Hutchison 3G

Hutchison 3G
3 (telecommunications) redirects here. For other uses, see 3 (disambiguation).
3 The Mobile Network
Type A brand of Hutchison Whampoa
Industry Mobile telecommunications, Broadband internet access
Founded 2002

Hong Kong

Other locations: Australia, Austria, Denmark, Indonesia, Republic of Ireland
Key people Canning Fok

3 is a brand name under which several UMTS-based mobile phone networks and Broadband Internet Providers are operated in Australia, Austria, Denmark, Hong Kong, Macau, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. The company was founded in 2002.

Hutchison Whampoa owns direct majority interests in the companies that operate the networks that are branded 3, except 3 Hong Kong and 3 Indonesia. These networks are majority-owned by the publicly listed Hutchison Telecommunications International Limited (HTIL), in which Hutchison Whampoa has a 50.003 percent majority interest.

All 3-branded networks provide 3G technology (WCDMA, some also run 2G networks). Hutchison Whampoa no longer holds a 3G license in Israel which was operated under the brand Orange, and in Norway which is not operational yet.[1] As of 4 August 2010, registered 3 customers worldwide numbered over 27.8 million.


Internet access

Australian Planet 3 webpage

Like other mobile-provider Internet homepages, 3's portal is 'free to browse' for some content in most 3 countries including Ireland, UK and Australia in most price plans; the user pays a fixed price for each video, text or application downloaded.

Besides that, 3 UK and also 3 Ireland initially made the decision to block direct Internet access from handsets, while 3 Austria allowed access to the Internet since the beginning.

In 2004, 3 released a PC card 3G Data Card ("NetConnect Card") for Windows-based laptops which allows Internet access through 3's network directly from the computer, accompanied by a range of data and business tariffs. Later, more cards and USB modems for HSDPA were introduced.

3 Skypephones and Skype on 3

In November 2007, 3 started to sell the Skypephone, which was developed in conjunction with the Chinese phone manufacturer Amoi (夏新) and Skype, combining the functionality of a UMTS handset with free voice calls and instant messages from Skype. The phones were sold exclusively by 3 on contract and on a prepaid basis.

3 and Skype also produced an application called "Skype on 3" which brought the same functionality to S60 and J2ME-capable phones (but not iPhone or Android).[2] Unlike the non-3 versions of mobile Skype, "Skype on 3" does not use the phone's data connection for voice calls, but instead places a normal phone call to a special number which 3 make available for this service.[3] 3 does not charge users for calls to this number.[4] This service is available in Australia, Ireland and the UK; it has been discontinued in Austria, Denmark, Hong Kong, Italy and Sweden.[5]

3 Like Home (No Charge Roaming)

In February 2007 3 introduced '3 Like Home': a service that in theory allows subscribers to use any 3-branded network with the exception of 3 Indonesia without having to pay additional roaming charges, instead paying the same amount for voice, data, and messaging services as they would do on their home network. This also allows users to use their free or inclusive bundles and allowances while abroad. However, pre-pay customers do not benefit fully, as they can not yet use each 3 branded network for '3 Like Home'.

3 Australia confirm that calls made using '3 Like Home' are not included in any "cap" plan or inclusive bundles.

This arrangement is possible because of the roaming agreements between the networks. Each of the networks provides service to other partners networks free of internal roaming charges. This means that the marginal cost of a roaming call is much the same as a call on the home network.

At the end of April 2009 3 UK announced that '3 Like Home' would no longer be available to customers of the 3 UK network from the 30 June 2009. On 7 April 2010, 3 Sweden announced that '3 Like Home' would be discontinued on 23 May 2010. Existing customers who complained to 3 Sweden could retain the feature under the name 3Roaming. No cancellation announcements have yet been made for customers of other 3 networks.

3 Worldwide


Hutchison introduced the "Three" network in Australia in 2003, through its majority ownership of Hutchison Telecom Australia Ltd (HTAL). As of June 2009, HTAL now owns 50% of the merged Vodafone Hutchison Australia Pty Ltd, containing both the "Three" and "Vodafone" networks.[6] The 3 and Vodafone networks remained separate as of August 2009.

On 9 February 2009 HTAL and Vodafone announced that they would be merging their Australian operations into a 50-50 joint venture called VHA Pty Ltd. All products and services offered by VHA would be marketed under the Vodafone brand,[citation needed] and VHA would hold exclusive rights to use the 3 brand. This merger was expected to be completed by mid-2009, subject to shareholder and regulatory approval,[7] As of 29 May 9, shareholder and regulatory approval is granted.[8] and was completed in June 2009.

VHA is now phasing out the Three brand in late 2011.[9] No registration of new subscribers to Three brand as they will be migrated as Vodafone customers. [9] [10]

Three Australia

Three Australia operates a 2100 MHz 3G network in a 50/50 partnership with Telstra[11] (the radio networks are shared, the core networks are separate), covering approximately 56% of Australia's population. The 3G network covers Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide, Perth, the Gold Coast, Canberra, Geelong, Frankston and Wollongong.

  • 15 April 2003 - Three launched its services in Sydney and Melbourne
  • June, 2003 - coverage extended to Brisbane, Adelaide, Perth, and the Gold Coast.
  • February 2004 - Three Reaches 1750 Base Stations, and announces another 200 to be built by End of Year.
  • 2005 - Telstra 50/50 partnership commenced. 3 Australia spun off its 3G radio network into a 50/50 partnership with Telstra. Hutchison continued to own its separate core network, application and service platforms, and their retail 3G business independently and in competition with Telstra. [12]
  • Achieves 65 Company Stores
  • 2005 - Coverage in Canberra added
  • 2006 - Geelong, Frankston, Wollongong coverage added.
  • March 2007 - HSDPA was activated on the entire 3G footprint bringing peak speeds of up to 3.6 Mbit/s.
  • Mid 2007 - 3 launched a series of Service Centres,[13] which service customers' handsets dispatched from retailers, or those of walk-in customers (with 90% of the latter being available for collection within an hour of drop-off).
  • June 2009 - Merges with Vodafone Australia to form new joint venture operation named Vodafone Hutchison Australia. 3 Mobile remains a separate network to Vodafone at the commencement.

In areas not covered by 3's 3G network, customers roam on Telstra's GSM/GPRS/EDGE or UMTS networks. This agreement allows 3 to offer coverage to up to 96% of the population. In certain areas, customers may roam on Vodafone Australia's GSM/GPRS/EDGE network. Unlike roaming on Telstra's network however, data charges are inclusive to one's data plan, and is not charged separately. When roaming on Vodafone's network, '3 2G' will appear on a customer's handset. 3's total number of Australian subscribers reached 2,000,000 as of April 2009[14]

Hutchison formerly operated an Australian CDMA network under the Orange brand name. On 1 February 2006, it was re-branded as 3 CDMA, and this network was closed as of 9 August 2006. 3 CDMA customers were offered special tariffs and incentives to continue as customers on the 3G network, all customers either moved over to 3's 3G network or to other network providers.

3 has sponsored Big Brother Australia from 2005 to 2008 (when it was canceled), The Australian Cricket Team and Essendon Football Club.

Three Australia mobile networks

This is a list of known active mobile networks used by 3 Australia

Frequencies used on the '3' Network
Frequency Protocol Class Notes
900 MHz GSM/EDGE 2G Telstra network, accessible by roaming agreement
1800 MHz GSM/EDGE 2G Telstra network, accessible by roaming agreement
900 MHz GSM/GPRS/EDGE 2G Vodafone AU network, accessible by roaming agreement
1800 MHz GSM/GPRS/EDGE 2G Vodafone AU network, accessible by roaming agreement
850 MHz UMTS/WCDMA/HSPA/HSPA+ 3G Telstra NextG network accessible by roaming agreement. Not accessible where there is 3GIS coverage
900 MHz UMTS/WCDMA/HSPA 3G Vodafone AU regional network, available outside major cities
2100 MHz UMTS/WCDMA/HSPA 3G Home network of 3. 3GIS network in 50/50 partnership with Telstra, covers capital cities
2100 MHz UMTS/WCDMA/HSPA 3G Vodafone AU metropolitan network (and second home network, post-merger). 3GIS network as 50/50 partnership between Optus and Vodafone AU, covers capital cities

Vodafone Australia

The Vodafone Australia's GSM mobile service on 900 MHz and 1800 MHz covers 94.52% of Australia's population. The 3G 2100 MHz UMTS network is available in metro areas of major cities and some larger regional centres covering 80% of the population. Expansion of the 3G UMTS network using 900 MHz to equal or surpass the GSM coverage is due to be completed by 31 August 2009 [4] [5].

In a media release issued on the 27 May 2008, Vodafone claimed 4.031 million mobile telephone customers connected across Australia (including 0.341 million connected to MVNOs).[15]

VHA Ownership

Vodafone Hutchison Australia is owned by:

  • Vodafone: 50% - as of July 2009
  • Hutchison Telecoms Australia Ltd (HTAL) - 50%
    • Note: HTAL is owned by:
      • Hutchison Whampoa: 52.03% - as of 16th 9 Mar [16]
      • Public shareholders: 26.84%
      • Telecom NZ: 10% (with an option for a further 9.94%)
      • Leanrose Pty Limited: 11.13%


3 Austria started operations in May 2003. The company promised to have 95% population coverage with HSDPA end of 2007. Currently, 3's 3G coverage appears to be limited to 94% of the population.[17]

Outside the coverage of its own 3G-network (UMTS/HSDPA) it relies on national roaming on the network of 2G-market leader Mobilkom Austria.

3 Austria is the first in Austria to offer its customers so called "HD Mobile TV" based on the H.264 encoding standard, and won IIR telcon awards for their eBay (2006)[18] and X-Series Gold (2007)[19] offerings.

3 Austria won a DVB-H license and launched the service in June 2008, with three devices and free usage of Mobile TV.[20][21]

Austrian Ownership

Denmark and Sweden

3 Danmark and 3 Sweden have a common network covering most of the two countries. Customers are "at home" on both networks, i.e. Danish customer receive calls from Denmark without paying roaming when they are on 3 Sweden's network and it does not cost extra to call Danish telephone numbers. 3 Scandinavia also has a license to build a network in Norway (in 2011 3 declared that they are not going to launch a 3G network in norway), but currently 3 Danmark and 3 Sweden have to have positive financials. In 2008 both operations showed a positive EBITDA. In Sweden the mobile network is shared with Telenor, except for cities like Stockholm, Gothenburg, Malmo, Lund and Karlskrona where they handles their own 3G networks, but this practise is not allowed in Denmark. In the spring 2011 3 started, without Telenor, to build their own 3G Network on the UMTS 900-band which will give a bigger coverage. 3Sweden is the only operator in Sweden that have the licence to build 3G at the UMTS900 band. Today 3 Sweden covers about 98.5% of the swedish population.

In early 2012 3 expects to launch it's firsts LTE-services for Swedish customers.

3Sweden is for the fifth year in a row the best operator for Mobile Broadband and has the best 3G-coverage in Sweden.


Hong Kong

An advertisement for 3 in which Leon Lai, a Hong Kong-based Cantopop singer, is the pinup.

In May 2004, its affiliated 2G operator Orange re-branded its services and changed its name to "3 Dualband", referring to the GSM product, and "3 CDMA", referring to the CDMA product.

On 29 May 2008, Hutchison Telecommunications (Hong Kong) Limited announced that it has signed an agreement with Apple Inc. to bring the iPhone to Hong Kong and Macau later that year under 3.[22]

Hong Kong and Macau Ownership

Note: Hutchison Whampoa owns 100% of HTIL (Hutchison Telecommunications International Limited)


3 HCPT Indonesia

The 3 service was launched commercially in Indonesia on 30 March 2007 with the company name is Hutchison Charoen Pokphand Telecommunications (HCPT). Only after 9 months of operations, 3 acquired about 2.2 million GSM customers. 3 achieved high customer mindshare maintaining at about 90% of awareness level as of April 2009.[23]

3 Store, Plaza Semanggi, Jakarta, Indonesia

As of April 2009, 3 Indonesia had about 4.5 million customers on its GSM network. 3 offers both pre-paid and post-paid (contract) services. Currently, the post-paid service is available in Jakarta, Bandung, and Surabaya area.

3 Indonesia slogan is "Jaringan GSM-mu (Your GSM Network)", formerly "Jaringan Selularmu (Your Cellular Network)". Sometimes, 3 use "Mau? (Want it?)" and "Hanya di 3 (Only on 3)" slogan in their ads.

3 currently has full GSM coverage in Java, Sumatera, Bali, Lombok, and Riau Islands. And as of April 2009, Kalimantan is covered in South Kalimantan and Sulawesi is covered in South Sulawesi. The 3 UMTS/HSDPA service is now available in most parts of Java, especially big cities like Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung.[24]

3 Indonesia launched its new unlimited text and MMS service at a certain fee with Facebook on 8 April 2009, so registered 3 customers can update status, write on wall, or upload new pictures freely without any more charges. Beside with Facebook, 3 also cooperate with Yahoo to give unlimited chat at a certain fee by SMS and downloadable mobile program using Yahoo Messenger service. Both of this is the first of its kind in Indonesia.


Note: Hutchison Whampoa owns 50.003% of HTIL

3 Store, Grafton Street, Dublin, Ireland.


3 has a license for operation in Ireland using the access code 083 (although numbers can be ported over from other networks.) The service was launched on 26 July 2005 as Ireland's fourth mobile network operator behind Vodafone, O2 and Meteor. 3's coverage is made up of a single 2100 MHz band UMTS network, with claims of 96% population coverage[citation needed] and 500,000 subscribers.[25] A roaming agreement with Vodafone Ireland provides GSM coverage where no UMTS signal is available.

Service was initially offered as post-paid only, but on 16 May 2006 the introduction of a pre-paid service, known as 3Pay, was announced. A pre-paid mobile broadband service was launched on 29 February 2008 under the name 3Pay Broadband, with vouchers available for durations of one day, one week, or one month. On 13 May 2010, 3 Ireland announced the launch of the world's first commercial voice and data I-HSPA network. The company operates 28 "3Stores" throughout Ireland, with plans to have 50 by the end of 2010.[25]

On 5 August 2010, 3 Ireland announced a four year, €7 500 000 deal with the Football Association of Ireland to become the primary sponsor of all Republic of Ireland international football teams.[26]

In August 2010, 3 Ireland admitted it has been overstating its subscriber numbers since 2006. As per its latest released mid year statements about 56 per cent of 3’s 554,000 registered subscribers are considered active . This is about 244,000 short of the figure supplied to ComReg.



In Italy, 3 was formerly known as Andala 3G SpA,[27] a company founded in November 1999 and controlled by Sardinian internet company Tiscali and Franco Bernabè. It was the first mobile operator to offer 3G services (UMTS), launched in March 2003. As of December 2007, 3 Italia had 8 million registered customers, thus being the local leader in the 3G telecommunications market. 3 Italy is the largest company in the 3-group measured in number of subscribers. It has a roaming agreement with TIM which allows its customers to get a 2G service when they move out of 3G coverage. On 22 February 2006, 3 announced the first launch of (HSDPA) technology in Italy, with initial coverage of Rome. The HSDPA service, which provides wireless broadband access with speed up to 14.4 Megabit/s, has been initially launched offering connection speeds up to 3.6 Megabit/s. The service has been called ADSM (as a contraction for ADSL Mobile). On 14 May 2006 3 was the 1st in Italy to launch the Digital Mobile TV with the DVB-H technology (70% of population); this service is currently available with three mobile models LG U900, LG U960 & Samsung SGH-P910.

3 Italy's slogan is: Meglio cambiare, no? (It's better to change, isn't it?). The company's success is also due to its commercial policies (it was the 1st mobile operator which introduced mobile phone with SIM lock in Italy, which has prevented customers from successfully moving to a different network) and its advertising campaigns. From November 2006 to March 2007, 3 Italy's testimonial has been Paris Hilton, followed by Luciana Littizzetto.

From 6 June 2008 3 Italy offers free of charge the vision of Rai Uno, Rai Due, Canale 5, Italia 1, Rete 4, SKY Meteo24, Current TV and La7 television channels with DVB-H technology.

Since late November 2010, 3 Italy offers one of the most convenient data plans available in Italy under the name of SuperInternet, offering 3 gigabytes of Internet navigation at the price of 5 € per month.[28]

Italian Ownership

3 Power

3 Power is an international business unit of 3 Italia. As the first DVB-H operator worldwide, 3 Italia is clearly established as a strategic leader in the convergence of communication, information and entertainment. It has now more than 720,000 DVB-H clients. 3 Power provides DVB-H and UMTS services to operators and broadcasters worldwide based on the knowledge and expertise acquired by 3 Italia throughout the past years.

Possible sale of 3 Italia

Speculation from the UK newspaper The Times in 2007 claimed that 3 Italia had sent out an information memorandum in the hope of attracting potential bidders. Hutchison tried to sell up to 25% of 3 Italia in an initial public offering (IPO) in 2005 that it hoped would value the operator at around EUR10bn. However, the planned listing was cancelled in early 2006 after valuations failed to live up to Hutchison's expectations.[29] It was also speculated that this sale, if it went ahead, could lead to the further sale of 3 Group assets, including 3(UK) and 3 Ireland.

United Kingdom

A 3 store in Banbury.

The Three mobile service was launched in the UK on 3 March 2003 (3/3/3). After 33 months of operations, Three had more than 3 million 3G customers, more than the other UK mobile operators' 3G subscribers combined. In '03, Three launched the UK’s first video mobile network to bring new services to the mobile media market. Given 3G was a new technology, Three undertook one of the fastest 3G network rollouts in UK history and met their license regulatory requirements 3 years ahead of schedule.

Three launched with a roaming agreement with O2[30] which allowed its customers to use their handsets on the 2G network when they moved out of 3G coverage. The agreement with O2 ended in 2007 and the agreement with Orange is ongoing. T-Mobile & Orange merged as 1 company, 3UK and T-Mobile prior to that merge owned a 50/50 Joint Venture for backhaul and base station sites (MBNL LTD) that Orange are now merging into*** Roaming on Orange is still available in some areas, but in others has been turned off.

At the end of 2005, Three had nearly 4 million customers on its network and was the largest 3G network in the UK with more 3G subscribers than all the other networks together. The UK offers both pre- and post-pay (contract) services.

Three has used a number of different TV, print and radio advertising campaigns since their launch. Their pre-September 2007 slogan was "Welcome to our Network". Its next slogan was "Fresh on 3", promoting the new "Mix and Match" price plans. Three launched a major marketing campaign in May 2009, with the slogan "Changing Mobile Forever", as Three offered free unlimited Skype-to-Skype calls to all customers.

Three's first retail stores (3Store) opened at the same time as the network launched, on Oxford Street and High Street Kensington, both in London, and at the Birmingham Mailbox. Three's handsets and contracts are also sold by mobile telephony chains and independents throughout the UK, as well as online retailers. In October 2005, the second wave of 3Stores opened in larger malls throughout the UK, such as the Harlequin Shopping Centre in Watford, the Bluewater Shopping Centre, and The Mall in Bristol Cribbs Causeway. These stores are now Three's flagship high street shops. On 24 October 2006, Three announced that it had purchased 95 high street shops from O2, 274 The Link outlets, and 22 shops branded under the O2 banner. Three announced that these would be rebranded as 3Stores "within weeks", in time for the important Christmas season. On Friday 11 January 2007, Three announced it will be closing 107 of its concession stores, leaving only 20.

Three launched SeeMeTV at the end of 2005, allowing its customers to submit their own video content that other subscribers could watch. Users pay a small micropayment (the price decided by the video's creator) to watch these videos. The user who created the videos will get paid 10% of the amount of money that is paid by other users to watch the video. This service does allow some adult content, but this is protected by a PIN to prevent minors accessing it. Users are paid once they have made £10 using PayPal. It is the most popular user-generated mobile service created - since launch there have been over four million downloads of videoclips and it is set to be launched through MSN Spaces.

Until 30 June 2009, Three subscribers in the UK, Ireland, Austria, Italy, Denmark, Sweden, Hong Kong and Australia could use their service on Three networks around the world for no extra charge with '3 Like Home'.

Three currently has the highest level of 3G coverage in the UK and went live with HSDPA in September 2008. In October 2010, Three completed a £400 million upgrade to its network and now covers 97.4% of the UK population.

Three and T-Mobile (UK) have signed an agreement to combine their 3G access networks in a ground-breaking collaboration that will lead to almost complete population coverage for 3G services across Britain by the end of 2008 with significant fill in and improvement to dense urban in-building coverage in 2009. As the world's largest known active 3G network sharing agreement, this will significantly increase both operators' 3G network quality and coverage, accelerate the provision of new high-speed mobile broadband services and deliver substantial cost savings as well as environmental benefits.

By combining their 3G access networks (the mobile masts and infrastructure that connects to each operator's separate core network) T-Mobile and Three UK will create Europe's most extensive high-speed downlink packet access (HSDPA) network. Today's agreement offers customers comprehensive mobile coverage in the first stage of joint development in 2008 and further improvements to quality of service in 2009. It furthers both companies' joint commitment to deliver true mobile broadband internet access in addition to reliable voice and text services.

Although masts and the 3G access networks are being combined, each company's core network and T-Mobile's 2G network will not be shared. Both parties will retain responsibility for the delivery of services to their respective customers and use their own frequency spectrum.

High-speed mobile broadband and data services are set for rapid growth as mobile progressively becomes the individual's primary means of accessing the internet. Nationwide 3G coverage is essential to meet this growing demand. Blanket population coverage becomes rapidly achievable if individual operators split the investment required and share operating costs. Integration of radio access networks will give a further boost to the pace of development of 3G services, reduce the duplication of costs and the proliferation of mobile masts and extend 3G coverage for the first time to some of the more sparsely populated areas of the country.

—Press release by Hutchison Whampoa Limited[31]

In June 2010 Three became the 4th network to launch the iPhone after O2, Orange and Vodafone. T-Mobile became the fifth network in the UK. In September 2010, Three won the Broadband Expert Mobile Broadband Award Winners 2010 - Best Overall Provider.(ref: 25) In 2010, Three was voted Best Network for Mobile Broadband in a YouGov survey for the second year in a row. (ref:26)


(20% and 15% equity interests were re-purchased from NTT DoCoMo and KPN Mobile respectively in 2005 when both decided to exit the UK venture shouldering heavy investment losses).

Former Internet access restrictions in the UK

The result of the decision in the UK to block direct Internet access from the handsets was that, unlike the UK's other leading networks, arbitrary web and email servers could not be accessed from a handset on their network. Only outgoing access to TCP port 80 (and DNS) were allowed. Since 2006 however, full internet access became possible with an internet add-on.

Related companies and brands


  1. ^ Hutchison Whampoa Limited: Telecommunications
  2. ^ "Help for Skype: How can I get Skype for my 3 phone?". Retrieved 2 October 2011. 
  3. ^ "Help for Skype: Can I use Skype on 3 abroad or over WiFi?". Retrieved 2 October 2011. 
  4. ^ "Help for Skype: Will it cost me anything to use Skype on 3?". Retrieved 2 October 2011. 
  5. ^ "Help for Skype: I heard that Skype had been discontinued on the 3 network, is this true?". Retrieved 2 October 2011. 
  6. ^ "About 3". Retrieved 2009-06-20. 
  7. ^ "Hutchison and Vodafone agree to merge Australian Telecom operations" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-02-09. [dead link]
  8. ^ Staff. "ACCC not to oppose proposed merger of Vodafone and Hutchison". Australian Competition and Consumers Commission. Retrieved 2009-08-21. 
  9. ^ a b
  10. ^
  11. ^ [1]
  12. ^ [2]
  13. ^ 3 Australia Website
  14. ^ Staff (2009). "Three - About 3 - Who we Are". Vodafone Hutchison Australia Pty Ltd (Three). Retrieved 2009-08-21. 
  15. ^ Vodafone Australia exceeds 4 million customers and counting
  16. ^ Annual Report 2008
  17. ^ DerStandard: 3-Chef Thoma: Mobiles Breitband löst ADSL und Co. ab, 2 May 2008 (German)
  18. ^ Computerwelt: Telekombranche guten Mutes, 4 October 2006 (german)
  19. ^ IIR: Award für “10. Jahreskongress für die Telekom Branche - TEL.CON 2007” (german)
  20. ^ Telecom Paper: 3 Austria to offer 3 DVB-H devices, free mobile TV use until year-end, 30 May 2008
  21. ^ Heise: DVB-H startet in Österreich, 1 June 2008 (German)
  22. ^ 3 to bring iPhone to Hong Kong and Macau
  23. ^ [3]
  24. ^ 3 Indonesia coverage map
  25. ^ a b 3 Ireland reaches 500,000 customers
  26. ^ "3 becomes FAI primary sponsor". 5 August 2010. 
  27. ^ Andala 3G SpA
  28. ^ "3". Retrieved 02/05/2010. 
  29. ^ The UK Times - "Italian mobile sale may signal Hutchison Whampoa’s exit from UK"
  30. ^ "3 selects Orange as new national roaming partner". 2006-05-10. Retrieved 2010-06-30. 
  31. ^ HWL: T-Mobile and 3 create Britain's largest 3G network, 18 December 2007

25. 26.

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