Old Norsefrom the 8th century
Proto-Norse (also Proto-Scandinavian, Primitive Norse, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Nordic, Old Scandinavian and Proto-North Germanic) was an Indo-European language spoken in
Scandinaviathat is thought to have evolved from Proto-Germanic over the first centuries AD. It is the earliest stage of a characteristically North Germanic language, and the language attested in the oldest Scandinavian Elder Futharkinscriptions, spoken ca. from the 3rd to 7th centuries (corresponding to the later Roman Iron Ageand the earlier Germanic Iron Age). It evolved into the dialects of the Old Norse language at the beginning of the Viking Age.
stress accentfell on the first syllable. Several scholars have proposed that Proto-Norse also had a separate pitch accent, which was inherited from Proto-Indo-European and has evolved into the tonal accents of modern Swedish and Norwegian. [Kock, Axel, 1901: Die alt- und neuschwedische Akzentuierung. Quellen und Forschungen 87. Strassburg] [Hamp, Eric P., 1959: Final syllables in Germanic and the Scandinavian accent system. I: Studia Linguistica 13. S.29-48.] Another recently advanced theory is that each Proto-Norse long syllable and every other short syllable received stress, marked by pitch, eventually leading to the development of the Swedish and Norwegian tonal accent distinction. [Riad, Tomas, 1998: The origin of Scandinavian tone accents. I: Diachronica XV(1). S.63–98.] Finally, quite a number of linguists have assumed that even the first phonetic rudiments of the distinction didn't appear until the Old Norseperiod. [Kristoffersen, Gjert, 2004: The development of tonal dialects in the Scandinavian languages. Analysis based on presentation at ESF-workshop 'Typology of Tone and Intonation', Cascais, Portugal 1-3 April 2004. [http://helmer.hit.uib.no/NTT/Cascais/0404ManusCascaisRevised.htm] .] [Elstad, Kåre, 1980: Some Remarks on Scandinavian Tonogenesis. I: Nordlyd: Tromsø University Working Papers on Language and Linguistics 3. 61-77.] [Öhman, Sven, 1967: Word and sentence intonation: a quantitative model.Speech Transmission Laboratory Quarterly Progress and Status Report, KTH, 2-3. 20-54, 1967., 8(2-3):20-54. [http://www.speech.kth.se/qpsr/pdf/1967/1967_8_2-3_020-054.pdf] ] [Bye, Patrick, 2004: Evolutionary typology and Scandinavian pitch accent. Kluwer Academic Publishers. [http://www.hum.uit.no/a/bye/Papers/pitch-accent-kluw.pdf] . ]
A distinguishing feature of the Proto-Norse vowel system is the lack of symmetry between long and short vowels as seen below.
*a: IPA| [a]
*e: IPA| [e]
*i: IPA| [i]
*u: IPA| [u]
*ā: IPA| [aː]
*ō: IPA| [oː]
*ī: IPA| [iː]
*ū: IPA| [uː]
*eu: IPA| [eʊ]
*au: IPA| [aʊ]
*ei: IPA| [eɪ]
*ai: IPA| [aɪ]
StopsProto-Norse had the same six stops as had Old Norse. When one of the voiced stops stands in between vowels, it is realized as a fricative.
*p: IPA| [p]
*t: IPA| [t]
*k: IPA| [k]
*b: IPA| [b] between vowels IPA| [β]
*d: IPA| [d] between vowels IPA| [ð]
*g: IPA| [ɡ] between vowels IPA| [ɣ]
*f: IPA| [f]
*þ: IPA| [θ]
*h: IPA| [x]
*s: IPA| [s]
*z: IPA| [z] , at later stages probably pronounced like a retroflex "r". "(Traditionally, U+280, ʀ has been used for z by texts transcribing Proto-Norse inscriptions)."
*n: IPA| [n]
*m: IPA| [m]
*j: IPA| [j]
*w: IPA| [w]
*l: IPA| [l]
*r: IPA| [r]
*"ʀ - see fricatives z above."
ources attesting Proto-Norse
The surviving examples we have of Proto-Norse are all runic inscriptions in the
Elder Futhark. There are about 260 surviving Elder Futhark inscriptions in Proto-Norse, the earliest dating to the 2nd century.
Examples of inscriptions:
*Øvre Stabu spearhead, Oppland, Norway.
2nd century"raunijaz", O-N "raun", tester, cf. Norwegian "røyne" (try, test). Swedish "utröna" (find out). The word formation with a suffix "ija" is evidence of Sievers' law.
*Gallehus gold horn 2, South Jutland, Denmark 400 A.D. "ek hlewagastiz holtijaz horna tawido", I Hlewagastis of holt made the horn. Note again the "ija" suffix
Tune Runestone, Østfold, Norway 400 A.D. "ek wiwaz after woduride witadahalaiban worahto. [me] z woduride staina þrijoz dohtriz dalidun arbija sijostez arbijano", I Wiwaz, after Woduridaz bread-warden wrought. For me Woduridaz, the stone, three daughters prepared, the most noble of heirs.
Einang stone, near Fagernes, Norway, is dated to the 4th century. It contains the message " [ek go] dagastiz runo faihido" ( [I, Go] dguest drew the secret), in O-N "ek goðgestr rún faða". The first four letters of the inscription have not survived and are conjectured, and the personal name could well have been Gudagasti, or something similar.
*Kragehul spear, Denmark, c:a 500 A.D. "ek erilaz asugisalas muha haite, gagaga ginuga, he...lija... hagala wijubi..." possibly, I eril of Asgisl, was named Muha, ga-ga-ga mighty-ga (ga being most likely an abbreviation of indeterminable reference), (incomplete)
Björketorp Runestone, Blekinge, Sweden, is one of three menhirs, but is the only one of them where, in the 6th century, someone has written a curse: "haidz runo runu falh'k hedra ginnarunaz argiu hermalausz ... weladauþe saz þat brytz uþarba spa" (Here, I have hidden the secret of powerful runes, strong runes. The one who breaks this memorial will be eternally tormented by anger. Treacherous death will hit him. I foresee perdition.)
Rö runestone, in Bohuslän, Sweden, was raised in the early 5th centuryand is the longest early inscription: "Ek Hrazaz/Hraþaz satido [s] tain [a] ... Swabaharjaz s [a] irawidaz. ... Stainawarijaz fahido." I, Hrazaz/Hraþaz raised the stone ... Swabaharjaz with wide wounds. ... Stainawarijaz carved.
Numerous Proto-Norse words have survived as borrowings in Estonian and Finnish. Some of these words are (with the reconstructed form in P-N): "rõngas" (Estonian)/"rengas" (Finnish) < *"hrengaz" (ring), "kuningas" (Finnish) < *"kuningaz" (king), "ruhtinas" (Finnish) < *"druhtinaz" (sv. "
drott"), "püksid" (Estonian) < *"bukse" (trousers), "silt" (Estonian) < *"skild" (tag, token), "märk/ama" (Estonian) < *"mērke" (to spot, to catch sight of), "riik" (Estonian) < *"rik" (state, land, commonwealth), "väärt" (Estonian) < *"vaērd" (worth), "kapp" (Estonian) / "kaappi" (Finnish) < *"skap" (chest of drawers; shelf)
Some Proto-Norse names are found in Latin works, for example tribal names like "
Suiones" (*"Sweoniz", Swedes). Others can be conjectured from manuscripts such as Beowulf.
Evolution from Proto-Germanic into Old Norse
Proto-Germanic to Proto-Norse
The differences between attested Proto-Norse and unattested Proto-Germanic are small. The difference in name is mostly a matter of convention. Inscriptions found in Scandinavia are considered to be in P-N; inscriptions found elsewhere that are old enough are considered to be Proto-Germanic. For example, the name inscribed on the
Negau helmetis Proto-Germanic though it would be the same in Proto-Norse. One distinctive difference between the two is the P-N lowering of P-G "ē" to "ā"; this is easiest seen in the pair "mēna" (Gothic) and "máni" (Old Norse) (English "moon"). "When" the phoneme /z/, a voiced apico-alveolaric fricative, represented in runic writing by the * Algiz-rune, changed to /R/ an apico-post-alveolaric approximant, is debated.
It is worthy of mention that scholars argue as to whether the language should be called Proto-Norse (Proto-Scandinavian), or merely Northern Proto-Germanic. Whereas, for instance, Wolfgang von Krause sees the language of the runic inscriptions of the proto-Norse period as an immediate precursor to Old Norse, Elmer Antonsen views them as Northwest Germanic. ["Runeninschriften als Quellen interdisziplinärer Forschung", "The linguistic status of the Early Runic Inscriptions", Hans Frede Nielsen, Walter de Gruyter GmBH & Co. KG 1998, ISBN 3-11-015455-2]
Proto-Norse to Old Norse
In the period 500–800, two great changes occurred within Proto-Norse. Umlauts appeared which means that a vowel was influenced by the succeeding vowel or semi-vowel, e.g. Old Norse "gestr" (guest) came from P-N "latinx|ȝastiz" (guest). Umlauts also resulted in the appearance of the new vowels "y" (e.g. "fylla" from *"fullian") and "œ" (e.g. "dœma" from *"dōmian"). The umlauts are divided into three categories, A-umlaut, I-umlaut and U-umlaut. The latter of which was still productive in the Middle ages, in the Old Norse era. The first, however, was very early, and its effect can be seen already around 500 AD, on the
Golden horns of Gallehus[Spurkland, Terje, "Norwegian Runes and Runic Inscriptions", Boydell Press 2005] .
There was also a special umlaut known as breaking, i.e. the vowel changed into a
diphthong, e.g. "hiarta" from *"herto" or "fjorðr" from "*ferþiuR". This change was by and in itself no great disruption in the language. It merely introduced new allophones of back vowels if certain vowels were in following syllables. However, the changes brought forth by syncopemade umlaut a distinctive non-transparent feature of the morphology.
Due to syncope the long vowels of unstressed syllables were shortened and many shortened vowels lost. As in P-N the stress accent lay on the first syllable words as P-N *"katilōz" became ON "katlar" (cauldrons), P-N "hurna" was changed into Old Norse "horn" and P-N "Latinx|ȝastiz" resulted in ON "gestr" (guest). Some words underwent even more drastic changes, like the polysyllabic *"unicode|haƀukaz" which changed into a monosyllabic ON "haukr" (hawk).
The postpositioned definite article also appeared during this time. It evolved as an enclitic form with the demonstrative pronoun "inn". Thus, "dagr inn", (literally this/that day), becomes "dagrinn" (the day).
ources and external links
* [http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~marisal/ie/ngmc.html General information]
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