- Josef Mengele
"Mengele" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Mengler (disambiguation).
Nickname Angel of Death (German: Todesengel) Born March 16, 1911
Günzburg, Kingdom of Bavaria
Died February 7, 1979(aged 67)
Bertioga, São Paulo, Brazil
Allegiance Nazi Germany Service/branch Schutzstaffel Years of service 1938—1945 Rank Hauptsturmführer, SS (Captain) Commands held Human medical experimentation performed on prisoners at Auschwitz concentration camp, and selection of prisoners to be gassed at Auschwitz Battles/wars World War II Awards Iron Cross First Class
Black Badge for the Wounded
Medal for the Care of the German People
Josef Rudolf Mengele (German pronunciation: [ˈjoːzɛf ˈʁuːdɔlf ˈmɛŋɡələ], March 16, 1911 – February 7, 1979), also known as the Angel of Death (German: Todesengel) was a German SS officer and a physician in the Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau. He earned doctorates in anthropology from Munich University and in medicine from Frankfurt University. He initially gained notoriety for being one of the SS physicians who supervised the selection of arriving transports of prisoners, determining who was to be killed and who was to become a forced laborer, but is far more infamous for performing grisly human experiments on camp inmates, including children, for which Mengele was called the "Angel of Death."
In 1940, he was placed in the reserve medical corps, after which he served with the 5th SS Panzergrenadier Division Wiking in the Eastern Front. In 1942, he was wounded at the Soviet front and was pronounced medically unfit for combat, and was then promoted to the rank of SS-Hauptsturmführer (Captain) for saving the lives of three German soldiers. He survived the war, and after a period living incognito in Germany he fled to South America, where he evaded capture for the rest of his life despite being hunted as a Nazi war criminal.
Early life and family
Josef Mengele was born the eldest of three children to Karl and Walburga (née Hupfauer) Mengele in Günzburg, Bavaria, Germany. His younger brothers were Karl Junior and Alois Mengele. Mengele's father was a founder of the Karl Mengele & Sons company, a company that produced farm machinery for milling, sawing, and baling. In 1935, Mengele earned a PhD in Anthropology from the University of Munich. In January 1937, at the Institute for Hereditary Biology and Racial Hygiene in Frankfurt, he became the assistant to Dr. Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer who was a leading scientist mostly known for his research in genetics with a particular interest in twins. From this association, Mengele probably developed his life-long fascination with the study of twins. In addition Mengele studied under Theodor Mollison and Eugen Fischer, who had been involved in medical experiments on the Herero tribe in South-West Africa, now Namibia. On July 28, 1939, Mengele married Irene Schönbein, whom he had met while studying in Leipzig. Their only son, Rolf, was born March 11, 1941. Five years after Mengele emigrated to Buenos Aires in 1949, his wife Irene divorced him. She continued to live in Germany with their son. On July 25, 1958, in Nueva Helvecia, Uruguay, Mengele was remarried to Martha Mengele, the widow of his younger brother Karl. Martha Mengele had arrived in Buenos Aires in 1956 with Karl-Heinz, her son from her first marriage. Josef and Martha had no further children.
In 1937 Mengele joined the Nazi Party. In 1938 he received his medical degree and joined the SS. Mengele was conscripted into the army in 1940 and later volunteered to the medical service of the Waffen-SS, the combat arm of the SS, where he distinguished himself as a soldier. Hitler declared war against the Soviet Union on 22nd June 1941. Later that month Mengele was awarded the Iron Cross Second Class for his heroism at the Ukrainian Front. In January 1942, while serving with the SS Wiking Division behind Soviet lines, he pulled two German soldiers from a burning tank, and was awarded the Iron Cross First Class as well as the Wound Badge in Black and the Medal for the Care of the German People. Mengele was wounded during this campaign; since he was medically unfit for combat, Mengele was posted to the Race and Resettlement Office in Berlin. Mengele resumed an association with his mentor, von Verschuer, who was at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Genetics and Eugenics in Berlin. Just before he was transferred to Auschwitz, Mengele was promoted to the rank of SS-Hauptsturmführer (Captain) in April 1943. 
In May 1943, Mengele replaced another doctor who had fallen ill at the Nazi extermination camp Birkenau. On May 24, 1943, he became medical officer of Auschwitz-Birkenau's "Gypsy (Romani) camp". In August 1944, this camp was liquidated and all its inmates gassed. Subsequently Mengele became Chief Medical Officer of the main infirmary camp at Birkenau. He was not the Chief Medical Officer of Auschwitz, though: his superior was SS-Standortarzt (garrison physician) Eduard Wirths.
During his 21-month stay at Auschwitz, Mengele earned the sobriquet "Angel of Death" for the cruelty he visited upon prisoners. Mengele was referred to as "der weiße Engel" ("the White Angel") by camp inmates because when he stood on the platform inspecting new arrivals and directing some to the right, some to the left (the gas chambers), his white coat and white arms outstretched evoked the image of a white angel. Mengele took turns with the other SS physicians at Auschwitz in meeting incoming prisoners at the camp, where it was determined who would be retained for work and who would be sent to the gas chambers immediately. In one instance, he drew a line on the wall of the children's block 150 centimetres (about 5 feet) from the floor, and children whose heads could not reach the line were sent to the gas chambers.
"He had a look that said 'I am the power,'" said one survivor. When it was reported that one block was infested with lice, Mengele ordered the 750 women that lived inside the dormitories to be gassed.
Mengele used Auschwitz as an opportunity to continue his research on heredity, using inmates for human experimentation. He was particularly interested in identical twins; they would be selected and placed in special barracks. He recruited Berthold Epstein, a Jewish pediatrician, and Miklós Nyiszli, a Hungarian Jewish pathologist, to assist with his experiments.
As a doctor, Epstein proposed to Mengele a study into treatments of the disease called noma that was noted for particularly affecting children from the camp. While the exact cause of noma remains uncertain, it is now known that it has a higher occurrence in children suffering from malnutrition and a lower immune system response. Many develop the disease shortly after contracting another illness such as measles or tuberculosis.
Mengele took an interest in physical abnormalities discovered among the arrivals at the concentration camp. These included dwarfs, notably the Ovitz family – the children of a Romanian artist, seven of whom were dwarfs. Prior to their deportation, they toured in Eastern Europe as the Lilliput Troupe. Mengele often called them "my dwarf family"; to him they seemed to be the perfect expression of "the abnorm".
Mengele's experiments also included attempts to change eye colour by injecting chemicals into children's eyes, various amputations of limbs, and other surgeries. Rena Gelissen's account of her time in Auschwitz details certain experiments performed on female prisoners around October 1943. Mengele would experiment on the chosen girls, performing sterilization and shock treatments. Most of the victims died, because of either the experiments or later infections."Once Mengele's assistant rounded up 14 pairs of Roma twins during the night. Mengele placed them on his polished marble dissection table and put them to sleep. He then injected chloroform into their hearts, killing them instantly. Mengele then began dissecting and meticulously noting each piece of the twins' bodies."
At Auschwitz, Mengele did a number of studies on twins. After an experiment was over, the twins were usually killed and their bodies dissected. He supervised an operation by which two Roma children were sewn together to create conjoined twins; the hands of the children became badly infected where the veins had been resected; this also caused gangrene.
The subjects of Mengele's research were better fed and housed than ordinary prisoners and were, for the time being, safe from the gas chambers, although many experiments resulted in more painful deaths. When visiting his child subjects, he introduced himself as "Uncle Mengele" and offered them sweets. Some survivors remember that despite his grim acts, he was also called "Mengele the Protector".
The book Children of the Flames, by Lucette Matalon Lagnado and Shiela Cohn Dekel, chronicles Mengele's medical experimental activities on approximately 1,500 pairs of twins who passed through the Auschwitz death camp during World War II until its liberation at the end of the war. Only 100 pairs of twins survived; 60 years later, they came forward about the special privileges they were given in Auschwitz owing to Mengele's interest in twins, and how as a result they have suffered, as the children who survived his medical experiments and injections.
Mengele also sought out pregnant women, on whom he would perform vivisections before sending them to the gas chambers.
Auschwitz prisoner Alex Dekel has said: "I have never accepted the fact that Mengele himself believed he was doing serious work – not from the slipshod way he went about it. He was only exercising his power. Mengele ran a butcher shop – major surgeries were performed without anaesthesia. Once, I witnessed a stomach operation – Mengele was removing pieces from the stomach, but without any anaesthetic. Another time, it was a heart that was removed, again without anaesthesia. It was horrifying. Mengele was a doctor who became mad because of the power he was given. Nobody ever questioned him – why did this one die? Why did that one perish? The patients did not count. He professed to do what he did in the name of science, but it was a madness on his part."
An Auschwitz prisoner doctor has said: "He was capable of being so kind to the children, to have them become fond of him, to bring them sugar, to think of small details in their daily lives, and to do things we would genuinely admire.... And then, next to that,... the crematoria smoke, and these children, tomorrow or in a half-hour, he is going to send them there. Well, that is where the anomaly lay."
The SS abandoned the Auschwitz camp on January 27, 1945, and Mengele transferred to Gross Rosen camp in Lower Silesia, again working as camp physician. Gross Rosen was dissolved at the end of February when the Red Army was close to taking it. Mengele worked in other camps for a short time and, on May 2, joined a Wehrmacht medical unit led by Hans Otto Kahler, his former colleague at the Institute of Hereditary Biology and Racial Hygiene in Bohemia. The unit hurried west to avoid being captured by the Soviets and were taken as prisoners of war by the Americans. Mengele, initially registered under his own name, was released in June 1945 with papers giving his name as "Fritz Hollmann". From July 1945 until May 1949, he worked as a farmhand in a small village near Rosenheim, Bavaria, staying in contact with his wife and his old friend Hans Sedlmeier, who arranged Mengele's escape to Argentina via Innsbruck, Sterzing, Meran, and Genoa. Mengele may have been assisted by the ODESSA network.
In South America
In Buenos Aires, Mengele at first worked in construction, but soon came in contact with influential Germans, who allowed him an affluent lifestyle in subsequent years. He also got to know other Nazis in Buenos Aires, such as Hans-Ulrich Rudel and Adolf Eichmann. In 1955, he bought a 50 percent share of Fadro Farm, a pharmaceutical company; the same year, he divorced his wife, Irene. Three years later, he married Martha Mengele in Uruguay, the widow of his younger brother, Karl Jr.; she then went to Argentina with her 14-year-old son, Dieter. Mengele lived with his family in a German-owned boarding house in the Buenos Aires suburb of Vicente Lopez from 1958 to 1960. While in Buenos Aires, Mengele practiced medicine, specializing in illegal abortions, and was briefly detained by police on one occasion for the death of a patient during an abortion.
He was doing well in South America, yet Mengele feared being captured, especially after news of Eichmann's capture and subsequent trial were revealed. Thus, he left Argentina in 1962 and moved to Paraguay after managing to get a Paraguayan passport in the name of "José Mengele".
Shortly after the capture of Eichmann in May 1960 by the Israeli Mossad, Mengele was spotted at his home. Agents of Mossad debated whether or not also to kidnap him. However, they still had Eichmann in a safe house inside Argentina, and determined that it would not be possible to conduct another operation at the same time. By the time Eichmann had been brought out of the country, Mengele had escaped to Paraguay.
Isser Harel, Chief Executive of the Secret Services of Israel (1952–1963), personally presided over the successful effort to capture Eichmann in Buenos Aires. In his account of the operation, he reports no sightings of Mengele in 1960, but feels that they might have got him if they could have moved more quickly. When asked about the secondary target by the co-pilot who helped transport Eichmann at the time, he claims to have told him that "had it been possible to start the operation several weeks earlier, Mengele might also have been on the plane." They checked on the last known location for Mengele in Argentina, but he had apparently moved on just two weeks prior.
Mengele hoped that Paraguay would be safer for him, as dictator Alfredo Stroessner was of German descent and even recruited former Nazis to help the country develop. Among other locations in Paraguay, he lived on the outskirts of Hohenau, a German colony north of Encarnación in the department of Itapúa.
According to a senior Mossad man, Israel had received reports that Mengele was in Brazil, but they kept this information to themselves. The Six-Day War in 1967 forced concentration of resources. But after the war, Israel decided to open an embassy in Asunción, Paraguay – perhaps an ideal base from which to pursue Mengele. But Benjamin Weiser Varon, Israeli ambassador from 1968–1972, was "not given any instructions by the foreign office on Mengele of any kind. It wasn't even mentioned.""I must confess I was not so eager to find Mengele. He presented a dilemma. Israel had less of a claim for his extradition than Germany. He was, after all, a German citizen who had committed his crimes in the name of the Third Reich. None of his victims were Israeli—Israel came into existence only several years later."
The same year, Mengele moved to Nova Europa, about 200 km (120 mi) outside São Paulo, where he lived with Hungarian refugees Geza and Gitta Stammer, working as manager of their farm. In the seclusion of his Brazilian hideaway Mengele was safe. In 1974, when his relationship with the Stammer family was coming to an end, Hans-Ulrich Rudel and Wolfgang Gerhard discussed relocating Mengele to Bolivia where he could spend time with Klaus Barbie, but Mengele rejected this proposal. Instead, he lived in a bungalow in a suburb of São Paulo for the last years of his life. In 1977, his only son Rolf, never having known his father before, visited him there and found an unrepentant Nazi who claimed that he "had never personally harmed anyone in his whole life".
Mengele's health had been deteriorating for years, and he died on February 7, 1979, in Bertioga, Brazil, where he accidentally drowned or possibly suffered a stroke while swimming in the Atlantic. He was buried in Embu das Artes under the name "Wolfgang Gerhard", whose ID card he had used since 1976.
Mengele showed little regret or remorse for his crimes, and expressed in a letter his astonishment and disgust over the remorseful position taken by Hitler's chief architect and Minister of Armaments, Albert Speer.
Argentine historian Jorge Camarasa speculated in his 2008 biography that Mengele, under the alias Rudolph Weiss, continued his human experimentation in South America and as a result of these experiments, a municipality in Brazil, Cândido Godói, has a very high birthrate of twin children: one in five pregnancies, with a substantial amount of the population looking Nordic. His theory was rejected by Brazilian scientists who had studied twins living in the area; they suggested genetic factors within that community as a more likely explanation.
Mengele was listed on the Allies' list of war criminals as early as 1944. His name was mentioned in the Nuremberg trials several times, but Allied forces were convinced that Mengele was dead, which was also claimed by Irene and the family in Günzburg. In 1959, suspicions had grown that he was still alive, given his divorce from Irene in 1955 and his marriage to Martha in 1958. An arrest warrant was issued by the West German authorities. Subsequently, West German attorneys such as Fritz Bauer, Israel's Mossad, and private investigators such as Simon Wiesenthal and Beate Klarsfeld followed the trail of the "Angel of Death". The last confirmed sightings of Mengele placed him in Paraguay, and it was believed that he was still hiding there, allegedly protected by flying ace Hans-Ulrich Rudel and possibly even by the dictator President Alfredo Stroessner. Mengele sightings were reported all over the world, but they turned out to be false.
In 1985, the West German police raided Hans Sedlmeier's house in Günzburg and seized address books, letters, and papers hinting at the grave in Embu. The remains of "Wolfgang Gerhard" were exhumed on June 6, 1985 and identified as Mengele's with high probability by forensic experts from UNICAMP. Rolf Mengele issued a statement saying that he "had no doubt it was the remains of his father". Everything was kept quiet "to protect those who knew him in South America", Rolf said. In 1992, a DNA test confirmed Mengele's identity. He had evaded capture for 34 years.
After the exhumation, the São Paulo Institute for Forensic Medicine stored his remains and attempted to repatriate them to the remaining Mengele family members, but the family rejected them. The bones have been stored at the São Paulo Institute for Forensic Medicine since.
In the 21st century
On September 17, 2007, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum released photographs taken from a photo album of Auschwitz staff, which contained eight photographs of Mengele. These eight photos of Mengele are the first authenticated pictures of him at Auschwitz, museum officials said.
In February 2010, Mengele's diary, kept from 1960 until his death in 1979, which included letters sent to Rolf and Wolfgang Gerhard was sold at auction in Connecticut by Alexander Autographs for an estimated $100,000 (£60,000). According to the Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA) the buyer was an East Coast Jewish philanthropist who wished to remain anonymous. The auction caused protest amongst some Holocaust survivors, describing it as "a cynical act of exploitation aimed at profiting from the writings of one of the most heinous Nazi criminals." The previous owner, who acquired the diary in Brazil, is said to be close to the Mengele family.
- Wolfgang Gerhard
- José Mengele
- Helmut Gregor[i]
- Dr. Fausto Rindón
- S. Josi Alvers Aspiazu
Summary of SS Career
- SS number: 317,885
- Nazi Party number: 5,574,974
- Primary Positions: WVHA, Medical Physician (Auschwitz Concentration Camp)
- Waffen-SS Service:
- Medical Staff Officer, Waffen-SS Medical Inspectorate (1940)
- Medical Officer, Pioneer Battalion #5, 5th SS Panzer Division Wiking (1941–1943)
- Medical Officer, Battalion "Ost", 3rd SS Division Totenkopf (1943)
Dates of Rank
- SS-Schütze: May 1938
- SS-Hauptscharführer der Reserve (d.R.): 1939
- SS-Untersturmführer d.R.: August 1, 1940
- SS-Obersturmführer d.R.: January 30, 1942
- SS-Hauptsturmführer d.R.: April 20, 1943
- Iron Cross (First and Second Class)
- War Merit Cross (Second Class with Swords)
- Eastern Front Medal
- Wound Badge (Black)
- Social Welfare Decoration
- German Sports Badge (Bronze)
- Honour Chevron for the Old Guard
- After the Truth a 1999 German film depicting the fictional trial of Mengele
- Forgiving Dr. Mengele, a documentary film about one of Mengele's victims
- Nazi eugenics
- Shirō Ishii, leader of Japan's infamous Unit 731
- Unit 731, Imperial; Japan biological and chemical warfare research unit, also notorious for their human experimentations
- John Charles Cutler, who infected people with syphilis
- Out of the Ashes, a movie series recounting Gisella Perl's experience in Auschwitz, where she worked alongside Mengele.
- Research Materials: Max Planck Society Archive
- The Boys from Brazil, a 1976 novel about a fictional plot by Mengele to clone Hitler, which was adapted into a 1978 film of the same name.
- Der Verdacht, a novel by Friedrich Dürrenmatt, features a Nazi scientist reminiscent of Mengele.
- Marathon Man, a novel by William Goldman, includes a sadistic German physican known as "The White Angel" who worked in a concentration camp and then moved to Paraguay. He is explicitly described as Mengele's friend in the novel. In the 1974 movie, this comparison was omitted.
- Angel of Death, a song by Thrash/Speed Metal Band Slayer based on Josef Mengele
- In the movie I Love You, I Love You Not, a Nazi soldier approaches two twin girls and introduces himself as The Angel of Death, Josef Mengele's nickname.
- A People Uncounted. The Untold Story of the Roma. Dir. Aaron Yeger. 2011. Film.
- The Unborn, The Psychic explains her past in Auschwitz, where she makes reference to a doctor who had a interest in twins, just like Mengele had.
- ^ "howjsay.com". http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=mengele&submit=Submit. Retrieved March 30, 2010.
- ^ Stefan Kanfer and Peter Carls. "The Life and Crimes of a Nazi Doctor". People. http://www.people.com/people/archive/article/0,,20091148,00.html.
- ^ "The Gunzburg Clan" Time, June 24, 1985
- ^ Allan D Cooper, The Geography of Genocide, page 153, University Press of America, 2009
- ^ "Josef Mengele". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10007060. Retrieved March 23, 2008.
- ^ "Dr. Josef Mengele, ruthless Nazi concentration camp doctor – The Crime Library – Crime Library on". Trutv.com. http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/serial_killers/history/mengele/nazi_3.html. Retrieved March 1, 2010.
- ^ "Dr. Josef Mengele, ruthless Nazi concentration camp doctor". The Crime Library. http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/serial_killers/history/mengele/3b.html. Retrieved March 1, 2010.
- ^ "Sixty-First Anniversary of the Liquidation of the Gypsy Camp in Birkenau". http://en.auschwitz.org.pl/m/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=447&Itemid=8.
- ^ "Eduard Wirths". Wsg-hist.uni-linz.ac.at. http://www.wsg-hist.uni-linz.ac.at/Auschwitz/HTML/Wirths.html. Retrieved March 1, 2010.
- ^ "Essay by Robert Jay Lifton". Wellesley.edu. July 21, 1985. http://www.wellesley.edu/Polisci/wj/100/mengle.htm. Retrieved March 1, 2010.
- ^ a b c d Bülow, Louis. "Josef Mengele, Angel of Death". http://www.auschwitz.dk/Mengele.htm. Retrieved December 16, 2008.
- ^ Mengele – The Final Account (Documentary). New York City, United States: History Channel. July 12, 2008.
- ^ "Page 296-297". Holocaust-history.org. July 23, 2005. http://www.holocaust-history.org/lifton/LiftonT296.shtml. Retrieved March 1, 2010.
- ^ "German article at". Shoa.de. http://www.shoa.de/p_josef_mengele.html. Retrieved March 1, 2010.
- ^ Nyiszli, Miklos (September 1, 1993). Auschwitz: A Doctor's Eyewitness Account. Arcade Publishing. ISBN 1559702028.
- ^ Lagnado, Lucette Matalon; Sheila Cohn Dekel (1991). Children of the Flames. ISBN 0688096956.
- ^ "Josef Mengele and Experimentation on Human Twins at Auschwitz". Longwood.k12.ny.us. http://www.longwood.k12.ny.us/lhs/science/mos/twins/mengele.html. Retrieved March 1, 2010.
- ^ Brozan, Nadine. Out of Death, a Zest for Life. New York Times, November 15, 1982
- ^ "Dr. Josef Mengele, ruthless Nazi concentration camp doctor - The Crime Library on truTV.com". Crimelibrary.com. http://www.crimelibrary.com/serial_killers/history/mengele/research_5.html. Retrieved March 1, 2010.
- ^ Robert Jay Lifton. The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide, Basic Books, 1986, p. 337
- ^ Chicago Tribune Magazine "How Nazi war criminal Josef Mengele cheated justice for 34 years" by Gerald L. Posner and John Ware, May 18, 1986.
- ^ a b c Völklein, Ulrich (1999). Josef Mengele: Der Arzt von Auschwitz. Steidl. ISBN 3882436859.
- ^ a b Harel, Isser (June 2, 1975). The House on Garibaldi Street. Viking Press. p. 194. ISBN 0670380288.
- ^ Nathaniel C. Nash (February 11, 1992). "Mengele an Abortionist, Argentine Files Suggest". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CEFDF1E39F932A25751C0A964958260&scp=1&sq=Mengele&st=nyt. Retrieved July 15, 2008.
- ^ Israeli Mossad let Nazi Mengele get away[dead link] Replacement link: USA Today (accessible as of May 12, 2010). This news item comes from AP, but their archive fails to find it as if it never was. USA Today in Web Archive: "Blocked site error" . Attempting to archive it in WebCite: "WebCite is currently under maintenance We will be back up soon." (May 12, 2010)
- ^ Harel, Isser (1975). The house on Garibaldi Street: the first full account of the capture of Adolf Eichmann. New York: Viking Press. ISBN 0-670-38028-8.
- ^ "How Nazi war criminal Josef Mengele cheated justice for 34 years – Signs of the Times News". www.sott.net. http://www.sott.net/articles/show/150662-How-Nazi-war-criminal-Josef-Mengele-cheated-justice-for-34-years. Retrieved July 27, 2010.
- ^ Blumenthal, Ralph (July 22, 1985). "Scientists Decide Brazil Skeleton Is Josef Mengele.". New York Times. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F20C14FF3A5D0C718EDDAF0894DD484D81&scp=5&sq=Josef+Mengele&st=nyt. Retrieved March 21, 2008. "American, Brazilian and West German scientists announced jointly today that a skeleton recently[when?] exhumed from a graveyard near here was unquestionably that of Dr. Josef Mengele. A separate report by American experts concluded that the bones were those of the long-sought Nazi death-camp doctor 'within a reasonable scientific certainty.' ..."
- ^ Erich Wiedemann and Jens Glüsing (November 29, 2004). "Angel of Death" Diary Shows No Regrets". Der Spiegel. http://www.spiegel.de/international/spiegel/0,1518,330311-2,00.html. Retrieved March 1, 2010.
- ^ Evans, Nick (January 21, 2009). "Nazi angel of death Josef Mengele 'created twin town in Brazil'". The Daily Telegraph. UK. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/southamerica/brazil/4307262/Nazi-angel-of-death-Josef-Mengele-created-twin-town-in-Brazil.html. Retrieved March 1, 2010.
- ^ Linda Geddes: Nazi 'Angel of Death' not responsible for town of twins New Scientist online, January 27, 2009
- ^ "National Geographic Explorer: Nazi Mystery: Twins from Brazil". National Geographic Explorer: Nazi Mystery: Twins from Brazil. National Geograpic Exlorer. http://channel.nationalgeographic.com/series/explorer/4087/Overview. Retrieved The first air date: November 29, 2009.
- ^ By MARLISE SIMONS, Special to the New York Times (March 14, 1988). "Remains of Mengele Rest Uneasily in Brazil". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DE0D7153CF937A25750C0A96E948260. Retrieved March 1, 2010.
- ^ "Collections | Auschwitz through the lens of the SS: Photos of Nazi leadership at the camp". Ushmm.org. June 21, 1944. http://www.ushmm.org/research/collections/highlights/auschwitz/. Retrieved March 1, 2010.
- ^ http://jta.org/news/article/2010/02/03/1010457/mengeles-diary-sold-to-holocaust-survivor , "Survivor's grandson buys Mengele diary", Feb 3, 2010, accessed: 28th Sept 2010
- ^ Hall, Allan. "Nazi doctor Josef Mengele's diary up for sale", The Daily Telegraph, Feb 1, 2010, accessed April 8, 2011.
- ^ a b c d Christian Zentner, Friedemann Bedürftig. The Encyclopedia of the Third Reich, p. 586. Macmillan, New York, 1991. ISBN 0028975022
- ^ Mengele's enlisted service is barely mentioned in his official SS file. His entry date into the SS is stated to have occurred in the spring of 1938, and by the date of his commissioning in 1940, Mengele was serving as an SS-First Sergeant in the Waffen-SS Reserve (Source: National Archives, College Park)
- ^ Mengele's SS service record indicates this decoration, which is unusual given that Mengele was not a Nazi Party or SS member prior to 1933, which was a primary requirement for the Old Guard Chevron. The Chevron was sometimes authorized retroactively, which is most likely how Mengele received the award. (Source: National Archives, College Park)
- Astor, Gerald (1986). Last Nazi:Life and Times of Doctor Joseph Mengele. Weidenfeld & N. ISBN 0-297-78853-1.
- Harel, Isser (1975). The House on Garibaldi Street: the First Full Account of the Capture of Adolf Eichmann. New York: Viking Press. ISBN 0-670-38028-8.
- Lieberman, Herbert A. (1978). The Climate of Hell. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-671-82236-5.
- Levin, Ira (1991). Boys from Brazil, The. London: Bantam. ISBN 0-553-29004-5.
- Miklos Nyiszli's At Last the Truth About Eichmann's Inferno Auschwitz and Auschwitz—A doctor’s eyewitness account describes his experience working involuntarily for Mengele.
- Children of the Flames: Dr. Josef Mengele and the Untold Story of the Twins of Auschwitz by Lucette Matalon Lagado and Sheila Cohn Dekel—a collection of witness accounts pieced together in a biography of sorts about Dr. Mengele and his experiments.
- Ware, John; Posner, Gerald (1986). Mengele: The Complete Story. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-050598-5.
- "In the Matter of Josef Mengele A Report to the Attorney General of the United States." United States Department of Justice. October 1992.
- A timeline of Mengele's life
- Chicago Tribune Magazine: "How Nazi war criminal Josef Mengele cheated justice for 34 years" by Gerald Posner and John Ware
- Declassified U.S. CIA information on Mengele and other NSDAP war criminals
- "Skeletons in the Closet of German Science," Deutsche Welle September 18, 2005
- United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Auschwitz through the lens of the SS. Recently discovered photographs of SS leadership, among them the first authenticated pictures of Mengele at Auschwitz
- Joseph Mengele entry at Find a Grave
The Holocaust in Poland
- Main article: The Holocaust
- Related articles by country:
Camps, ghettos and operations CampsExtermination Mass shootings Ghettos
- List of 267 Jewish ghettos set up in German-occupied Poland (1939–1942)
- Lvov (Lwów)
- Międzyrzec Podlaski
Other atrocities Perpetrators, participants, organizations, and collaborators Major perpetratorsOrganizers
- Josef Bühler
- Ludwig Fischer
- Hans Frank
- Hermann Höfle
- Fritz Katzmann
- Wilhelm Koppe
- Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger
- Erwin Lambert
- Ernst Lerch
- Oswald Pohl
- Seyss-Inquart · Sporrenberg
- Otto Wächter
Gas chamber executioners
- Richard Baer
- Kurt Franz
- Karl Frenzel
- Karl Fritzsch
- Josef Kramer
- Maria Mandel
- Johann Niemann
- Heinrich Schwarz
- Gustav Wagner
- Christian Wirth
- Erich Bauer
- Hans Koch
- Herbert Lange
- Wolfgang Birkner
- Felix Landau
- von Woyrsch
PersonnelCamp guardsBy camp Organizations CollaboratorsJewishEstonian, Latvian,
and UkrainianOther nationalities
- Arajs Kommando
- Ukrainian Auxiliary Police
- Ukrainian collaboration
- Lithuanian Security Police
- Ypatingasis būrys
- Pieter Menten
Resistance: Judenrat, victims, documentation and technical Organizations Uprisings Leaders Judenrat
- Jewish Ghetto Police
- Adam Czerniaków
- Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski
- Lvov (Lwów)
- Auschwitz Album
- Frank Memorandum
- Höcker Album
- Höfle Telegram
- Katzmann Report
- Korherr Report
- Nisko Plan
- Posen speeches
- Special Prosecution Book-Poland
- Stroop Report
- Wannsee Conference
- Graebe affidavit
- Gerstein Report
- Vrba-Wetzler report
- Witold's report
Technical and Logistics
- Identification in camps
- Gas chamber
- Gas van
- Holocaust train
- Human medical experimentation
- Zyklon B
Aftermath, trials and commemoration Aftermath TrialsWest German trials
Polish, East German, and Soviet trials
- Frankfurt Auschwitz Trials
- Treblinka trials
Memorials Righteous among the Nations
- Polish Righteous among the Nations
- Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust
- Albert Battel
- Hermann Friedrich Graebe
- Andrey Sheptytsky
- Oskar Schindler
Post-war flight of Nazi fugitives FugitivesGerman / Austrian
- Ludolf von Alvensleben
- Klaus Barbie
- Alois Brunner
- Adolf Eichmann
- Josef Mengele
- Hermann Michel
- Erich Priebke
- Walter Rauff
- Eduard Roschmann
- Walter Schreiber
- Horst Schumann
- Franz Stangl
- Gustav Wagner
AssistanceOrganizationsState involvementOther persons Hunters Disputed / dubiousCategories:
- 1911 births
- 1979 deaths
- People from Günzburg
- Auschwitz concentration camp personnel
- Deaths by drowning
- German eugenicists
- German military personnel of World War II
- Holocaust perpetrators
- Military physicians
- Nazi human experimentation
- Nazis in South America
- Nazi physicians
- People from the Kingdom of Bavaria
- SS officers
- Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich alumni
- Recipients of the Iron Cross
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