanic languages. [...] Sami belongs to the Finno-Ugric language family. Finnish, Estonian, Livonian and Hungarian belong to the same language family and are consequently related to each other."
- ^ The Nordic Council's/Nordic Council of Ministers' political magazine Analys Norden offers three versions: a section labeled "Íslenska" (Icelandic), a section labeled "Skandinavisk" (in either Danish, Norwegian or Swedish), and a section labeled "Suomi" (Finnish).
- Jervelund, Anita (2007), Sådan Staver Vi
- Kristiansen, Tore m.fl. (1996), Dansk Sproglære
- Lucazin, M (2010), Utkast till ortografi över skånska språket med morfologi och ordlista. Första revisionen, ISBN 978-91-977265-2-8, http://www.maniskor.se/isbn9789197726528.pdf Outlined scanian orthography including morphology and word index. First revision.
- Lucazin, M (2010), Utkast till ortografi över skånska språket med morfologi och ordlista, ISBN 978-91-977265-1-1, http://www.maniskor.se/isbn9789197726511cropmarked.pdf Outlined scanian orthography including morphology and word index.
- Iben Stampe Sletten red., Nordens sprog – med rødder og fødder, 2005, ISBN 92-893-1041-3, available online, also available in the other Scandinavian languages
Modern Germanic languages and dialects North GermanicWest ScandinavianEast Scandinavian West Germanic Germanic languages · Germanic philology Language subgroups ReconstructedProto-Germanic · Proto-Germanic grammar Historical languagesNorthEastWest Modern languages Diachronic features Synchronic features Language histories
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